Abstract

An instability in the growth of nonperiodic InGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well samples, ordinarily of high-quality when grown with equal periods of order of half the wavelength of light in the material, leads to a dramatic microscopic, self-organized surface grating. This effect was discovered while growing quantum wells with two unequal barrier lengths arranged in a Fibonacci sequence to form an optical quasicrystal. A laser beam incident normal to the surface of the sample is diffracted into a propeller-shaped pattern. The sample surface has a distinctly cloudy appearance when viewed along one crystal axis but is mirror-like when the sample is rotated 90°. The instability results in a five-fold increase in the absorption linewidth of the heavy-hole exciton transition. Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the samples.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. F. Yoon, "Surface morphology and quality of strained InGaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 562-566 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, A. N. Poddubny, E. L. Ivchenko, M. Wegener, and H. M. Gibbs, "Excitonic polaritons in Fibonacci quasicrystals," Opt. Express 16, 15382-15387 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. N. Poddubny, L. Pilozzi, M. M. Voronov, and E. L. Ivchenko, "Resonant Fibonacci quantum well structures in one dimension," Phys. Rev. B 77, 113306 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. L. Ivchenko, "Excitonic polaritons in periodic quantum-well structures," Sov. Phys. Solid State 33, 1344-1349 (1991).
  7. J. P. Prineas, C. Ell, E. S. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Exciton-polariton eigenmodes in light-coupled In0.04Ga0.96As/GaAs semiconductor multiple-quantum-well periodic structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 13863-13872 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. H. Lee, Z. M. Wang, B. L. Liang, W. T. Black, V. P. Kunets, Y. I. Mazur, and G. J. Salamo, "Selective growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains on pre-patterend GaAs(100)," Nanotechnology 17, 2275-2278 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

2008 (2)

A. N. Poddubny, L. Pilozzi, M. M. Voronov, and E. L. Ivchenko, "Resonant Fibonacci quantum well structures in one dimension," Phys. Rev. B 77, 113306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, A. N. Poddubny, E. L. Ivchenko, M. Wegener, and H. M. Gibbs, "Excitonic polaritons in Fibonacci quasicrystals," Opt. Express 16, 15382-15387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. H. Lee, Z. M. Wang, B. L. Liang, W. T. Black, V. P. Kunets, Y. I. Mazur, and G. J. Salamo, "Selective growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains on pre-patterend GaAs(100)," Nanotechnology 17, 2275-2278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. P. Prineas, C. Ell, E. S. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Exciton-polariton eigenmodes in light-coupled In0.04Ga0.96As/GaAs semiconductor multiple-quantum-well periodic structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 13863-13872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

1998 (1)

C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. F. Yoon, "Surface morphology and quality of strained InGaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 11, 562-566 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

E. L. Ivchenko, "Excitonic polaritons in periodic quantum-well structures," Sov. Phys. Solid State 33, 1344-1349 (1991).

1988 (1)

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Barbour, J. C.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baretzky, B.

A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

Black, W. T.

J. H. Lee, Z. M. Wang, B. L. Liang, W. T. Black, V. P. Kunets, Y. I. Mazur, and G. J. Salamo, "Selective growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains on pre-patterend GaAs(100)," Nanotechnology 17, 2275-2278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Capano, M. A.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eigenthaler, W.

A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

Ell, C.

J. P. Prineas, C. Ell, E. S. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Exciton-polariton eigenmodes in light-coupled In0.04Ga0.96As/GaAs semiconductor multiple-quantum-well periodic structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 13863-13872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Feenstra, R. M.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gemming, T.

A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

Gibbs, H. M.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, A. N. Poddubny, E. L. Ivchenko, M. Wegener, and H. M. Gibbs, "Excitonic polaritons in Fibonacci quasicrystals," Opt. Express 16, 15382-15387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Prineas, C. Ell, E. S. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Exciton-polariton eigenmodes in light-coupled In0.04Ga0.96As/GaAs semiconductor multiple-quantum-well periodic structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 13863-13872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, R. S.

C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickson, J.

Hobbs, L. W.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Houdre, R.

C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hutter, J. L.

C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ivchenko, E. L.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, A. N. Poddubny, E. L. Ivchenko, M. Wegener, and H. M. Gibbs, "Excitonic polaritons in Fibonacci quasicrystals," Opt. Express 16, 15382-15387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Poddubny, L. Pilozzi, M. M. Voronov, and E. L. Ivchenko, "Resonant Fibonacci quantum well structures in one dimension," Phys. Rev. B 77, 113306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Ivchenko, "Excitonic polaritons in periodic quantum-well structures," Sov. Phys. Solid State 33, 1344-1349 (1991).

Kavanagh, K. L.

C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, A. N. Poddubny, E. L. Ivchenko, M. Wegener, and H. M. Gibbs, "Excitonic polaritons in Fibonacci quasicrystals," Opt. Express 16, 15382-15387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Prineas, C. Ell, E. S. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Exciton-polariton eigenmodes in light-coupled In0.04Ga0.96As/GaAs semiconductor multiple-quantum-well periodic structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 13863-13872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kunets, V. P.

J. H. Lee, Z. M. Wang, B. L. Liang, W. T. Black, V. P. Kunets, Y. I. Mazur, and G. J. Salamo, "Selective growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains on pre-patterend GaAs(100)," Nanotechnology 17, 2275-2278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lavoie, C.

C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, E. S.

J. P. Prineas, C. Ell, E. S. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Exciton-polariton eigenmodes in light-coupled In0.04Ga0.96As/GaAs semiconductor multiple-quantum-well periodic structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 13863-13872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, Z. M. Wang, B. L. Liang, W. T. Black, V. P. Kunets, Y. I. Mazur, and G. J. Salamo, "Selective growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains on pre-patterend GaAs(100)," Nanotechnology 17, 2275-2278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, B. L.

J. H. Lee, Z. M. Wang, B. L. Liang, W. T. Black, V. P. Kunets, Y. I. Mazur, and G. J. Salamo, "Selective growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains on pre-patterend GaAs(100)," Nanotechnology 17, 2275-2278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maree, P. M. J.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, J.

A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

Mayer, J. W.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, Y. I.

J. H. Lee, Z. M. Wang, B. L. Liang, W. T. Black, V. P. Kunets, Y. I. Mazur, and G. J. Salamo, "Selective growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains on pre-patterend GaAs(100)," Nanotechnology 17, 2275-2278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, T. R.

C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nodwell, E.

C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, S.

C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pettit, D.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pilozzi, L.

A. N. Poddubny, L. Pilozzi, M. M. Voronov, and E. L. Ivchenko, "Resonant Fibonacci quantum well structures in one dimension," Phys. Rev. B 77, 113306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pinnington, T.

C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Poddubny, A. N.

J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, A. N. Poddubny, E. L. Ivchenko, M. Wegener, and H. M. Gibbs, "Excitonic polaritons in Fibonacci quasicrystals," Opt. Express 16, 15382-15387 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Poddubny, L. Pilozzi, M. M. Voronov, and E. L. Ivchenko, "Resonant Fibonacci quantum well structures in one dimension," Phys. Rev. B 77, 113306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prineas, J. P.

J. P. Prineas, C. Ell, E. S. Lee, G. Khitrova, and H. M. Gibbs, "Exciton-polariton eigenmodes in light-coupled In0.04Ga0.96As/GaAs semiconductor multiple-quantum-well periodic structures," Phys. Rev. B 61, 13863-13872 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Ell, J. P. Prineas, T. R. NelsonJr., S. Park, H. M. Gibbs, G. Khitrova, S. W. Koch, and R. Houdre, "Influence of structural disorder and light coupling on the excitonic response of semiconductor microcavities," Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4795 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B. C.

Rühle, M.

A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

Salamo, G. J.

J. H. Lee, Z. M. Wang, B. L. Liang, W. T. Black, V. P. Kunets, Y. I. Mazur, and G. J. Salamo, "Selective growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains on pre-patterend GaAs(100)," Nanotechnology 17, 2275-2278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schweinfest, R.

A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

Strecker, A.

A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

Stroscio, J. A.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sweet, J.

Tiedje, T.

C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, M. M.

A. N. Poddubny, L. Pilozzi, M. M. Voronov, and E. L. Ivchenko, "Resonant Fibonacci quantum well structures in one dimension," Phys. Rev. B 77, 113306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. M.

J. H. Lee, Z. M. Wang, B. L. Liang, W. T. Black, V. P. Kunets, Y. I. Mazur, and G. J. Salamo, "Selective growth of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains on pre-patterend GaAs(100)," Nanotechnology 17, 2275-2278 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Woodall, J. M.

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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C. Lavoie, T. Pinnington, E. Nodwell, T. Tiedje, R. S. Goldman, K. L. Kavanagh and J. L. Hutter, "Relationship between surface morphology and strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs strained layers, " Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3744-3746 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. L. Kavanagh, M. A. Capano, L. W. Hobbs, J. C. Barbour, P. M. J. Maree, W. Schaff, J. W. Mayer, D. Pettit, J. M. Woodall, J. A. Stroscio, and R. M. Feenstra, "Asymmetries in dislocation densities, surface morphology, and strain of GaInAs/GaAs single heterolayers," J. Appl. Phys. 64,4843-4852 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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A. Strecker, J. Mayer, B. Baretzky, W. Eigenthaler, T. Gemming, R. Schweinfest, and M. Rühle, "Optimization of TEM specimen preparation by double-sided ion beam thinning under low angles," J. Electron Microsc. (Tokyo) 48, 235-244 (1999).

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (23)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

AFM image of FIB1 showing a flat surface, with rms surface roughness of 0.63 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Fast Fourier transform image of FIB1 showing only low spatial frequencies.

Fig 3.
Fig 3.

(002) Dark-field cross section TEM image of FIB1 showing uniform flatness of the 10 InGaAs QWs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Propeller shaped scattering pattern of a HeNe laser beam reflected from the surface of a Fibonacci MQW sample (FIB7).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission and absorption spectra for FIB3. (T=9K) (a) Measured transmission for FIB3. (b) Total absorption for FIB3. (c) Absorption for GaAs substrate. (d) Absorption for the QWs of FIB3, equal to FIB3 total absorption minus substrate absorption, FWHM=3.1 meV.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Transmission and absorption spectra for FIB1 (T=9K). (a) Measured transmission for FIB1. (b) Total absorption for FIB1. (c) Absorption for GaAs substrate. (d) Absorption for the QWs of FIB1, equal to FIB1 total absorption minus substrate absorption, FWHM=0.6 meV.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

AFM image of FIB3 showing the dramatic surface structure, with rms surface roughness of 38.5 nm and average period 800 nm.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Fast Fourier transform image of FIB3 showing the dominant surface spatial frequencies, which are peaked near 800 nm.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

AFM image of FIB4, with rms surface roughness 17.3 nm and average period 525 nm.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

FFT image of FIB4 showing higher as well as more broadly distributed spatial frequencies than FIB3.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

SEM image of FIB4 surface: Large arrows mark grooves perpendicular to the main ridge structure. Small arrows denote grooves on the facets.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

(002) Dark-field TEM image of FIB4 cross-section showing increasingly modulated QWs in the growth direction (top of image).

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

AFM image of FIB6, with rms surface roughness 9.7 nm and average period 385 nm.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

FFT image of FIB6 surface.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

AFM image of FIB7, with rms surface roughness 15.5 nm and average period 455 nm.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

FFT image of FIB7 surface.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

(002) Dark-field cross-section images of FIB7 close to the (a) [110] and (b) [110] direction showing waviness of the InGaAs QWs along both directions. The insets show magnified sections which contain the first (bottom) QWs.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

AFM image of FIB8, with rms surface roughness 24.4 nm and average period 475 nm.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

FFT image of FIB8 surface.

Fig. 20.
Fig. 20.

AFM image of DBR34, with rms surface roughness 0.8 nm.

Fig. 21.
Fig. 21.

FFT image of DBR34 surface.

Fig. 22.
Fig. 22.

AFM image of MOD16, with rms surface roughness 11.3 nm.

Fig. 23.
Fig. 23.

FFT image of MOD16 surface.

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