Abstract

A new Mueller matrix polarimeter was used to image the retinas of normal subjects. Light from a linearly polarized 780 nm laser was passed through a system of variable retarders and scanned across the retina. Light returned from the eye passed through a second system of retarders and a polarizing beamsplitter to two confocal detection channels. Optimization of the polarimetric data reduction matrix was via a condition number metric. The accuracy and repeatability of polarization parameter measurements were within ± 5%. The magnitudes and orientations of retardance and diattenuation, plus depolarization, were measured over 15° of retina for 15 normal eyes.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).
  2. D. A. Lee and E. J. Higginbotham, "Glaucoma and its treatment: A review," Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 62, 691-699 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Ambati, B. K. Ambati, S. H. Yoo, S. Ianchulev, and A. P. Adamis, "Age-related macular degeneration: etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies," Surv. Ophthalmol. 48, 257-293 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, "Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathophysiology, screening, and novel therapies," Diabetes Care 26, 2653-2664 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, "Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1468-1480 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. M. Bueno, "The influence of depolarization and corneal birefringence on ocular polarization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S91-S99 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. G. Hunter, S. N. Patel, and D. L. Guyton, "Automated detection of foveal fixation by use of retinal birefringence scanning," Appl. Opt. 38, 1273-1279 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, "Theoretical model of the polarization properties of the retinal nerve fiber layer in reflection," Appl. Opt. 42, 5726-5736 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. RylanderIII, and T. E. Milner, "Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Opt. Express 13, 4611-4628 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. J. van Blokland, "Ellipsometry of the human retina in vivo: preservation of polarization," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2, 72-75 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. N. Weinreb, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995).
  15. J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, "Double-pass imaging polarimetry in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 24, 64-66 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. M. Twietmeyer and R. A. Chipman, "Optimization of Mueller matrix polarimeters in the presence of error sources," Opt. Express 16, 11589--11603 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, "Corneal polarimetry after LASIK refractive surgery," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014001-1 - 014001-6 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Bueno and J. Jaronski, "Spatially resolved polarization properties for in vitro corneas," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 21, 384-392 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Polarization properties of the in vitro old human crystalline lens," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 23, 109-118 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. M. Bueno, "Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry," Vision Res. 40, 3791-3799 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 59692H-1 - 59692H-6 (2005).
  23. J. M. Bueno, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Improved scanning laser fundus imaging using polarimetry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1337-1348 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Lara and C. Dainty, "Axially resolved complete Mueller matrix confocal microscopy," Appl. Opt. 45, 1917-1930 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. M. Twietmeyer, GDx-MM: An Imaging Mueller Matrix Retinal Polarimeter, Ph.D. Dissertation (University of Arizona, 2007).
  26. J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, "Average double-pass ocular diattenuation using foveal fixation," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 849-859 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. De Martino, E. Garcia-Caurel, B. Laude, and B. Drevillon, "Optimized Mueller polarimeter with liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 28, 616-618 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. A. Chipman, "Polarimetry" in Handbook of Optics 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 22.1 - 22.37.
  29. M. H. Smith, "Optimization of a dual-rotating-retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter," Appl. Opt. 41, 2488-2493 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. S. Tyo, "Design of optimal polarimeters: maximization of signal-to-noise ratio and minimization of systematic error," Appl. Opt. 41, 619-630 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Aiello, G. Puentes, D. Voigt, and J. P. Woerdman, "Maximum-likelihood estimation of Mueller matrices," Opt. Lett. 31, 817-819 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Y. Lu and R. A. Chipman, "Interpretation of Mueller matrices based on polar decomposition," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1106-1113 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. W. Knighton and X. -R. Huang, "Linear birefringence of the central human cornea," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 82-86 (2002).
  34. R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 901-906 (2002).
  35. G. J. van Blokland and S. C. Verhelst, "Corneal polarization in the living human eye explained with a biaxial model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 4, 82-90 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  36. R. W. Knighton, X. -R. Huang, and L. A. Cavuoto, "Corneal birefringence mapped by scanning laser polarimetry," Opt. Express 16, 13738-13749 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  37. H. B. K. . Brink and G. J. van Blokland, "Birefringence of the human foveal area assessed in vivo with Muller-matrix ellipsometry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 49-57 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. W. Knighton and X.-R. Huang, "Analytical methods for scanning laser polarimetry," Opt. Express 10, 1179-1189 (2002).
  39. A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, and M. C. Cheney, "Changes in retinal birefringence with eccentricity," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, E-Abstract 2555 (2005).
  40. M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041210-1 - 041210-10 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  41. X.-R. Huang, H. Bagga, D. S. Greenfield, and R. W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  42. G. J. van Blokland and D. V. Norren, "Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea," Vision Res. 26,485-494 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  43. A. E. Elsner, D. VanNasdale, Y. Zhao, M. Miura, A. Weber, K. M. Twietmeyer, and R. A. Chipman, "Retinal birefringence changes associated with exudative eye disease," presented at the Optical Society of America Frontiers in Optics conference, San Jose, California, 16-20 Sept. 2007.
  44. B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Vector-based analysis for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5316, 397-403 (2004).
  45. R. P. Hemenger, "Dichroism of the macular pigment and Haidinger’s brushes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 734-737 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  46. O. K. Naoun, V. L. Dorr, P. Allé, J.-C. Sablon, and A.-M. Benoit, "Exploration of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by measurement of the linear dichroism," Appl. Opt. 44, 7074-7082 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

2005 (7)

N. J. Kemp, H. N. Zaatari, J. Park, H. G. RylanderIII, and T. E. Milner, "Form-biattenuance in fibrous tissues measured with polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Opt. Express 13, 4611-4628 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. K. Naoun, V. L. Dorr, P. Allé, J.-C. Sablon, and A.-M. Benoit, "Exploration of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness by measurement of the linear dichroism," Appl. Opt. 44, 7074-7082 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Lee and E. J. Higginbotham, "Glaucoma and its treatment: A review," Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 62, 691-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, and M. C. Cheney, "Changes in retinal birefringence with eccentricity," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, E-Abstract 2555 (2005).

2004 (4)

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Vector-based analysis for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5316, 397-403 (2004).

X.-R. Huang, H. Bagga, D. S. Greenfield, and R. W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, "The influence of depolarization and corneal birefringence on ocular polarization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S91-S99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).

2003 (6)

J. Ambati, B. K. Ambati, S. H. Yoo, S. Ianchulev, and A. P. Adamis, "Age-related macular degeneration: etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies," Surv. Ophthalmol. 48, 257-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, "Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathophysiology, screening, and novel therapies," Diabetes Care 26, 2653-2664 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Polarization properties of the in vitro old human crystalline lens," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 23, 109-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. De Martino, E. Garcia-Caurel, B. Laude, and B. Drevillon, "Optimized Mueller polarimeter with liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 28, 616-618 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, "Theoretical model of the polarization properties of the retinal nerve fiber layer in reflection," Appl. Opt. 42, 5726-5736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (5)

J. S. Tyo, "Design of optimal polarimeters: maximization of signal-to-noise ratio and minimization of systematic error," Appl. Opt. 41, 619-630 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Smith, "Optimization of a dual-rotating-retarder Mueller matrix polarimeter," Appl. Opt. 41, 2488-2493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Knighton and X. -R. Huang, "Linear birefringence of the central human cornea," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 82-86 (2002).

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 901-906 (2002).

R. W. Knighton and X.-R. Huang, "Analytical methods for scanning laser polarimetry," Opt. Express 10, 1179-1189 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. M. Bueno and J. Jaronski, "Spatially resolved polarization properties for in vitro corneas," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 21, 384-392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. M. Bueno, "Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry," Vision Res. 40, 3791-3799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

R. N. Weinreb, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995).

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

G. J. van Blokland and D. V. Norren, "Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea," Vision Res. 26,485-494 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

R. P. Hemenger, "Dichroism of the macular pigment and Haidinger’s brushes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 734-737 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Adamis, A. P.

J. Ambati, B. K. Ambati, S. H. Yoo, S. Ianchulev, and A. P. Adamis, "Age-related macular degeneration: etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies," Surv. Ophthalmol. 48, 257-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aiello, A.

Allé, P.

Amador, A. G.

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, "Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathophysiology, screening, and novel therapies," Diabetes Care 26, 2653-2664 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ambati, B. K.

J. Ambati, B. K. Ambati, S. H. Yoo, S. Ianchulev, and A. P. Adamis, "Age-related macular degeneration: etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies," Surv. Ophthalmol. 48, 257-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ambati, J.

J. Ambati, B. K. Ambati, S. H. Yoo, S. Ianchulev, and A. P. Adamis, "Age-related macular degeneration: etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies," Surv. Ophthalmol. 48, 257-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Artal, P.

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, "Average double-pass ocular diattenuation using foveal fixation," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 849-859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, "Corneal polarimetry after LASIK refractive surgery," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014001-1 - 014001-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, "Double-pass imaging polarimetry in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 24, 64-66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bagga, H.

X.-R. Huang, H. Bagga, D. S. Greenfield, and R. W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, B.

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041210-1 - 041210-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benoit, A.-M.

Berrio, E.

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, "Corneal polarimetry after LASIK refractive surgery," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014001-1 - 014001-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowd, C.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 901-906 (2002).

Brink, H. B. K.

Bueno, J. M.

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, "Average double-pass ocular diattenuation using foveal fixation," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 849-859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Improved scanning laser fundus imaging using polarimetry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1337-1348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, "Corneal polarimetry after LASIK refractive surgery," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014001-1 - 014001-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, "The influence of depolarization and corneal birefringence on ocular polarization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S91-S99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Polarization properties of the in vitro old human crystalline lens," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 23, 109-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and J. Jaronski, "Spatially resolved polarization properties for in vitro corneas," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 21, 384-392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, "Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry," Vision Res. 40, 3791-3799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, "Double-pass imaging polarimetry in the human eye," Opt. Lett. 24, 64-66 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burns, S. A.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M. C. W.

J. M. Bueno, J. J. Hunter, C. J. Cookson, M. L. Kisilak, and M. C. W. Campbell, "Improved scanning laser fundus imaging using polarimetry," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1337-1348 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Polarization properties of the in vitro old human crystalline lens," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 23, 109-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cavuoto, L. A.

Cense, B.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Vector-based analysis for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5316, 397-403 (2004).

Cheney, M. C.

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, "Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1468-1480 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, and M. C. Cheney, "Changes in retinal birefringence with eccentricity," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, E-Abstract 2555 (2005).

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chipman, R. A.

Ciulla, T. A.

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, "Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathophysiology, screening, and novel therapies," Diabetes Care 26, 2653-2664 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cookson, C. J.

Dainty, C.

de Boer, J. F.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Vector-based analysis for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5316, 397-403 (2004).

De Martino, A.

Dorr, V. L.

Drevillon, B.

Elsner, A. E.

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, "Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1468-1480 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, and M. C. Cheney, "Changes in retinal birefringence with eccentricity," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, E-Abstract 2555 (2005).

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Etyaale, D.

S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).

Garcia-Caurel, E.

Götzinger, E.

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041210-1 - 041210-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Greenfield, D. S.

X.-R. Huang, H. Bagga, D. S. Greenfield, and R. W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 901-906 (2002).

Guyton, D. L.

Hemenger, R. P.

R. P. Hemenger, "Dichroism of the macular pigment and Haidinger’s brushes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 72, 734-737 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Higginbotham, E. J.

D. A. Lee and E. J. Higginbotham, "Glaucoma and its treatment: A review," Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 62, 691-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hitzenberger, C. K.

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041210-1 - 041210-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. -R.

R. W. Knighton, X. -R. Huang, and L. A. Cavuoto, "Corneal birefringence mapped by scanning laser polarimetry," Opt. Express 16, 13738-13749 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Knighton and X. -R. Huang, "Linear birefringence of the central human cornea," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 82-86 (2002).

Huang, X.-R.

X.-R. Huang, H. Bagga, D. S. Greenfield, and R. W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, "Theoretical model of the polarization properties of the retinal nerve fiber layer in reflection," Appl. Opt. 42, 5726-5736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Knighton and X.-R. Huang, "Analytical methods for scanning laser polarimetry," Opt. Express 10, 1179-1189 (2002).

Hunter, D. G.

Hunter, J. J.

Ianchulev, S.

J. Ambati, B. K. Ambati, S. H. Yoo, S. Ianchulev, and A. P. Adamis, "Age-related macular degeneration: etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies," Surv. Ophthalmol. 48, 257-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, T.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaronski, J.

J. M. Bueno and J. Jaronski, "Spatially resolved polarization properties for in vitro corneas," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 21, 384-392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kemp, N. J.

Kisilak, M. L.

Knighton, R. W.

R. W. Knighton, X. -R. Huang, and L. A. Cavuoto, "Corneal birefringence mapped by scanning laser polarimetry," Opt. Express 16, 13738-13749 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X.-R. Huang, H. Bagga, D. S. Greenfield, and R. W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X.-R. Huang and R. W. Knighton, "Theoretical model of the polarization properties of the retinal nerve fiber layer in reflection," Appl. Opt. 42, 5726-5736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Knighton and X. -R. Huang, "Linear birefringence of the central human cornea," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 82-86 (2002).

R. W. Knighton and X.-R. Huang, "Analytical methods for scanning laser polarimetry," Opt. Express 10, 1179-1189 (2002).

Kocur, I.

S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).

Lara, D.

Laude, B.

Lee, D. A.

D. A. Lee and E. J. Higginbotham, "Glaucoma and its treatment: A review," Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 62, 691-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S. Y.

Mariotti, S. P.

S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).

Mellem-Kairala, M. B.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Milner, T. E.

Miura, M.

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, "Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1468-1480 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Naoun, O. K.

Norren, D. V.

G. J. van Blokland and D. V. Norren, "Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea," Vision Res. 26,485-494 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Osako, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pararajasegaram, R.

S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).

Park, B. H.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Vector-based analysis for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5316, 397-403 (2004).

Park, J.

Pascolini, D.

S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).

Patel, S. N.

Pierce, M. C.

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Vector-based analysis for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5316, 397-403 (2004).

Pircher, M.

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041210-1 - 041210-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pokharel, G. P.

S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).

Puentes, G.

Resnikoff, S.

S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).

Rylander, H. G.

Sablon, J.-C.

Simmons, R. B.

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. H.

Twietmeyer, K. M.

Tyo, J. S.

Usui, M.

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Blokland, G. J.

VanNasdale, D. A.

Verhelst, S. C.

Vohnsen, B.

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, D.

Weber, A.

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, D. A. VanNasdale, and M. Miura, "Imaging polarimetry in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1468-1480 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, and M. C. Cheney, "Changes in retinal birefringence with eccentricity," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, E-Abstract 2555 (2005).

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weinreb, R. N.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 901-906 (2002).

R. N. Weinreb, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995).

Woerdman, J. P.

Yoo, S. H.

J. Ambati, B. K. Ambati, S. H. Yoo, S. Ianchulev, and A. P. Adamis, "Age-related macular degeneration: etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies," Surv. Ophthalmol. 48, 257-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zaatari, H. N.

Zangwill, L. M.

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 901-906 (2002).

Zinman, B.

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, "Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathophysiology, screening, and novel therapies," Diabetes Care 26, 2653-2664 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. (1)

D. A. Lee and E. J. Higginbotham, "Glaucoma and its treatment: A review," Am. J. Health-Syst. Pharm. 62, 691-699 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2)

M. Miura, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, M. C. Cheney, M. Osako, M. Usui, and T. Iwasaki, "Imaging polarimetry in central serous chorioretinopathy," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 140, 1014-1019 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Weinreb, "Scanning laser polarimetry to measure the nerve fiber layer of normal and glaucomatous eyes," Am. J. Ophthalmol. 119, 627-636 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Arch. Ophthalmol. (1)

R. N. Weinreb, C. Bowd, D. S. Greenfield, and L. M. Zangwill, "Measurement of the magnitude and axis of corneal polarization with scanning laser polarimetry," Arch. Ophthalmol. 120, 901-906 (2002).

Bulletin of the World Health Organization (1)

S. Resnikoff, D. Pascolini, D. Etyaale, I. Kocur, R. Pararajasegaram, G. P. Pokharel, and S. P. Mariotti, "Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002," Bulletin of the World Health Organization 82, 844-851 (2004).

Diabetes Care (1)

T. A. Ciulla, A. G. Amador, and B. Zinman, "Diabetic Retinopathy and Diabetic Macular Edema: Pathophysiology, screening, and novel therapies," Diabetes Care 26, 2653-2664 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (5)

S. A. Burns, A. E. Elsner, M. B. Mellem-Kairala, and R. B. Simmons, "Improved contrast of subretinal structures using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 44, 4061-4068 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Mellem-Kairala, A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, R. B. Simmons, and S. A. Burns, "Improved contrast of peripapillary hyperpigmentation using polarization analysis," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, 1099-1106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Knighton and X. -R. Huang, "Linear birefringence of the central human cornea," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 43, 82-86 (2002).

A. E. Elsner, A. Weber, and M. C. Cheney, "Changes in retinal birefringence with eccentricity," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46, E-Abstract 2555 (2005).

X.-R. Huang, H. Bagga, D. S. Greenfield, and R. W. Knighton, "Variation of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer birefringence in normal human subjects," Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 45, 3073-3080 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. Pircher, B. Baumann, E. Götzinger, and C. K. Hitzenberger, "Corneal birefringence compensation for polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of the human retina," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 041210-1 - 041210-10 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, E. Berrio, and P. Artal, "Corneal polarimetry after LASIK refractive surgery," J. Biomed. Opt. 11, 014001-1 - 014001-6 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. M. Bueno and P. Artal, "Average double-pass ocular diattenuation using foveal fixation," J. Mod. Opt. 55, 849-859 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. M. Bueno, "The influence of depolarization and corneal birefringence on ocular polarization," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6, S91-S99 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (7)

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. (2)

J. M. Bueno and J. Jaronski, "Spatially resolved polarization properties for in vitro corneas," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 21, 384-392 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno and M. C. W. Campbell, "Polarization properties of the in vitro old human crystalline lens," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 23, 109-118 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. H. Park, M. C. Pierce, B. Cense, and J. F. de Boer, "Vector-based analysis for polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Proc. SPIE 5316, 397-403 (2004).

Surv. Ophthalmol. (1)

J. Ambati, B. K. Ambati, S. H. Yoo, S. Ianchulev, and A. P. Adamis, "Age-related macular degeneration: etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic strategies," Surv. Ophthalmol. 48, 257-293 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (3)

J. M. Bueno and B. Vohnsen, "Polarimetric high-resolution confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope," Vision Res. 45, 3526-3534 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Bueno, "Measurement of parameters of polarization in the living human eye using imaging polarimetry," Vision Res. 40, 3791-3799 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. J. van Blokland and D. V. Norren, "Intensity and polarization of light scattered at small angles from the human fovea," Vision Res. 26,485-494 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. E. Elsner, D. VanNasdale, Y. Zhao, M. Miura, A. Weber, K. M. Twietmeyer, and R. A. Chipman, "Retinal birefringence changes associated with exudative eye disease," presented at the Optical Society of America Frontiers in Optics conference, San Jose, California, 16-20 Sept. 2007.

M. C. W. Campbell, J. M. Bueno, C. J. Cookson, Q. Liang, M. L. Kisilak, and J. J. Hunter, "Enhanced confocal microscopy and ophthalmoscopy with polarization imaging," Proc. SPIE 5969, 59692H-1 - 59692H-6 (2005).

K. M. Twietmeyer, GDx-MM: An Imaging Mueller Matrix Retinal Polarimeter, Ph.D. Dissertation (University of Arizona, 2007).

R. A. Chipman, "Polarimetry" in Handbook of Optics 2nd ed., M. Bass, ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1995), pp. 22.1 - 22.37.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics