Abstract

In this paper, cylindrical microlens arrays with two different alignments were proposed to be applied in a commercial mobile phone having an organic light-emitting diode (OLED) panel. It was found that the parallel-aligned cylindrical array had better performance than the vertical-aligned one for the OLED panel. The parallel-aligned cylindrical microlens array can increase the luminous current efficiency at surface normal and the luminous power efficiency of the OLED panel by 45% and 38%, respectively. Besides, it can also make the spectrum of the OLED panel more insensitive to the viewing angle. Though it can slightly blur the image on the OLED panel, the universal image quality index can be maintained at a level of 0.8630.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987)
    [CrossRef]
  2. M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, "Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595-604 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure," J. Appl. Phys. 967629-7636 (2004)
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Yamasaki, K. Suminoka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting devices with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 761243-1245 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  5. H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C.-J. Chiu, "Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 10395-400 (2000)
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light-emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002)
    [CrossRef]
  8. M.-K. Wei and I-L. Su, "Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array," Opt. Express 12, 5777-5782 (2004)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Peng, Y. L. Ho, X.-J. Yu, M. Wong, and H.-S. Kwok, "Coupling efficiency enhancement in organic light-emitting devices using microlens array-theory and experiment," J. Display Technol. 1, 278-282 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  11. M.-K. Wei, I-L. Su, Y.-J. Chen, M. Chang, H.-Y. Ling, and T.-C. Wu, "The influence of a microlens array on planar organic light-emitting devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 368-374 (2006)
    [CrossRef]
  12. M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
    [CrossRef]
  13. H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, "A universal image quality index," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9, 81-84 (2002)
    [CrossRef]

2008

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006)
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, I-L. Su, Y.-J. Chen, M. Chang, H.-Y. Ling, and T.-C. Wu, "The influence of a microlens array on planar organic light-emitting devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 368-374 (2006)
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

M.-K. Wei and I-L. Su, "Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array," Opt. Express 12, 5777-5782 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure," J. Appl. Phys. 967629-7636 (2004)
[CrossRef]

2002

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, "Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595-604 (2002)
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light-emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, "A universal image quality index," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9, 81-84 (2002)
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Yamasaki, K. Suminoka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting devices with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 761243-1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C.-J. Chiu, "Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 10395-400 (2000)
[CrossRef]

1987

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987)
[CrossRef]

Bovik, A. C.

Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, "A universal image quality index," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9, 81-84 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Chang, M.

M.-K. Wei, I-L. Su, Y.-J. Chen, M. Chang, H.-Y. Ling, and T.-C. Wu, "The influence of a microlens array on planar organic light-emitting devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 368-374 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Chen, K.-Y.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.-J.

M.-K. Wei, I-L. Su, Y.-J. Chen, M. Chang, H.-Y. Ling, and T.-C. Wu, "The influence of a microlens array on planar organic light-emitting devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 368-374 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C.-J.

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C.-J. Chiu, "Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 10395-400 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Dai, C.-L.

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Do, Y. R.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure," J. Appl. Phys. 967629-7636 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Fang, J.-H.

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006)
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light-emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Ho, Y. L.

Ho, Y.-H.

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S.-C.

Kim, Y.-C.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure," J. Appl. Phys. 967629-7636 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

Lee, J.-H.

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-H.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure," J. Appl. Phys. 967629-7636 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-C.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.-Y.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Lin, L.

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C.-J. Chiu, "Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 10395-400 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Ling, H.-Y.

M.-K. Wei, I-L. Su, Y.-J. Chen, M. Chang, H.-Y. Ling, and T.-C. Wu, "The influence of a microlens array on planar organic light-emitting devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 368-374 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Lu, M.-H.

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, "Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595-604 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light-emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Peng, H.

Shia, T. K.

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C.-J. Chiu, "Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 10395-400 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Song, Y.-W.

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure," J. Appl. Phys. 967629-7636 (2004)
[CrossRef]

Sturm, J. C.

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, "Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595-604 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Su, I-L.

M.-K. Wei, I-L. Su, Y.-J. Chen, M. Chang, H.-Y. Ling, and T.-C. Wu, "The influence of a microlens array on planar organic light-emitting devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 368-374 (2006)
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei and I-L. Su, "Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array," Opt. Express 12, 5777-5782 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suminoka, K.

T. Yamasaki, K. Suminoka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting devices with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 761243-1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987)
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J.-H.

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Suminoka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting devices with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 761243-1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Vanslyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987)
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, "A universal image quality index," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9, 81-84 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.-K.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, I-L. Su, Y.-J. Chen, M. Chang, H.-Y. Ling, and T.-C. Wu, "The influence of a microlens array on planar organic light-emitting devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 368-374 (2006)
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei and I-L. Su, "Method to evaluate the enhancement of luminance efficiency in planar OLED light emitting devices for microlens array," Opt. Express 12, 5777-5782 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, M.

Wu, C.-F.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Wu, T.-C.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, J.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chen, J.-H. Fang, S.-C. Hsu, M.-K. Wei, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Patterned microlens array for efficiency improvement of small-pixelated organic light-emitting devices," Opt. Express 16, 11044-11051 (2008)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, I-L. Su, Y.-J. Chen, M. Chang, H.-Y. Ling, and T.-C. Wu, "The influence of a microlens array on planar organic light-emitting devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 368-374 (2006)
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, T.

T. Yamasaki, K. Suminoka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting devices with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 761243-1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.-J.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, "Organic electroluminescent diodes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913-915 (1987)
[CrossRef]

T. Yamasaki, K. Suminoka, and T. Tsutsui, "Organic light-emitting devices with an ordered monolayer of silica microspheres as a scattering medium," Appl. Phys. Lett. 761243-1245 (2000)
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Process. Lett.

Z. Wang and A. C. Bovik, "A universal image quality index," IEEE Signal Process. Lett. 9, 81-84 (2002)
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

M.-H. Lu and J. C. Sturm, "Optimization of external coupling and light emission in organic light-emitting devices: modeling and experiment," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 595-604 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Y. R. Do, Y.-C. Kim, Y.-W. Song, and Y.-H. Lee, "Enhanced light extraction efficiency from organic light emitting diodes by insertion of a two-dimensional photonic crystal structure," J. Appl. Phys. 967629-7636 (2004)
[CrossRef]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, "Improved light out-coupling in organic light-emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 3324-3327 (2002)
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, "Organic light emitting devices with enhanced outcoupling via microlenses fabricated by imprint lithography," J. Appl. Phys. 100, 073106 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol.

J. Micromech. Microeng.

L. Lin, T. K. Shia, and C.-J. Chiu, "Silicon-processed plastic micropyramids for brightness enhancement applications," J. Micromech. Microeng. 10395-400 (2000)
[CrossRef]

M.-K. Wei, I-L. Su, Y.-J. Chen, M. Chang, H.-Y. Ling, and T.-C. Wu, "The influence of a microlens array on planar organic light-emitting devices," J. Micromech. Microeng. 16, 368-374 (2006)
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt.

M.-K. Wei, J.-H. Lee, H.-Y. Lin, Y.-H. Ho, K.-Y. Chen, C.-C. Lin, C.-F. Wu, H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Tsai, and T.-C. Wu, "Efficiency improvement and spectral shift of an organic light-emitting device by attaching a hexagon-based microlens array," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 055302 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H.-Y. Lin, J.-H. Lee, M.-K. Wei, C.-L. Dai, C.-F. Wu, Y.-H. Ho, H.-Y. Lin, and T.-C. Wu, "Improvement of the outcoupling efficiency of an organic light-emitting device by attaching microstructured films," Opt. Commun. 275, 464-469 (2007)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The photographs of a blue OLED subpixel: (a) without any microstructures and (b) with a regular microlens array attachment. (c) The microphotograph of the regular spherical microlens array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The fabrication process of cylindrical microlens arrays.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Schematic alignments of cylindrical microlens arrays: (a) parallel and (b) vertical.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Microphotograph of cylindrical microlenses.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The angular-dependent luminance of the OLED panel attached with and without cylindrical microlenses.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a). The angular-dependent spectra of the OLED panel without microlenses. The spectra of the OLED panel attached with a (a) parallel- and (c) vertical-aligned cylindrical, and (d) spherical microlens array at different viewing angles.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The CIE coordinates of the OLED panel attached with/without a cylindrical or spherical microlens array at different viewing angles.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) The original Lena image on the OLED panel. (b) The Lena images on the panel attached with (b) parallel- and (c) vertical-aligned cylindrical and (d) spherical microlens arrays, respectively. (e), (f), (g) and (h) are the magnified pictures on the upper parts of (a), (b), (c) and (d), respectively.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The maximal variation of CIE indices of the OLED panel attached with and without cylindrical and spherical microlens arrays at the studied range of the viewing angle.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Quantities of each term and overall image quality indices of the panel attached with cylindrical microlens arrays.

Equations (1)

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Q = σ xy σ x σ y · 2 xy ˉ x ˉ 2 + y ˉ 2 · 2 σ x σ y σ x 2 + σ y 2

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