Abstract

Optical sensing platforms based on anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (ARROWs) with hollow cores have been used for bioanalysis and atomic spectroscopy. These integrated platforms require that hollow waveguides interface with standard solid waveguides on the substrate to couple light into and out of test media. Previous designs required light at these interfaces to pass through the anti-resonant layers. We present a new ARROW design which coats the top and sides of the hollow core with only SiO2, allowing for high interface transmission between solid and hollow waveguides. The improvement in interface transmission with this design is demonstrated experimentally and increases from 35% to 79%. Given these parameters, higher optical throughputs are possible using single SiO2 coatings when hollow waveguides are shorter than 5.8 mm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Dress and H. Franke, "A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide," Appl. Phys. B 63, 12-19 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Risk, H. Kim, R. Miller, H. Temkin, and S. Gangopadhyay, "Optical waveguides with an aqueous core and a low-index nanoporous cladding," Opt. Express 12, 6446-6455 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A Dielectric Omnidirectional Reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. R. Hadley, J. G. Fleming, and S.-Y. Lin, "Bragg fiber design for linear polarization," Opt. Lett. 29, 809-811 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, "Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106-110 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Yin, H. Schmidt, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated ARROW waveguides with hollow cores," Opt. Express 12, 2710-2715 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated hollow waveguides with archshaped cores," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 28-30 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis," Lab. Chip 7, 1171-1175 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core ARROW waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 9331-9336 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-L. Archambault, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, "Loss calculations for antiresonant waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 416-423 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Measor, S. Kühn, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Hollow-core waveguide characterization by optically induced particle transport," Opt. Lett. 33, 672-674 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis," Lab. Chip 7, 1171-1175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated hollow waveguides with archshaped cores," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 28-30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core ARROW waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 9331-9336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, "Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106-110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A Dielectric Omnidirectional Reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

P. Dress and H. Franke, "A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide," Appl. Phys. B 63, 12-19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J.-L. Archambault, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, "Loss calculations for antiresonant waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 416-423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, I.

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Archambault, J.-L.

J.-L. Archambault, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, "Loss calculations for antiresonant waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 416-423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Barber, J.

J. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated hollow waveguides with archshaped cores," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 28-30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core ARROW waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 9331-9336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, H. Schmidt, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated ARROW waveguides with hollow cores," Opt. Express 12, 2710-2715 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernini, R.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, "Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106-110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Black, R.

J.-L. Archambault, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, "Loss calculations for antiresonant waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 416-423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bures, J.

J.-L. Archambault, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, "Loss calculations for antiresonant waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 416-423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Campopiano, S.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, "Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106-110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A Dielectric Omnidirectional Reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dallas, T.

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dasgupta, P.

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Datta, A.

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deamer, D. W.

D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis," Lab. Chip 7, 1171-1175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhar, A.

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dress, P.

P. Dress and H. Franke, "A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide," Appl. Phys. B 63, 12-19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Eom, I.-Y.

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Erickson, D.

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A Dielectric Omnidirectional Reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, Y.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A Dielectric Omnidirectional Reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleming, J. G.

Franke, H.

P. Dress and H. Franke, "A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide," Appl. Phys. B 63, 12-19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gangopadhyay, S.

W. Risk, H. Kim, R. Miller, H. Temkin, and S. Gangopadhyay, "Optical waveguides with an aqueous core and a low-index nanoporous cladding," Opt. Express 12, 6446-6455 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

George, Z.

J. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated hollow waveguides with archshaped cores," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 28-30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hadley, G. R.

Hawkins, A.

J. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated hollow waveguides with archshaped cores," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 28-30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core ARROW waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 9331-9336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, H. Schmidt, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated ARROW waveguides with hollow cores," Opt. Express 12, 2710-2715 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawkins, A. R.

P. Measor, S. Kühn, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Hollow-core waveguide characterization by optically induced particle transport," Opt. Lett. 33, 672-674 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis," Lab. Chip 7, 1171-1175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtz, M.

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A Dielectric Omnidirectional Reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kuban, P.

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kühn, S.

Lacroix, S.

J.-L. Archambault, R. Black, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, "Loss calculations for antiresonant waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 11, 416-423 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-Y.

Lunt, E.

J. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated hollow waveguides with archshaped cores," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 28-30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lunt, E. J.

P. Measor, S. Kühn, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Hollow-core waveguide characterization by optically induced particle transport," Opt. Lett. 33, 672-674 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis," Lab. Chip 7, 1171-1175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandal, S.

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Manor, R.

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Measor, P.

Michel, J.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A Dielectric Omnidirectional Reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, R.

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, B. S.

Risk, W.

Rudenko, M. I.

D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis," Lab. Chip 7, 1171-1175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, H.

P. Measor, S. Kühn, E. J. Lunt, B. S. Phillips, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Hollow-core waveguide characterization by optically induced particle transport," Opt. Lett. 33, 672-674 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis," Lab. Chip 7, 1171-1175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated hollow waveguides with archshaped cores," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 28-30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core ARROW waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 9331-9336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, H. Schmidt, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated ARROW waveguides with hollow cores," Opt. Express 12, 2710-2715 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temkin, H.

W. Risk, H. Kim, R. Miller, H. Temkin, and S. Gangopadhyay, "Optical waveguides with an aqueous core and a low-index nanoporous cladding," Opt. Express 12, 6446-6455 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, E. L.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A Dielectric Omnidirectional Reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winn, J. N.

Y. Fink, J. N. Winn, S. Fan, C. Chen, J. Michel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and E. L. Thomas, "A Dielectric Omnidirectional Reflector," Science 282, 1679-1682 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, D.

D. Yin, E. J. Lunt, M. I. Rudenko, D. W. Deamer, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Planar optofluidic chip for single particle detection, manipulation, and analysis," Lab. Chip 7, 1171-1175 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated hollow waveguides with archshaped cores," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 28-30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, J. Barber, A. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Waveguide loss optimization in hollow-core ARROW waveguides," Opt. Express 13, 9331-9336 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Yin, H. Schmidt, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated ARROW waveguides with hollow cores," Opt. Express 12, 2710-2715 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeni, L.

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, "Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106-110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

P. Dress and H. Franke, "A cylindrical liquid-core waveguide," Appl. Phys. B 63, 12-19 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Mandal and D. Erickson, "Optofluidic transport in liquid core waveguiding structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 184103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, "Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2-Si multilayer structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 13-15 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Bernini, S. Campopiano, and L. Zeni, "Silicon micromachined hollow optical waveguides for sensing applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 106-110 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Schmidt, D. Yin, J. Barber, and A. Hawkins, "Hollow-core waveguides and 2-D waveguide arrays for integrated optics of gases and liquids," IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 11, 519-527 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Barber, E. Lunt, Z. George, D. Yin, H. Schmidt, and A. Hawkins, "Integrated hollow waveguides with archshaped cores," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18, 28-30 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sensors J. (1)

A. Datta, I.-Y. Eom, A. Dhar, P. Kuban, R. Manor, I. Ahmad, S. Gangopadhyay, T. Dallas, M. Holtz, H. Temkin, and P. Dasgupta, "Microfabrication and characterization of Teflon AF-coated liquid core waveguide channels in silicon," IEEE Sensors J. 3, 788-795 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) ARROW based platform for sensing applications. (b) Actual device.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Transmission through ARROW based chips with associated losses and efficiencies (a) for ARROWs and (b) for SOC ARROWs.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SOC ARROW Fabrication steps: (a) Pedestal etched into Si substrate. (b) ARROW layers deposited. (c) Sacrificial material deposited. (d) Top ARROW layer deposited. (e) Ridge waveguide etched into top layer. (f) Sacrificial core removed. (g) SEM image of fabricated device.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

SOC ARROW loss measurements: (a) solid-core waveguide (b) liquid-core waveguide.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Chip throughput versus hollow waveguide length for ARROWs and SOC ARROWs.

Equations (1)

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T = κ e 1 e α s l s κ i e α h l h κ i κ e 2

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