Abstract

Novel triangular ring resonators combining extremely small multimode-interference (MMI) coupler, low loss total internal reflection (TIR) mirrors, and semiconductor optical amplifiers are reported for the first time. The MMI length of 90 µm is among the shortest reported. The incidence angle of the TIR mirror inside the resonator is 22°. A free-spectral range of approximately 2 nm is observed near 1550 nm along with an on-off ratio of 17 dB. The triangular resonators with a sharp angle are very attractive components due to their promise of compact size and high levels of integration. Therefore, large numbers of resonators can be integrated on a chip to increase functionality in future optical wavelength division multiplexing system.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, and N. Dagli, "A low-loss beam splitter with an optimized waveguide structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009-1011 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Sasayama, F. Fruh, T. Kominato, and K. Habara, "Photonic frequency-division-multiplexing highway switch using integrated-optic multiple ring resonators,"IEICE Trans. Commun. E78-B, 674-678 (1995).
  3. W. Weiershausen and R. Zengerle, "Photonic highway switches based on ring resonators used as frequency-selective switches," Appl. Opt. 35, 5967-5978 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Ming, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, "Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Q silica microspheres," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429-1430 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, "Extremely Small Multimode Interference Couplers and Ultrashort Bend on InP by Deep Eetching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1008-1010 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. G. Kim, C. Ozturk, J. H. Shin, J. C. Yi, and N. Dagli, "Self-aligned total internal reflection mirrors with very low loss," in Integrated Photonics Research Conference IThG5, (2004).
  11. D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, "Total Internal Reflection Mirror based Ring Resonators" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1899-1901 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, C. Ozturk, and N. Dagli, "Multimode-Interference-Coupled Ring Resonators Based on Total-Internal-Reflection Mirrors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 175-181 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, C. Ozturk, and N. Dagli, "Multimode-Interference-Coupled Ring Resonators Based on Total-Internal-Reflection Mirrors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 175-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, "Total Internal Reflection Mirror based Ring Resonators" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1899-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Ming, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, "Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Q silica microspheres," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429-1430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

K. Sasayama, F. Fruh, T. Kominato, and K. Habara, "Photonic frequency-division-multiplexing highway switch using integrated-optic multiple ring resonators,"IEICE Trans. Commun. E78-B, 674-678 (1995).

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, "Extremely Small Multimode Interference Couplers and Ultrashort Bend on InP by Deep Eetching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1008-1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, and N. Dagli, "A low-loss beam splitter with an optimized waveguide structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009-1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. W.

D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, C. Ozturk, and N. Dagli, "Multimode-Interference-Coupled Ring Resonators Based on Total-Internal-Reflection Mirrors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 175-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y.

D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, C. Ozturk, and N. Dagli, "Multimode-Interference-Coupled Ring Resonators Based on Total-Internal-Reflection Mirrors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 175-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, "Total Internal Reflection Mirror based Ring Resonators" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1899-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, and N. Dagli, "A low-loss beam splitter with an optimized waveguide structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009-1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dagli, N.

D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, C. Ozturk, and N. Dagli, "Multimode-Interference-Coupled Ring Resonators Based on Total-Internal-Reflection Mirrors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 175-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, "Total Internal Reflection Mirror based Ring Resonators" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1899-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, and N. Dagli, "A low-loss beam splitter with an optimized waveguide structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009-1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fruh, F.

K. Sasayama, F. Fruh, T. Kominato, and K. Habara, "Photonic frequency-division-multiplexing highway switch using integrated-optic multiple ring resonators,"IEICE Trans. Commun. E78-B, 674-678 (1995).

Groen, F. H.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, "Extremely Small Multimode Interference Couplers and Ultrashort Bend on InP by Deep Eetching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1008-1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Habara, K.

K. Sasayama, F. Fruh, T. Kominato, and K. Habara, "Photonic frequency-division-multiplexing highway switch using integrated-optic multiple ring resonators,"IEICE Trans. Commun. E78-B, 674-678 (1995).

Haus, H. A.

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, "Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Q silica microspheres," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429-1430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, G.

C. Ming, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. G.

D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, C. Ozturk, and N. Dagli, "Multimode-Interference-Coupled Ring Resonators Based on Total-Internal-Reflection Mirrors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 175-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, "Total Internal Reflection Mirror based Ring Resonators" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1899-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kominato, T.

K. Sasayama, F. Fruh, T. Kominato, and K. Habara, "Photonic frequency-division-multiplexing highway switch using integrated-optic multiple ring resonators,"IEICE Trans. Commun. E78-B, 674-678 (1995).

Laine, J.-P.

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, "Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Q silica microspheres," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429-1430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Little, B. E.

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, "Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Q silica microspheres," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429-1430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Metaal, E. G.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, "Extremely Small Multimode Interference Couplers and Ultrashort Bend on InP by Deep Eetching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1008-1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ming, C.

C. Ming, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, "Extremely Small Multimode Interference Couplers and Ultrashort Bend on InP by Deep Eetching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1008-1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, "Extremely Small Multimode Interference Couplers and Ultrashort Bend on InP by Deep Eetching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1008-1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ozturk, C.

D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, C. Ozturk, and N. Dagli, "Multimode-Interference-Coupled Ring Resonators Based on Total-Internal-Reflection Mirrors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 175-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, "Total Internal Reflection Mirror based Ring Resonators" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1899-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pan, W.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ripin, D.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasayama, K.

K. Sasayama, F. Fruh, T. Kominato, and K. Habara, "Photonic frequency-division-multiplexing highway switch using integrated-optic multiple ring resonators,"IEICE Trans. Commun. E78-B, 674-678 (1995).

Sato, S.

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shin, J. H.

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, "Total Internal Reflection Mirror based Ring Resonators" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1899-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, "Extremely Small Multimode Interference Couplers and Ultrashort Bend on InP by Deep Eetching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1008-1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spickermann, R.

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, and N. Dagli, "A low-loss beam splitter with an optimized waveguide structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009-1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Spiekman, L. H.

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, "Extremely Small Multimode Interference Couplers and Ultrashort Bend on InP by Deep Eetching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1008-1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

C. Ming, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weiershausen, W.

Yi, J. C.

D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, C. Ozturk, and N. Dagli, "Multimode-Interference-Coupled Ring Resonators Based on Total-Internal-Reflection Mirrors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 175-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, "Total Internal Reflection Mirror based Ring Resonators" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1899-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. B.

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, and N. Dagli, "A low-loss beam splitter with an optimized waveguide structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009-1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zengerle, R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (7)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, W. Pan, D. Ripin, T. Kaneko, Y. Kokubun, and E. Ippen, "Vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filters," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 215-217 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Ming, G. Hunziker, and K. Vahala, "Fiber-optic add-drop device based on a silica microsphere-whispering gallery mode system," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 686-687 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Laine, B. E. Little, and H. A. Haus, "Etch-eroded fiber coupler for whispering-gallery-mode excitation in high-Q silica microspheres," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 1429-1430 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Chu, B. E. Little, W. Pan, T. Kaneko, S. Sato, and Y. Kokubun, "An eight-channel add-drop filter using vertically coupled microring resonators over a cross grid," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 691-693 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chung, R. Spickermann, D. B. Young, and N. Dagli, "A low-loss beam splitter with an optimized waveguide structure," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4, 1009-1011 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. H. Spiekman, Y. S. Oei, E. G. Metaal, F. H. Groen, I. Moerman, and M. K. Smit, "Extremely Small Multimode Interference Couplers and Ultrashort Bend on InP by Deep Eetching," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6, 1008-1010 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Kim, J. H. Shin, C. Ozturk, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, and N. Dagli, "Total Internal Reflection Mirror based Ring Resonators" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 1899-1901 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Commun. (1)

K. Sasayama, F. Fruh, T. Kominato, and K. Habara, "Photonic frequency-division-multiplexing highway switch using integrated-optic multiple ring resonators,"IEICE Trans. Commun. E78-B, 674-678 (1995).

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

L. B. Soldano and E. C. M. Pennings, "Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications," J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615-627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. G. Kim, Y. W. Choi, J. C. Yi, Y. Chung, C. Ozturk, and N. Dagli, "Multimode-Interference-Coupled Ring Resonators Based on Total-Internal-Reflection Mirrors," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 175-181 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. G. Kim, C. Ozturk, J. H. Shin, J. C. Yi, and N. Dagli, "Self-aligned total internal reflection mirrors with very low loss," in Integrated Photonics Research Conference IThG5, (2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram (left) and fabricated picture (right) of the MMI coupled triangular ring resonator with TIR mirrors and SOAs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

TIR mirrors loss as a function of the incident angle for both the TE and the TM polarization by using the FDTD method.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cross sectional profile of the active and the passive waveguide structures used in the experiments

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmissions through the resonator at two different SOA currents when the resonator is excited with an integrated external SOA.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Details of the spectra around 1550 nm when the SOAs inside the filter is biased at 10 mA.

Metrics