Abstract

Binocular disparity and monocular depth information are the principal functions of ideal 3D displays. 3D display systems such as stereoscopic or multi-view, super multi-view (SMV), and multi-focus (MF) displays were considered for the testing of the satisfaction level with the monocular accommodation of three different depths of 3D object points. The numerical simulation and experimental results show that the MF 3D display gives a monocular depth cue. In addition, the experimental results of the monocular MF 3D display show clear monocular focus on four different depths. Therefore, we can apply the MF 3D display to monocular 3D displays.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Moller and A. Travis, "Time multiplexed Autostereoscopic Flat Panel Display using an Optical Wedge," Proc. SPIE 5664, 150-157 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Choi, J. H. Ark, J. H. Kim, S. W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle 3D/D convertible display system suing two display devices and a lens array," Opt. Express 13, 424-8432 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. H. Park, H. R. Kim, Y. Kim, J. Kim, J. Hong, S. D. Lee, and B. Lee, "Depth-enhanced three-dimensional - two dimensional convertible display based on modified integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 29, 2734-2736 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, "Hologram-Like Video Images by 45-View Stereoscopic Display," Proc. SPIE 3012, 154-166 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, "Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human engineering evaluation," Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).
  6. D. Sandin, T. Margolis, J. Ge, J. Girado, T. Peterka, and T. DeFanti, "The VarrierTM autostereoscopic virtual reality, Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 24, 894-903 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, and A. Pons, "Facet braiding: a fundamental problem in integral imaging," Opt. Lett. 32, 1078-1080 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, "Enhanced depth field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints," Opt. Express 12, 5237-5242 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Hiruma, T. Fukuda, "Accommodation response to binocular stereoscopic TV images and their viewing condtions," SMPTE J. 102, 1137-1144 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).
  13. S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, J. Y. Son, and T. Honda, "Development of the 2nd generation of HMD type multi-focus 3D display system," Proc. SPIE 6016, 60160P (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, Y. M Kwon, and J. Y. Son, "Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs," Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye, (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), Section. 1.

2007

2006

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, Y. M Kwon, and J. Y. Son, "Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs," Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, "Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human engineering evaluation," Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, J. Y. Son, and T. Honda, "Development of the 2nd generation of HMD type multi-focus 3D display system," Proc. SPIE 6016, 60160P (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Moller and A. Travis, "Time multiplexed Autostereoscopic Flat Panel Display using an Optical Wedge," Proc. SPIE 5664, 150-157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Choi, J. H. Ark, J. H. Kim, S. W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle 3D/D convertible display system suing two display devices and a lens array," Opt. Express 13, 424-8432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, "Hologram-Like Video Images by 45-View Stereoscopic Display," Proc. SPIE 3012, 154-166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. Hiruma, T. Fukuda, "Accommodation response to binocular stereoscopic TV images and their viewing condtions," SMPTE J. 102, 1137-1144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).

Baker, Y.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Benton, S. A.

St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).

Choi, H.

H. Choi, J. H. Ark, J. H. Kim, S. W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle 3D/D convertible display system suing two display devices and a lens array," Opt. Express 13, 424-8432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chun, W. S.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cossairt, O. S.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorval, R. K.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Favalra, G. E.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

N. Hiruma, T. Fukuda, "Accommodation response to binocular stereoscopic TV images and their viewing condtions," SMPTE J. 102, 1137-1144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. M.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hilaire, St.

St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).

Hiruma, N.

N. Hiruma, T. Fukuda, "Accommodation response to binocular stereoscopic TV images and their viewing condtions," SMPTE J. 102, 1137-1144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, J. Y. Son, and T. Honda, "Development of the 2nd generation of HMD type multi-focus 3D display system," Proc. SPIE 6016, 60160P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, "Hologram-Like Video Images by 45-View Stereoscopic Display," Proc. SPIE 3012, 154-166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hong, J.

Ide, S.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Jepsen, M. L.

St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).

Kajiki, Y.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, "Hologram-Like Video Images by 45-View Stereoscopic Display," Proc. SPIE 3012, 154-166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kamei, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, "Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human engineering evaluation," Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).

Kim, D. W.

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, Y. M Kwon, and J. Y. Son, "Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs," Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B (2006)
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, J. Y. Son, and T. Honda, "Development of the 2nd generation of HMD type multi-focus 3D display system," Proc. SPIE 6016, 60160P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. R.

Kim, J.

Kim, S. K.

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, Y. M Kwon, and J. Y. Son, "Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs," Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B (2006)
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, J. Y. Son, and T. Honda, "Development of the 2nd generation of HMD type multi-focus 3D display system," Proc. SPIE 6016, 60160P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

Kollin, J.

St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).

Kwon, Y. M

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, Y. M Kwon, and J. Y. Son, "Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs," Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B (2006)
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

Lee, S. D.

Lucente, M.

St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).

Martinez-Corral, M.

Martinez-Cuenca, R.

Mitsuhashi, T.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moller, C.

C. Moller and A. Travis, "Time multiplexed Autostereoscopic Flat Panel Display using an Optical Wedge," Proc. SPIE 5664, 150-157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakanuma, H.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, "Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human engineering evaluation," Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).

Napoli, J.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

Park, M. C.

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, Y. M Kwon, and J. Y. Son, "Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs," Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B (2006)
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, J. Y. Son, and T. Honda, "Development of the 2nd generation of HMD type multi-focus 3D display system," Proc. SPIE 6016, 60160P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pons, A.

Purtell, T. J.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Saavedra, G.

Schooler, J. F.

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. Y.

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, Y. M Kwon, and J. Y. Son, "Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs," Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B (2006)
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, J. Y. Son, and T. Honda, "Development of the 2nd generation of HMD type multi-focus 3D display system," Proc. SPIE 6016, 60160P (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takaki, Y.

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, "Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human engineering evaluation," Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).

Thwaites, H.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Travis, A.

C. Moller and A. Travis, "Time multiplexed Autostereoscopic Flat Panel Display using an Optical Wedge," Proc. SPIE 5664, 150-157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Underkoffler, J.

St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).

Yano, S.

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, H.

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, "Hologram-Like Video Images by 45-View Stereoscopic Display," Proc. SPIE 3012, 154-166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).

Displays

S. Yano, S. Ide, T. Mitsuhashi, and H. Thwaites, "A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images," Displays 23, 191-201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

H. Choi, J. H. Ark, J. H. Kim, S. W. Cho, and B. Lee, "Wide-viewing-angle 3D/D convertible display system suing two display devices and a lens array," Opt. Express 13, 424-8432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, "Enhanced depth field integral imaging with sensor resolution constraints," Opt. Express 12, 5237-5242 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

C. Moller and A. Travis, "Time multiplexed Autostereoscopic Flat Panel Display using an Optical Wedge," Proc. SPIE 5664, 150-157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kajiki, H. Yoshikawa, and T. Honda, "Hologram-Like Video Images by 45-View Stereoscopic Display," Proc. SPIE 3012, 154-166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Nakanuma, H. Kamei, and Y. Takaki, "Natural 3D display with 128 directional images used for human engineering evaluation," Proc. SPIE 5664, 56-63 (2005).

W. S. Chun, J. Napoli, O. S. Cossairt, R. K. Dorval, D. M. Hall, T. J. PurtellII, J. F. Schooler, Y. Baker, G. E. Favalra, "Spatial 3-D Infrastructure: Display-Independent Software Framework, High-Speed Rendering Elecronics, and Several New Displays," Proc. SPIE 5664, 302-312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

St. Hilaire, S. A. Benton, M. Lucente, M. L. Jepsen, J. Kollin, H. Yoshikawa, and J. Underkoffler, "Electronic Display System for omputational Holography," Proc. SPIE 1212, 1212-1220 (1990).

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, J. Y. Son, and T. Honda, "Development of the 2nd generation of HMD type multi-focus 3D display system," Proc. SPIE 6016, 60160P (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Kim, D. W. Kim, M. C. Park, Y. M Kwon, and J. Y. Son, "Development of a HMD-type multifocus 3D display system using LEDs," Proc. SPIE 6392, 63920B (2006)
[CrossRef]

SMPTE J.

N. Hiruma, T. Fukuda, "Accommodation response to binocular stereoscopic TV images and their viewing condtions," SMPTE J. 102, 1137-1144 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Sandin, T. Margolis, J. Ge, J. Girado, T. Peterka, and T. DeFanti, "The VarrierTM autostereoscopic virtual reality, Proc. ACM SIGGRAPH 24, 894-903 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye, (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), Section. 1.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setups for capturing the point spread of the unit pixel of (a) the stereoscopic and FLA SMV, (b) the directional image SMV, and (c) the MF 3D conditions.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental results of the image diameter of the unit pixel of the viewpoint image at each 3D display condition.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimental results of the focus on the characters at four different depths of the MF 3D display system.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Four focus images 0.25 m, 0.5 m, 0.9 m, and 2.0 m from one viewpoint image.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Table 1. Comparison between the numerical simulation and the experimental result of the unit pixel about each 3D display condition (unit=µm)

Tables Icon

Table 2. Width of vertical part of the character “T” on one viewpoint image

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 O D + 1 RD = 1 F D
1 O D m D + 1 RD m D = 1 F

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