Abstract

Plethysmographic signals were measured remotely (>1m) using ambient light and a simple consumer level digital camera in movie mode. Heart and respiration rates could be quantified up to several harmonics. Although the green channel featuring the strongest plethysmographic signal, corresponding to an absorption peak by (oxy-) hemoglobin, the red and blue channels also contained plethysmographic information. The results show that ambient light photo-plethysmography may be useful for medical purposes such as characterization of vascular skin lesions (e.g., port wine stains) and remote sensing of vital signs (e.g., heart and respiration rates) for triage or sports purposes.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  24. Y. L. Huo and G. S. Kassab, "Pulsatile blood flow in the entire coronary arterial tree: theory and experiment," Am. J. Phys.-Heart Circul. Phys. 291, H1074-H1087 (2006).
  25. Y. C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, "Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks," Lasers Surg. Med. 40, 167-173 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [PubMed]

2008

L. Gailite, J. Spigulis, and A. Lihachev, "Multilaser photoplethysmography technique," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 189-193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Kucewicz, B. Dunmire, N. D. Giardino, D. F. Leotta, M. Paun, S. R. Dager, and K. W. Beach, "Tissue pulsatility imaging of cerebral vasoreactivity during hyperventilation," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34, 1200-1208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, "Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks," Lasers Surg. Med. 40, 167-173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Allen, "Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement," Physiol. Meas. 28, R1-R39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, F. J. ten Cate, H. A. M. Neumann, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: First in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1870-1878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Huo and G. S. Kassab, "Pulsatile blood flow in the entire coronary arterial tree: theory and experiment," Am. J. Phys.-Heart Circul. Phys. 291, H1074-H1087 (2006).

2005

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: A first step toward "SpO(2) camera" technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33, 1034-1041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

H. D. Hummler, A. Engelmann, F. Pohlandt, J. Högel, and A. R. Franz, "Accuracy of pulse oximetry readings in an animal model of low perfusion caused by emerging pneumonia and sepsis," Intensive. Care. Med. 30, 709-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

K. R. Forrester, C. Stewart, J. Tulip, C. Leonard, and R. C. Bray, "Comparison of laser speckle and laser Doppler perfusion imaging: measurement in human skin and rabbit articular tissue," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40, 687-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. S. Nelson, K. M. Kelly, Y. H. Zhao, and Z. Chen, "Imaging blood flow in human port-wine stain in situ and in real time using optical Doppler tomography," Arch. Dermatol. 137, 741-744 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Simulation of color of port wine stain skin and its dependence on skin variables," Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 131-139 (1999).
[PubMed]

1997

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Modelling light distributions of homogeneous versus discrete absorbers in light irradiated turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51-65 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. S. Trivedi, A. F. Ghouri, N. K. Shah, E. Lai, and S. J. Barker, "Effects of motion, ambient light, and hypoperfusion on pulse oximeter function," J. Clin. Anesth. 9, 179-183 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. J. Ford, M. J. Camilleri, R. B. Hanson, J. A. Wiste, and M. J. Joyner, "Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans," Gut 37, 499-504 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O. Svaasand, L. T. Norvang, E. J. Fiskerstrand, E. K. S. Stopps, M. W. Berns, and J. S. Nelson, "Tissue parameters determining the visual appearance of normal skin and port-wine stains," Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 55-65 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

L. G. Lindberg and P. A. Oberg, "Photoplethysmography II. Influence of light-source wavelength," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 29, 48-54 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, and J. M. Noe, "The nature and evolution of port wine stains: A computer-assisted study," J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154-157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and B. W. Zweifach, "Network model of pulsatile hemodynamics in the microcirculation of the rabbit omentum," Am. J. Physiol. 226, 1117-1123 (1974).

1970

J. A. Pollard, "Cardiac arrhythmias and pulse variability. A plethysmographic study," Anaesthesia 25, 63-72 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1937

A. B. Hertzman and C. R. Spealman, "Observations on the finger volume pulse recorded photo-electrically," Am. J. Physiol. 119, 334-335 (1937).

Allen, J.

J. Allen, "Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement," Physiol. Meas. 28, R1-R39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barker, S. J.

N. S. Trivedi, A. F. Ghouri, N. K. Shah, E. Lai, and S. J. Barker, "Effects of motion, ambient light, and hypoperfusion on pulse oximeter function," J. Clin. Anesth. 9, 179-183 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barsky, S. H.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, and J. M. Noe, "The nature and evolution of port wine stains: A computer-assisted study," J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154-157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beach, K. W.

J. C. Kucewicz, B. Dunmire, N. D. Giardino, D. F. Leotta, M. Paun, S. R. Dager, and K. W. Beach, "Tissue pulsatility imaging of cerebral vasoreactivity during hyperventilation," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34, 1200-1208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

L. O. Svaasand, L. T. Norvang, E. J. Fiskerstrand, E. K. S. Stopps, M. W. Berns, and J. S. Nelson, "Tissue parameters determining the visual appearance of normal skin and port-wine stains," Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 55-65 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bray, R. C.

K. R. Forrester, C. Stewart, J. Tulip, C. Leonard, and R. C. Bray, "Comparison of laser speckle and laser Doppler perfusion imaging: measurement in human skin and rabbit articular tissue," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40, 687-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Camilleri, M. J.

M. J. Ford, M. J. Camilleri, R. B. Hanson, J. A. Wiste, and M. J. Joyner, "Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans," Gut 37, 499-504 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. S. Nelson, K. M. Kelly, Y. H. Zhao, and Z. Chen, "Imaging blood flow in human port-wine stain in situ and in real time using optical Doppler tomography," Arch. Dermatol. 137, 741-744 (2001).
[PubMed]

Choi, B.

Y. C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, "Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks," Lasers Surg. Med. 40, 167-173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dager, S. R.

J. C. Kucewicz, B. Dunmire, N. D. Giardino, D. F. Leotta, M. Paun, S. R. Dager, and K. W. Beach, "Tissue pulsatility imaging of cerebral vasoreactivity during hyperventilation," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34, 1200-1208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Boer, J. F.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Modelling light distributions of homogeneous versus discrete absorbers in light irradiated turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51-65 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunmire, B.

J. C. Kucewicz, B. Dunmire, N. D. Giardino, D. F. Leotta, M. Paun, S. R. Dager, and K. W. Beach, "Tissue pulsatility imaging of cerebral vasoreactivity during hyperventilation," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34, 1200-1208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelmann, A.

H. D. Hummler, A. Engelmann, F. Pohlandt, J. Högel, and A. R. Franz, "Accuracy of pulse oximetry readings in an animal model of low perfusion caused by emerging pneumonia and sepsis," Intensive. Care. Med. 30, 709-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiskerstrand, E. J.

L. O. Svaasand, L. T. Norvang, E. J. Fiskerstrand, E. K. S. Stopps, M. W. Berns, and J. S. Nelson, "Tissue parameters determining the visual appearance of normal skin and port-wine stains," Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 55-65 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ford, M. J.

M. J. Ford, M. J. Camilleri, R. B. Hanson, J. A. Wiste, and M. J. Joyner, "Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans," Gut 37, 499-504 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forrester, K. R.

K. R. Forrester, C. Stewart, J. Tulip, C. Leonard, and R. C. Bray, "Comparison of laser speckle and laser Doppler perfusion imaging: measurement in human skin and rabbit articular tissue," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40, 687-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franz, A. R.

H. D. Hummler, A. Engelmann, F. Pohlandt, J. Högel, and A. R. Franz, "Accuracy of pulse oximetry readings in an animal model of low perfusion caused by emerging pneumonia and sepsis," Intensive. Care. Med. 30, 709-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gailite, L.

L. Gailite, J. Spigulis, and A. Lihachev, "Multilaser photoplethysmography technique," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 189-193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geer, D. E.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, and J. M. Noe, "The nature and evolution of port wine stains: A computer-assisted study," J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154-157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghouri, A. F.

N. S. Trivedi, A. F. Ghouri, N. K. Shah, E. Lai, and S. J. Barker, "Effects of motion, ambient light, and hypoperfusion on pulse oximeter function," J. Clin. Anesth. 9, 179-183 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giardino, N. D.

J. C. Kucewicz, B. Dunmire, N. D. Giardino, D. F. Leotta, M. Paun, S. R. Dager, and K. W. Beach, "Tissue pulsatility imaging of cerebral vasoreactivity during hyperventilation," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34, 1200-1208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, J. F.

J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and B. W. Zweifach, "Network model of pulsatile hemodynamics in the microcirculation of the rabbit omentum," Am. J. Physiol. 226, 1117-1123 (1974).

Hanson, R. B.

M. J. Ford, M. J. Camilleri, R. B. Hanson, J. A. Wiste, and M. J. Joyner, "Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans," Gut 37, 499-504 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertzman, A. B.

A. B. Hertzman and C. R. Spealman, "Observations on the finger volume pulse recorded photo-electrically," Am. J. Physiol. 119, 334-335 (1937).

Högel, J.

H. D. Hummler, A. Engelmann, F. Pohlandt, J. Högel, and A. R. Franz, "Accuracy of pulse oximetry readings in an animal model of low perfusion caused by emerging pneumonia and sepsis," Intensive. Care. Med. 30, 709-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. C.

Y. C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, "Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks," Lasers Surg. Med. 40, 167-173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hummler, H. D.

H. D. Hummler, A. Engelmann, F. Pohlandt, J. Högel, and A. R. Franz, "Accuracy of pulse oximetry readings in an animal model of low perfusion caused by emerging pneumonia and sepsis," Intensive. Care. Med. 30, 709-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huo, Y. L.

Y. L. Huo and G. S. Kassab, "Pulsatile blood flow in the entire coronary arterial tree: theory and experiment," Am. J. Phys.-Heart Circul. Phys. 291, H1074-H1087 (2006).

Intaglietta, M.

J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and B. W. Zweifach, "Network model of pulsatile hemodynamics in the microcirculation of the rabbit omentum," Am. J. Physiol. 226, 1117-1123 (1974).

Joyner, M. J.

M. J. Ford, M. J. Camilleri, R. B. Hanson, J. A. Wiste, and M. J. Joyner, "Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans," Gut 37, 499-504 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kassab, G. S.

Y. L. Huo and G. S. Kassab, "Pulsatile blood flow in the entire coronary arterial tree: theory and experiment," Am. J. Phys.-Heart Circul. Phys. 291, H1074-H1087 (2006).

Kelly, K. M.

J. S. Nelson, K. M. Kelly, Y. H. Zhao, and Z. Chen, "Imaging blood flow in human port-wine stain in situ and in real time using optical Doppler tomography," Arch. Dermatol. 137, 741-744 (2001).
[PubMed]

Kucewicz, J. C.

J. C. Kucewicz, B. Dunmire, N. D. Giardino, D. F. Leotta, M. Paun, S. R. Dager, and K. W. Beach, "Tissue pulsatility imaging of cerebral vasoreactivity during hyperventilation," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34, 1200-1208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, E.

N. S. Trivedi, A. F. Ghouri, N. K. Shah, E. Lai, and S. J. Barker, "Effects of motion, ambient light, and hypoperfusion on pulse oximeter function," J. Clin. Anesth. 9, 179-183 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonard, C.

K. R. Forrester, C. Stewart, J. Tulip, C. Leonard, and R. C. Bray, "Comparison of laser speckle and laser Doppler perfusion imaging: measurement in human skin and rabbit articular tissue," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40, 687-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leotta, D. F.

J. C. Kucewicz, B. Dunmire, N. D. Giardino, D. F. Leotta, M. Paun, S. R. Dager, and K. W. Beach, "Tissue pulsatility imaging of cerebral vasoreactivity during hyperventilation," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34, 1200-1208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lihachev, A.

L. Gailite, J. Spigulis, and A. Lihachev, "Multilaser photoplethysmography technique," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 189-193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, L. G.

L. G. Lindberg and P. A. Oberg, "Photoplethysmography II. Influence of light-source wavelength," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 29, 48-54 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucassen, G. W.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Simulation of color of port wine stain skin and its dependence on skin variables," Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 131-139 (1999).
[PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Modelling light distributions of homogeneous versus discrete absorbers in light irradiated turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51-65 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mastik, F.

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, F. J. ten Cate, H. A. M. Neumann, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: First in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1870-1878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: A first step toward "SpO(2) camera" technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33, 1034-1041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

Y. C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, "Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks," Lasers Surg. Med. 40, 167-173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Nelson, K. M. Kelly, Y. H. Zhao, and Z. Chen, "Imaging blood flow in human port-wine stain in situ and in real time using optical Doppler tomography," Arch. Dermatol. 137, 741-744 (2001).
[PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Modelling light distributions of homogeneous versus discrete absorbers in light irradiated turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51-65 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. O. Svaasand, L. T. Norvang, E. J. Fiskerstrand, E. K. S. Stopps, M. W. Berns, and J. S. Nelson, "Tissue parameters determining the visual appearance of normal skin and port-wine stains," Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 55-65 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, H. A. M.

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, F. J. ten Cate, H. A. M. Neumann, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: First in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1870-1878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noe, J. M.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, and J. M. Noe, "The nature and evolution of port wine stains: A computer-assisted study," J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154-157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norvang, L. T.

L. O. Svaasand, L. T. Norvang, E. J. Fiskerstrand, E. K. S. Stopps, M. W. Berns, and J. S. Nelson, "Tissue parameters determining the visual appearance of normal skin and port-wine stains," Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 55-65 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oberg, P. A.

L. G. Lindberg and P. A. Oberg, "Photoplethysmography II. Influence of light-source wavelength," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 29, 48-54 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paun, M.

J. C. Kucewicz, B. Dunmire, N. D. Giardino, D. F. Leotta, M. Paun, S. R. Dager, and K. W. Beach, "Tissue pulsatility imaging of cerebral vasoreactivity during hyperventilation," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34, 1200-1208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohlandt, F.

H. D. Hummler, A. Engelmann, F. Pohlandt, J. Högel, and A. R. Franz, "Accuracy of pulse oximetry readings in an animal model of low perfusion caused by emerging pneumonia and sepsis," Intensive. Care. Med. 30, 709-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollard, J. A.

J. A. Pollard, "Cardiac arrhythmias and pulse variability. A plethysmographic study," Anaesthesia 25, 63-72 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringold, T. L.

Y. C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, "Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks," Lasers Surg. Med. 40, 167-173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, S.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, and J. M. Noe, "The nature and evolution of port wine stains: A computer-assisted study," J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154-157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, N. K.

N. S. Trivedi, A. F. Ghouri, N. K. Shah, E. Lai, and S. J. Barker, "Effects of motion, ambient light, and hypoperfusion on pulse oximeter function," J. Clin. Anesth. 9, 179-183 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smithies, D. J.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Modelling light distributions of homogeneous versus discrete absorbers in light irradiated turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51-65 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spealman, C. R.

A. B. Hertzman and C. R. Spealman, "Observations on the finger volume pulse recorded photo-electrically," Am. J. Physiol. 119, 334-335 (1937).

Spigulis, J.

L. Gailite, J. Spigulis, and A. Lihachev, "Multilaser photoplethysmography technique," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 189-193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, C.

K. R. Forrester, C. Stewart, J. Tulip, C. Leonard, and R. C. Bray, "Comparison of laser speckle and laser Doppler perfusion imaging: measurement in human skin and rabbit articular tissue," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40, 687-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stopps, E. K. S.

L. O. Svaasand, L. T. Norvang, E. J. Fiskerstrand, E. K. S. Stopps, M. W. Berns, and J. S. Nelson, "Tissue parameters determining the visual appearance of normal skin and port-wine stains," Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 55-65 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Svaasand, L. O.

L. O. Svaasand, L. T. Norvang, E. J. Fiskerstrand, E. K. S. Stopps, M. W. Berns, and J. S. Nelson, "Tissue parameters determining the visual appearance of normal skin and port-wine stains," Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 55-65 (1995).
[CrossRef]

ten Cate, F. J.

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, F. J. ten Cate, H. A. M. Neumann, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: First in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1870-1878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trivedi, N. S.

N. S. Trivedi, A. F. Ghouri, N. K. Shah, E. Lai, and S. J. Barker, "Effects of motion, ambient light, and hypoperfusion on pulse oximeter function," J. Clin. Anesth. 9, 179-183 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tulip, J.

K. R. Forrester, C. Stewart, J. Tulip, C. Leonard, and R. C. Bray, "Comparison of laser speckle and laser Doppler perfusion imaging: measurement in human skin and rabbit articular tissue," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40, 687-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van der Steen, A. F. W.

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, F. J. ten Cate, H. A. M. Neumann, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: First in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1870-1878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: A first step toward "SpO(2) camera" technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33, 1034-1041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Gemert, M. J. C.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Simulation of color of port wine stain skin and its dependence on skin variables," Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 131-139 (1999).
[PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Modelling light distributions of homogeneous versus discrete absorbers in light irradiated turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51-65 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verkruysse, W.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Simulation of color of port wine stain skin and its dependence on skin variables," Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 131-139 (1999).
[PubMed]

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Modelling light distributions of homogeneous versus discrete absorbers in light irradiated turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51-65 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieringa, F. P.

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, F. J. ten Cate, H. A. M. Neumann, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: First in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1870-1878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: A first step toward "SpO(2) camera" technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33, 1034-1041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiste, J. A.

M. J. Ford, M. J. Camilleri, R. B. Hanson, J. A. Wiste, and M. J. Joyner, "Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans," Gut 37, 499-504 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y. H.

J. S. Nelson, K. M. Kelly, Y. H. Zhao, and Z. Chen, "Imaging blood flow in human port-wine stain in situ and in real time using optical Doppler tomography," Arch. Dermatol. 137, 741-744 (2001).
[PubMed]

Zweifach, B. W.

J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and B. W. Zweifach, "Network model of pulsatile hemodynamics in the microcirculation of the rabbit omentum," Am. J. Physiol. 226, 1117-1123 (1974).

Am. J. Physiol.

A. B. Hertzman and C. R. Spealman, "Observations on the finger volume pulse recorded photo-electrically," Am. J. Physiol. 119, 334-335 (1937).

J. F. Gross, M. Intaglietta, and B. W. Zweifach, "Network model of pulsatile hemodynamics in the microcirculation of the rabbit omentum," Am. J. Physiol. 226, 1117-1123 (1974).

Anaesthesia

J. A. Pollard, "Cardiac arrhythmias and pulse variability. A plethysmographic study," Anaesthesia 25, 63-72 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. Biomed. Eng.

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: A first step toward "SpO(2) camera" technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 33, 1034-1041 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Wieringa, F. Mastik, F. J. ten Cate, H. A. M. Neumann, and A. F. W. van der Steen, "Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: First in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology," Ann. Biomed. Eng. 34, 1870-1878 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arch. Dermatol.

J. S. Nelson, K. M. Kelly, Y. H. Zhao, and Z. Chen, "Imaging blood flow in human port-wine stain in situ and in real time using optical Doppler tomography," Arch. Dermatol. 137, 741-744 (2001).
[PubMed]

Gut

M. J. Ford, M. J. Camilleri, R. B. Hanson, J. A. Wiste, and M. J. Joyner, "Hyperventilation, central autonomic control, and colonic tone in humans," Gut 37, 499-504 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heart Circul. Phys.

Y. L. Huo and G. S. Kassab, "Pulsatile blood flow in the entire coronary arterial tree: theory and experiment," Am. J. Phys.-Heart Circul. Phys. 291, H1074-H1087 (2006).

Intensive. Care. Med.

H. D. Hummler, A. Engelmann, F. Pohlandt, J. Högel, and A. R. Franz, "Accuracy of pulse oximetry readings in an animal model of low perfusion caused by emerging pneumonia and sepsis," Intensive. Care. Med. 30, 709-713 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Clin. Anesth.

N. S. Trivedi, A. F. Ghouri, N. K. Shah, E. Lai, and S. J. Barker, "Effects of motion, ambient light, and hypoperfusion on pulse oximeter function," J. Clin. Anesth. 9, 179-183 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Invest. Dermatol.

S. H. Barsky, S. Rosen, D. E. Geer, and J. M. Noe, "The nature and evolution of port wine stains: A computer-assisted study," J. Invest. Dermatol. 74, 154-157 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Med. Sci.

L. Gailite, J. Spigulis, and A. Lihachev, "Multilaser photoplethysmography technique," Lasers Med. Sci. 23, 189-193 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. O. Svaasand, L. T. Norvang, E. J. Fiskerstrand, E. K. S. Stopps, M. W. Berns, and J. S. Nelson, "Tissue parameters determining the visual appearance of normal skin and port-wine stains," Lasers Med. Sci. 10, 55-65 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Simulation of color of port wine stain skin and its dependence on skin variables," Lasers Surg. Med. 25, 131-139 (1999).
[PubMed]

Y. C. Huang, T. L. Ringold, J. S. Nelson, and B. Choi, "Noninvasive blood flow imaging for real-time feedback during laser therapy of port wine stain birthmarks," Lasers Surg. Med. 40, 167-173 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.

K. R. Forrester, C. Stewart, J. Tulip, C. Leonard, and R. C. Bray, "Comparison of laser speckle and laser Doppler perfusion imaging: measurement in human skin and rabbit articular tissue," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40, 687-697 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Lindberg and P. A. Oberg, "Photoplethysmography II. Influence of light-source wavelength," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 29, 48-54 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

W. Verkruysse, G. W. Lucassen, J. F. de Boer, D. J. Smithies, J. S. Nelson, and M. J. C. van Gemert, "Modelling light distributions of homogeneous versus discrete absorbers in light irradiated turbid media," Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 51-65 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physiol. Meas.

J. Allen, "Photoplethysmography and its application in clinical physiological measurement," Physiol. Meas. 28, R1-R39 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultrasound Med. Biol.

J. C. Kucewicz, B. Dunmire, N. D. Giardino, D. F. Leotta, M. Paun, S. R. Dager, and K. W. Beach, "Tissue pulsatility imaging of cerebral vasoreactivity during hyperventilation," Ultrasound Med. Biol. 34, 1200-1208 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Wendelken, S. McGrath, G. Blike, and M. Akay, "The feasibility of using a forehead reflectance pulse oximeter for automated remote triage," in Bioengineering Conference, 2004. Proceedings of the IEEE 30th Annual Northeast, (2004), pp. 180-181.

A. Jonsson, "New sensor design made to discriminate between tissue blood flow at different tissue depths at the sacral area," report #1098 (Mälardalen Research and Technology Centre, 2006).

J. A. Crowe and D. Damianou, "The Wavelength Dependence of the Photoplethysmogram and its implication to Pulse Oximetry," in Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, NewYork, 1992), pp. 2423-2424.

P. Y. Cheang and P. R. Smith, "An Overview of Non-contact Photoplethysmography" (Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Loughborough University, LE11 3TU, UK, 2003), retrieved August 27, 2008, http://www.lboro.ac.uk/departments/el/research/esc-miniconference/papers/cheang.pdf

E. van Kampen and W. Zijlstra, "Determination of hemoglobin and its derivatives," in Advances in Clinical Chemistry, H. Sobotka, and C. Stewart, eds., (Academic Press, New York, 1965), p. 158.

A. Jonsson, "Pressure Sore Etiology - Highlighted with Optical Measurements of the Blood Flow, Chapter 3, New sensor design made to discriminate between tissue blood flow at different tissue depths at the sacral area," PhD thesis (Mälardalen University Press, 2006).

S. Hu, J. Zheng, V. Chouliaras, and R. Summers, "Feasibility of imaging photoplethysmography," in Proceedings of the International Conference on BioMedical Engineering and Informatics, (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, NewYork, 2008), pp. 72-75.

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MPG (4267 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (2436 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (3786 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a): PVraw(t) signals for G and B channels as indicated and a ROI on the forehead (ROI I in Fig. 2(b)). Movie recording started 5 s after the subject finished physical exercise. Boxed areas in (a) are shown as insert graphs. In the left insert (t = 30-50s), HR can be observed to decrease. Impact of voluntary hyperventilation on RR and HR is best seen in the right (t = 185 - 205 s). (b) and (c) Joint time-frequency diagrams (10 s time window) for G and B channels, respectively. HR decreases from 1.7 to 1.1 Hz during recuperation from t = 0 - 120 s. In (c), the band associated with RR initially decreases gradually during recuperation and abruptly increases to 0.3 Hz during hyperventilation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) PVAC(t) signals (G channel) for four ROI (I–IV) indicated in (b). (c) Corresponding power spectra. Signals for ROI’s II and III are reduced (x 0.1) for clarity. The bar in (a) represents 10 pixel values for II and III and 1 for I and IV. The power spectrum for ROI IV is displayed x5.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a–c) A movie excerpt (frame 179, t = 6 s, (Media1)), selected to demonstrate a low signal for PVAC(t), (b) and high signal for PVBP(t) (c). (d) PVAC (t) for the ROI indicated in (a), for the R, G and B channels, displayed up to t = 30 s (media 1 shows up to t = 15 s). (e) Power spectrum for the G channel indicating amplitude modulation of RR (≈0.12 Hz) and HR (≈1.12 Hz). (f) PVBP (t) signals, displaying an amplitude modulated HR signal for the G channel. Vertical dashed lines in (d) and (f) indicate the time of the movie excerpt.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Still (G channel only) from a movie. (b) Corresponding power map (at HR=1.06 Hz) including artifactual high powers in areas with high contrast. (c) The movement artifact map consisting of average powers for bandwidths (0.80–0.95 and 1.17–1.33 Hz). (d) Artifact corrected map: map (b) minus map (c).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Treated PWS area (dashed line) and 2 ROI (PWS and normal skin). (b-c) Frames 9 and 22, respectively, (Media 2). Intensities in (b–c) and Media 2 are linearly proportional to PVBP(t) (BP filter: 0.8–6 Hz). (d) Phase map (computed for 1.43 Hz) showing clear contrast between PWS and normal skin. (e) A fragment of the PVBP(t) signals in the ROI’s, dashed lines indicate the lowest points for the PWS signal occurring prior to those for the normal skin signal. (f,g) Lissajous presentations of these signals. The circle and triangle in (e,f) indicate the phases for the images in (b) and (c), respectively. (h) Power map, arrows illustrate areas with relatively low pulsatility surrounded by areas with high pulsatility.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a–c) PVBP(t) for R, G and B channels, respectively and (d) the original movie, a screenshot of (Media 3) (t = 3.3 s.). (e–g) Corresponding power maps for R, G and B for the HR frequency (1.06 Hz) and the full 30 s. movie. Arrows in (b,e) indicate a structure which may be the right carotid artery. Arrows in (f,g) indicate displacement artifacts caused by the left carotid artery. (h) Phase map for the G channel, the arrow indicates a gradient of the phase.

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