Abstract

We describe an efficient double-filtering method that uses a single acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) to improve the spectral resolution and intrinsic sidelobes for the spectral domain analysis systems. Double filtering with a single AOTF is realized by applying a unique feedback scheme based on the fact that incident light can be diffracted into two orthogonally polarized beams of light by an AOTF. Our theoretical explanation attempts to address and satisfy the main prerequisite for the proposed idea. The experimental results confirm that the proposed method achieves a 20% to 30% improvement in spectral resolution and 10 dB suppression of sidelobes with minimized light loss for the extraordinary incident light. We believe that the results of using an AOTF are comparable to the results achieved with two AOTFs in tandem.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. C. Chang, "Noncollinear acousto-optic filter with large angular aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 370-372 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. C. Chang, "Analysis of the noncollinear acousto-optic filters," Electron. Lett. 11, 617-618 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Yano and A. Watanabe, "Acoustooptic TeO2 tunable filter using far-off-axis anisotropic Bragg diffraction," Appl. Opt. 15, 2250-2258 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. A. Glenar, J. J. Hillman, B. Saif, and J. Bergstralh, "Acousto-optic imaging spectropolarimetry for remote sensing," Appl. Opt. 33, 7412-7424 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. Gupta and R. Dahmani, "Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager," Opt. Eng. 41, 1033-1038 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Kim, S. Kim, H. J. Kong, and Y. Lee, "Measurement of the thickness profile of a transparent thin-film deposited upon a pattern structure with an acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Lett. 27, 1893-1895 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Kim and S. Kim, "Direct spectral phase function calculation for dispersive interferometric thickness profilometry," Opt. Express 12, 5117-5124 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. Gupta and V. B. Voloshinov, "Development and characterization of two-transducer imaging acousto-optic tunable filters with extended tuning range," Appl. Opt. 46, 1081-1088 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. V. B. Voloshinov, K. B. Yushkov, and B. B. J. Linde, "Improvement in performance of a TeO2 acousto-optic imaging spectrometer," J. Opt. A 9, 341-347 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. R. Suhre and N. Gupta, "Acousto-optic tunable filter sidelobe analysis and reduction with telecentric confocal optics," Appl. Opt. 44, 5797-5801 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. Zhang, Z. Zhang, H. Wang, and Y. Yang, "Spectral resolution enhancement of acousto-optic tunable filter by double-filtering," Opt. Express 16, 10234-10239 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. V. Kludzin, S. V. Kulakov, and V. V. Molotok, "Recent advances in AOTF design and fabrication at St.Petersburg State Academy of aerospace instrumentation," Proc. 1st Army Research Lab. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Workshop, 45-54 (1997).
  14. Z. Yaqoob and N. A. Riza, "Bulk acousto-optic wavelength agile filter module for a wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner," Appl. Opt. 44, 2592-2599 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. W. You, J. Ahn, D. Kim, and S. Kim, "Spectral resolution enhancement and sidelobe compression of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) by double-filtering technique," Opt. Soc. Korea Annual Meeting T2B-II3 (2007).
  16. P. A. Gass and J. R. Sambles, "Accurate design of a noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filter," Opt. Lett. 16, 429-431 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Georgiev, D. A. Glenar, and J. J. Hillman, "Spectral characterization of acousto-optic filters used in imaging spectroscopy," Appl. Opt. 41, 209-217 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

N. Gupta and V. B. Voloshinov, "Development and characterization of two-transducer imaging acousto-optic tunable filters with extended tuning range," Appl. Opt. 46, 1081-1088 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Voloshinov, K. B. Yushkov, and B. B. J. Linde, "Improvement in performance of a TeO2 acousto-optic imaging spectrometer," J. Opt. A 9, 341-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2002

1997

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

1991

1976

1975

I. C. Chang, "Analysis of the noncollinear acousto-optic filters," Electron. Lett. 11, 617-618 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

I. C. Chang, "Noncollinear acousto-optic filter with large angular aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 370-372 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bergstralh, J.

Chang, I. C.

I. C. Chang, "Analysis of the noncollinear acousto-optic filters," Electron. Lett. 11, 617-618 (1975).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Chang, "Noncollinear acousto-optic filter with large angular aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 370-372 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Dahmani, R.

N. Gupta and R. Dahmani, "Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager," Opt. Eng. 41, 1033-1038 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Denes, L. J.

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gass, P. A.

Georgiev, G.

Glenar, D. A.

Gottlieb, M. S.

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, N.

Hillman, J. J.

Kaminsky, B.

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

Kim, S.

Kong, H. J.

Lee, Y.

Linde, B. B. J.

V. B. Voloshinov, K. B. Yushkov, and B. B. J. Linde, "Improvement in performance of a TeO2 acousto-optic imaging spectrometer," J. Opt. A 9, 341-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metes, P.

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Obermyer, R. T.

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riza, N. A.

Saif, B.

Sambles, J. R.

Sankar, S. G.

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simizu, S.

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suhre, D. R.

Thong, C. J.

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Uschak, M. J.

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Voloshinov, V. B.

N. Gupta and V. B. Voloshinov, "Development and characterization of two-transducer imaging acousto-optic tunable filters with extended tuning range," Appl. Opt. 46, 1081-1088 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Voloshinov, K. B. Yushkov, and B. B. J. Linde, "Improvement in performance of a TeO2 acousto-optic imaging spectrometer," J. Opt. A 9, 341-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Watanabe, A.

Yang, Y.

Yano, T.

Yaqoob, Z.

Yushkov, K. B.

V. B. Voloshinov, K. B. Yushkov, and B. B. J. Linde, "Improvement in performance of a TeO2 acousto-optic imaging spectrometer," J. Opt. A 9, 341-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, Z.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

I. C. Chang, "Noncollinear acousto-optic filter with large angular aperture," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 370-372 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

I. C. Chang, "Analysis of the noncollinear acousto-optic filters," Electron. Lett. 11, 617-618 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A

V. B. Voloshinov, K. B. Yushkov, and B. B. J. Linde, "Improvement in performance of a TeO2 acousto-optic imaging spectrometer," J. Opt. A 9, 341-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

N. Gupta and R. Dahmani, "Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager," Opt. Eng. 41, 1033-1038 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

L. J. Denes, B. Kaminsky, M. S. Gottlieb, P. Metes, S. Simizu, R. T. Obermyer, C. J. Thong, M. J. Uschak, and S. G. Sankar, "Image processing using acousto-optical tunable filtering," Proc. SPIE,  2962, 111-121 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

V. V. Kludzin, S. V. Kulakov, and V. V. Molotok, "Recent advances in AOTF design and fabrication at St.Petersburg State Academy of aerospace instrumentation," Proc. 1st Army Research Lab. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Workshop, 45-54 (1997).

J. W. You, J. Ahn, D. Kim, and S. Kim, "Spectral resolution enhancement and sidelobe compression of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) by double-filtering technique," Opt. Soc. Korea Annual Meeting T2B-II3 (2007).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Acousto-optic interaction inside a TeO2 crystal; (b) theoretical f-λ relation for the orthogonally polarized light diffracted by an AOTF with experimental data

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The proposed double-filtering method

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The f-θi relation at a constant wavelength (632.8 nm). As the incident angle decreases near the crossing point by the rotation of the AOTF, the value of δ in Eq. (2) becomes smaller than the width of each spectrum, thereby satisfying the main prerequisite of the proposed double filtering (b) limit angles of operation where still the increase of resolution is achieved.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulation of the proposed double-filtering method in relation to the value of δ: (a) spectral resolution and (b) peak intensity

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Spectral responses of a single pass, where Feo and Foe show the resolution and sidelobes at normal incidence; (b) partial overlapping of the spectrum after a 4° rotation of the AOTF.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Comparison of the experimental and simulated results of the double-filtering method (b) calculated sidelobe suppresion by double-filtering configuration. * indicates the experimental result.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Main parameters of the AOTF

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f i = ( V a B i λ i ) ( C i ± { C i 2 + [ ( n o n e ) 2 1 ] D i } 1 2 )
B o = ( cos 2 γ n o 2 + sin 2 γ n e 2 ) 1 2 ,
B o = ( cos 2 θ e n o 2 + sin 2 θ e n e 2 ) 1 2 ,
C o = ( B o n o ) [ cos γ cos θ o + ( n o n e ) 2 sin γ sin θ o ] ,
C e = cos ( θ e γ ) ,
D o = sin 2 θ o , D e = sin 2 θ e ,
F double ( k , δ ) F eo ( k ) × F oe ( k + δ ) ,

Metrics