Abstract

The effective focal lengths of thermal lens in diode-end-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YVO4 lasers for the 4F3/24I11/2 and 4F3/24I13/2 transitions were determined. The experimental results revealed that the thermal lensing effect for the 4F3/24I11/2 transition can be sufficiently improved by employing a single-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystal replacing a conventional Nd:YVO4 crystal. However, using a double-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystal was a great improvement over a single-end diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystal for the 4F3/24I13/2 transition with stronger thermal lensing effect.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, "Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895-912 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. K. Cousins, "Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1057-1069 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, New York, 2006), Chap. 7.
  4. Y. F. Chen, "Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234-239 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 29-34 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. A. Clarkson, "Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers," J. Phys. D 34, 2381-2395 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, "Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997-1009 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, "Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082-1087 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Ozygus, and Q. Zhang, "Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers using primary degeneration modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2590-2592 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. J. Xu, and G. Y. Zhang, "Determination of thermal focal length and pumping radius in gain medium in laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145-2147 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Z. Fan, X. Y. Zhang, Q. P. Wang, S. T. Li, S. H. Ding, and F. F. Su, "More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers," Opt. Commun. 266, 620-626 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Hanson, "Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549-3551 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. M. Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, "Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046-1053 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, "Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9-18 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, and H. Inaba, "Efficient 946-nm laser operation of a composite Nd:YAG rod with undoped ends," Appl. Opt. 37, 5713-5719 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, and H. Inaba, "Improvement of thermal effects in a diode-end-pumped, composite Tm:YAG rod with undoped ends," Appl. Opt. 38, 1788-1791 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, "Reducing thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods," Opt. Commun. 178, 383-393 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeèek, K. Nejezchleb, and K. Blažek, "Comparison of different composite Nd:YAG rods thermal properties under diode pumping," Proc. SPIE 4630, 128-134 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. Kracht, R. Wilhelm, M. Frede, K. Dupré, and L. Ackermann, "407 W end-pumped multi-segmented Nd:YAG laser," Opt. Express 13, 10140-10144 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-25-10140.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X Li, and H. Yang, "Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser," Opt. Commun. 274, 176-181 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. F. Chen, "Pump-to-mode size ratio dependence of thermal loading in diode-end-pumped solid-state lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1835-1840 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-1833 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. Koechner, "Thermal lensing in a Nd:YAG laser rod," Appl. Opt. 9, 2548-2553 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X Li, and H. Yang, "Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser," Opt. Commun. 274, 176-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Z. Fan, X. Y. Zhang, Q. P. Wang, S. T. Li, S. H. Ding, and F. F. Su, "More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers," Opt. Commun. 266, 620-626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. J. Xu, and G. Y. Zhang, "Determination of thermal focal length and pumping radius in gain medium in laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145-2147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeèek, K. Nejezchleb, and K. Blažek, "Comparison of different composite Nd:YAG rods thermal properties under diode pumping," Proc. SPIE 4630, 128-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. A. Clarkson, "Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers," J. Phys. D 34, 2381-2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, "Reducing thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods," Opt. Commun. 178, 383-393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, "Pump-to-mode size ratio dependence of thermal loading in diode-end-pumped solid-state lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1835-1840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

Y. F. Chen, "Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, and H. Inaba, "Improvement of thermal effects in a diode-end-pumped, composite Tm:YAG rod with undoped ends," Appl. Opt. 38, 1788-1791 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, and H. Inaba, "Efficient 946-nm laser operation of a composite Nd:YAG rod with undoped ends," Appl. Opt. 37, 5713-5719 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. M. Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, "Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046-1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, "Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Ozygus, and Q. Zhang, "Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers using primary degeneration modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2590-2592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, "Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082-1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Hanson, "Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549-3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, "Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997-1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Cousins, "Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1057-1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, "Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895-912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

Ackermann, L.

Balembois, F.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, J. E.

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, "Reducing thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods," Opt. Commun. 178, 383-393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blažek, K.

J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeèek, K. Nejezchleb, and K. Blažek, "Comparison of different composite Nd:YAG rods thermal properties under diode pumping," Proc. SPIE 4630, 128-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, M. S.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, "Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997-1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, "Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895-912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, "Pump-to-mode size ratio dependence of thermal loading in diode-end-pumped solid-state lasers," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1835-1840 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, "Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chénais, S.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

W. A. Clarkson, "Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers," J. Phys. D 34, 2381-2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cousins, A. K.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, "Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997-1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Cousins, "Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1057-1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ding, S. H.

S. Z. Fan, X. Y. Zhang, Q. P. Wang, S. T. Li, S. H. Ding, and F. F. Su, "More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers," Opt. Commun. 266, 620-626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ding, X.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. J. Xu, and G. Y. Zhang, "Determination of thermal focal length and pumping radius in gain medium in laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145-2147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Donald, M. M.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. M. Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, "Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046-1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Druon, F.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dupré, K.

Fan, S. Z.

S. Z. Fan, X. Y. Zhang, Q. P. Wang, S. T. Li, S. H. Ding, and F. F. Su, "More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers," Opt. Commun. 266, 620-626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan and R. L. Byer, "Diode laser-pumped solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 895-912 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fields, R. A.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fincher, C. L.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Forget, S.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frede, M.

Georges, P.

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Graf, Th.

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, "Reducing thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods," Opt. Commun. 178, 383-393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, F.

F. Hanson, "Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549-3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inaba, H.

Innocenzi, M. E.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jelínková, H.

J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeèek, K. Nejezchleb, and K. Blažek, "Comparison of different composite Nd:YAG rods thermal properties under diode pumping," Proc. SPIE 4630, 128-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kasamatsu, T.

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, "Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Koechner, W.

Kracht, D.

Kubeèek, V.

J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeèek, K. Nejezchleb, and K. Blažek, "Comparison of different composite Nd:YAG rods thermal properties under diode pumping," Proc. SPIE 4630, 128-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, S. T.

S. Z. Fan, X. Y. Zhang, Q. P. Wang, S. T. Li, S. H. Ding, and F. F. Su, "More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers," Opt. Commun. 266, 620-626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X Li, and H. Yang, "Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser," Opt. Commun. 274, 176-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, X

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X Li, and H. Yang, "Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser," Opt. Commun. 274, 176-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MacDonald, M. P.

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, "Reducing thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods," Opt. Commun. 178, 383-393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nejezchleb, K.

J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeèek, K. Nejezchleb, and K. Blažek, "Comparison of different composite Nd:YAG rods thermal properties under diode pumping," Proc. SPIE 4630, 128-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Neuenschwander, B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. M. Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, "Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046-1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, "Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082-1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ozygus, B.

B. Ozygus, and Q. Zhang, "Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers using primary degeneration modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2590-2592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Roos, M. B.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. M. Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, "Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046-1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seamans, J. F.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, "Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997-1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Song, F.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. J. Xu, and G. Y. Zhang, "Determination of thermal focal length and pumping radius in gain medium in laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145-2147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Su, F. F.

S. Z. Fan, X. Y. Zhang, Q. P. Wang, S. T. Li, S. H. Ding, and F. F. Su, "More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers," Opt. Commun. 266, 620-626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Šulc, J.

J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeèek, K. Nejezchleb, and K. Blažek, "Comparison of different composite Nd:YAG rods thermal properties under diode pumping," Proc. SPIE 4630, 128-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, N.

Tidwell, S. C.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, "Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997-1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekane, M.

Wang, C. L.

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. P.

S. Z. Fan, X. Y. Zhang, Q. P. Wang, S. T. Li, S. H. Ding, and F. F. Su, "More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers," Opt. Commun. 266, 620-626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, "Reducing thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods," Opt. Commun. 178, 383-393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. M. Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, "Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046-1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, "Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082-1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. M. Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, "Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046-1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, "Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082-1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wilhelm, R.

Xu, J. J.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. J. Xu, and G. Y. Zhang, "Determination of thermal focal length and pumping radius in gain medium in laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145-2147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X Li, and H. Yang, "Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser," Opt. Commun. 274, 176-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yura, H. T.

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. J. Xu, and G. Y. Zhang, "Determination of thermal focal length and pumping radius in gain medium in laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145-2147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. J. Xu, and G. Y. Zhang, "Determination of thermal focal length and pumping radius in gain medium in laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145-2147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

B. Ozygus, and Q. Zhang, "Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers using primary degeneration modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2590-2592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. Y.

S. Z. Fan, X. Y. Zhang, Q. P. Wang, S. T. Li, S. H. Ding, and F. F. Su, "More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers," Opt. Commun. 266, 620-626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhuo, Z.

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X Li, and H. Yang, "Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser," Opt. Commun. 274, 176-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Chénais, S. Forget, F. Druon, F. Balembois, and P. Georges, "Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG," Appl. Phys. B 79, 221-224 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

B. Ozygus, and Q. Zhang, "Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers using primary degeneration modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2590-2592 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Song, C. Zhang, X. Ding, J. J. Xu, and G. Y. Zhang, "Determination of thermal focal length and pumping radius in gain medium in laser-diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2145-2147 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Innocenzi, H. T. Yura, C. L. Fincher, and R. A. Fields, "Thermal modeling of continuous-wave end-pumped solid-state lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1831-1833 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Hanson, "Improved laser performance at 946 and 473 nm from a composite Nd:Y3Al5O12 rod," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3549-3551 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (7)

R. Weber, B. Neuenschwander, M. M. Donald, M. B. Roos, and H. P. Weber, "Cooling schemes for longitudinally diode laser-pumped Nd:YAG rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 1046-1053 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, "Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234-239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers to higher power: influence of thermal effect," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424-1429 (1997).
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A. K. Cousins, "Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1057-1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, "Scaling CW diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG lasers to high average powers," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997-1009 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, "Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082-1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. F. Chen, C. F. Kao, T. M. Huang, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, "Influence of thermal effect on output power optimization in fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 29-34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tsunekane, N. Taguchi, T. Kasamatsu, and H. Inaba, "Analytical and experimental studies on the characteristics of composite solid-state laser rods in diode-end-pumped geometry," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 9-18 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

W. A. Clarkson, "Thermal effects and their mitigation in end-pumped solid-state lasers," J. Phys. D 34, 2381-2395 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. Z. Fan, X. Y. Zhang, Q. P. Wang, S. T. Li, S. H. Ding, and F. F. Su, "More precise determination of thermal lens focal length for end-pumped solid-state lasers," Opt. Commun. 266, 620-626 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. P. MacDonald, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, and H. P. Weber, "Reducing thermal lensing in diode-pumped laser rods," Opt. Commun. 178, 383-393 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhuo, T. Li, X Li, and H. Yang, "Investigation of Nd:YVO4/YVO4 composite crystal and its laser performance pumped by a fiber coupled diode laser," Opt. Commun. 274, 176-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

J. Šulc, H. Jelínková, V. Kubeèek, K. Nejezchleb, and K. Blažek, "Comparison of different composite Nd:YAG rods thermal properties under diode pumping," Proc. SPIE 4630, 128-134 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 6th ed. (Springer, New York, 2006), Chap. 7.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup of a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4 CW laser for measuring the effective focal length of thermal lens in the laser crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The three types of laser crystal with different structures. (a) Conventional Nd:YVO4 crystal. (b) Diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystal with single-end at its pumped facet (YVO4-Nd:YVO4). (c) Diffusion-bonded Nd:YVO4 crystal with double-end (YVO4-Nd:YVO4-YVO4)

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Experimentally measured average CW output power of 1064 nm with respect to the cavity length for the three types of Nd:YVO4 laser crystal with an input pump power (a) Pin=10.4W (b) Pin=20.2W. The arrows indicate the locations of critical cavity length.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimentally measured average CW output power of 1342 nm with respect to the cavity length for the three types of Nd:YVO4 laser crystal with an input pump power (a) Pin=7.61W (b) Pin=16.4W. The arrows indicate the locations of critical cavity length.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The relationship between the effective focal length of thermal lens and the input pump power for three types of Nd:YVO4 crystal operated at (a) 1064 (b) 1342 nm. The symbols represent experimental data and the curves are theoretical fitted results.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

1 f th = 1 d 2 + l ( 1 n 1 ) 1 r d 1
f th = π K ω p 2 ξ P in ( dn dT ) [ 1 1 exp ( α l a ) = C ω p 2 P in ]
α = 2 · N d ( mm 1 )

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