Abstract

We report a new 1.5 µm femtosecond fiber soliton laser incorporating a polymer saturable absorber that consists of polycarbonate (PC) with carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We installed the polymer in a fiber laser with a cavity length of 5.1 m, in which an erbium-doped fiber was used as the gain medium. Stable passive mode-locking was achieved for a pump power of 303 mW at 39 MHz, and a pulse width of 115 fs with an average output power of 3.4 mW was obtained.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Keller, D. Miller, G. Boyd, T. Chiu, J. Ferguson, and M. Asom, "Solid-state low-loss intracavity saturable absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry-Perot saturable absorber," Opt. Lett. 17, 505-507 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, "Generation of 98 fs optical pulses directly from an erbium-doped fibre ring laser at 1.57 μm," Electron. Lett. 29, 63-64 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Sakakibara, M. Tokumoto, S. Tatsuura, Y. Achiba, and H. Kataura, "Optical element, and manufacturing method thereof," Japan Patent 2001-320383, (2001).
  5. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, "Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes," OFC2003, Post-deadline Paper PD44, March 2003.
  6. Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itatani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, "Optically uniform carbon nanotube-polyimide nanocomposite: application to 165 fs mode-locked fiber laser and waveguide," Proc. ECOC'05 1, 37-38 (2005).
  7. N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, "All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber," Opt. Express 16, 9429-9435 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, "Carbon nanotube-poly (vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4A 1621-1625 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Nakazawa, S. Nakahara, T. Hirooka, M. Yoshida, T. Kaino, and K. Komatsu, "Polymer saturable absorber materials in the 1.5 μm band using poly-methyl-methacrylate and polystyrene with single-wall carbon nanotubes and their application to a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 915-917 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Bicerano, Prediction of Polymer Properties (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. -H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001.)

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

M. Nakazawa, S. Nakahara, T. Hirooka, M. Yoshida, T. Kaino, and K. Komatsu, "Polymer saturable absorber materials in the 1.5 μm band using poly-methyl-methacrylate and polystyrene with single-wall carbon nanotubes and their application to a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 31, 915-917 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, "Carbon nanotube-poly (vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4A 1621-1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, "Generation of 98 fs optical pulses directly from an erbium-doped fibre ring laser at 1.57 μm," Electron. Lett. 29, 63-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. -H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, "Carbon nanotube-poly (vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4A 1621-1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asom, M.

Boyd, G.

Chen, Y. -C.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, T.

Ferguson, J.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. -H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hirooka, T.

Itoga, E.

Itoh, K.

Kaino, T.

Kataura, H.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, "All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber," Opt. Express 16, 9429-9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, "Carbon nanotube-poly (vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4A 1621-1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

Kimura, Y.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, "Generation of 98 fs optical pulses directly from an erbium-doped fibre ring laser at 1.57 μm," Electron. Lett. 29, 63-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Komatsu, K.

Kumazawa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. -M.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maniwa, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D.

Nakahara, S.

Nakazawa, M.

Namiki, S.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nishizawa, N.

Ohtsuka, Y.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, "Carbon nanotube-poly (vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4A 1621-1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. -H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

N. Nishizawa, Y. Seno, K. Sumimura, Y. Sakakibara, E. Itoga, H. Kataura, and K. Itoh, "All-polarization-maintaining Er-doped ultrashort-pulse fiber laser using carbon nanotube saturable absorber," Opt. Express 16, 9429-9435 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, "Carbon nanotube-poly (vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4A 1621-1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schadler, L. S.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seno, Y.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. -H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sumimura, K.

Suzuki, S.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tokumoto, M.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, "Carbon nanotube-poly (vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4A 1621-1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Umezu, I.

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. -H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.-C.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. -H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. -H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, E.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, "Generation of 98 fs optical pulses directly from an erbium-doped fibre ring laser at 1.57 μm," Electron. Lett. 29, 63-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, M.

Zhang, X. -C.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. -P.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G.-C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, "Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975-977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, "Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

M. Nakazawa, E. Yoshida, and Y. Kimura, "Generation of 98 fs optical pulses directly from an erbium-doped fibre ring laser at 1.57 μm," Electron. Lett. 29, 63-64 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. -H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, "Carbon nanotube-poly (vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: Applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4A 1621-1625 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Synt. Met. (1)

H. Kataura, Y. Kumazawa, Y. Maniwa, I. Umezu, S. Suzuki, Y. Ohtsuka, and Y. Achiba, "Optical properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes," Synt. Met. 103, 2555-2558 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic Press, 2001.)

Y. Sakakibara, M. Tokumoto, S. Tatsuura, Y. Achiba, and H. Kataura, "Optical element, and manufacturing method thereof," Japan Patent 2001-320383, (2001).

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, M. Jablonski, Y. Sakakibara, A. Rozhin, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and K. Kikuchi, "Mode-locked fiber lasers based on a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes," OFC2003, Post-deadline Paper PD44, March 2003.

Y. Sakakibara, K. Kintaka, A. G. Rozhin, T. Itatani, W. M. Soe, H. Itatani, M. Tokumoto, and H. Kataura, "Optically uniform carbon nanotube-polyimide nanocomposite: application to 165 fs mode-locked fiber laser and waveguide," Proc. ECOC'05 1, 37-38 (2005).

J. Bicerano, Prediction of Polymer Properties (Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

SWNT/PC fabrication process: 1) SWNTs and DMF were mixed in a mortar with a pestle. 2) The solution was dispersed with an ultrasonic homogenizer. 3) PC was added to the solution and ultrasonification was employed. 4) The resulting solution was poured into a Petri dish and dried in an oven. 5) The surface of the obtained wafer was polished into a mirror with a high precision micro lathe.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Linear transmission spectrum of SWNT/PC wafer.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Z-scan results with SWNT/PC wafer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Configuration of a passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser with SWNT/PC composite as a saturable absorber.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

SWNT module.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Dispersion map of fiber laser cavity.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Laser output characteristics against pump power. (a) is the laser output power. (b) is the time-bandwidth product and pulse width.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Laser output characteristics under the minimum pulse width condition: (a) autocorrelation waveform, (b) optical spectrum.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Configuration of a passively mode-locked fiber laser with a long cavity length.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Laser output characteristics with an SWNT/PMMA wafer just before the damage threshold: (a) autocorrelation waveform, (b) optical spectrum.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Laser output characteristics with an SWNT/PC wafer just before the damage threshold: (a) autocorrelation waveform, (b) optical spectrum.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P p P soliton
Z 0 L
Z 0 = 0.322 π 2 c λ 2 τ FWHM 2 D ave
P soliton = 3.11 λ 2 2 π c γ D ave τ FWHM 2

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