Abstract

We report the results of our studies on the selection of the quantum path in high-harmonic generation (HHG) with a relative-phase-locked two-color laser field. It is shown that by tuning the relative phase between fundamental and second-harmonic fields, The timing of tunnel ionization and subsequent electron trajectories on the sub-cycle time scale can be controlled. We have clearly observed a phase-dependent two-step feature in the harmonic spectra that can be attributed to the selection of two major trajectories in the two-color field HHG.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few cycle light pulses: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nature Physics 3, 381-387 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. B. Corkum, "Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, D. B. Milosevic, and G. G. Paulus, "Phase-dependent effects in dromatic highorder harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063415 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, "Two-Color Phase Control in Tunneling Ionization and Harmonic Generation by a Strong Laser Field and Its Third Harmonic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692-2695 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Kondo, Y. Kobayashi, A. Sagisaka, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 424-429 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, "Significant enhancement of high-order harmonics below 10 nm in a two-color laser field," Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. U. Andiel, G. D. Tsakiris, E. Cormier, and K. Witte, "High-order harmonic amplitude modulation in two-colour phase-controlled frequency mixing," Europhys. Lett. 47, 42-48 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam "Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021125 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Oishi, M. Kaku, A. Suda, F. Kannari, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of extreme ultraviolet continuum radiation driven by a sub-10-fs two-color field," Opt. Express 14, 7230-7237 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, X Li, X, Chen, P. Liu, H. Xiong, H. Lu, S. Zhao, P. Wei, L. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Cheng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Enhancement and broadening of extreme-ultraviolet supercontinuum in a relative phase controlled two-color laser field," Opt. Lett. 33, 234-236 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde "Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. Mansten, J. M. Dahlstr¨om, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson "Spectral shaping of attosecond pulses using two-colour laser fields," New J. Phys. 10, 083041 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, "Double Optical Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation with Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Nabekawa, Y. Kuramoto, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe "Generation of 0.66-TW pulses at 1 kHz by a Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 23, 1384-1386 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Flettner, J. Guther, M. B. Mason, U. Weichmann, R. Duren, and G. Gerber "High harmonic generation at 1 kHz repetition rate with a pulsed valve," Appl. Phys. B 73, 129-132 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).
  20. J. Z. Klose "Atomic Liftimes in Neon I," Phys. Rev. 141, 181-186 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  21. N. Taylor, K. D. Bartle, D. Mills, and D. S. Beard "Energy levels in helium and neon atoms by an electron-impact method," Am. J. Phys. 49, 265-268 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

2008

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam "Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Mansten, J. M. Dahlstr¨om, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson "Spectral shaping of attosecond pulses using two-colour laser fields," New J. Phys. 10, 083041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, "Double Optical Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation with Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zheng, Z. Zeng, X Li, X, Chen, P. Liu, H. Xiong, H. Lu, S. Zhao, P. Wei, L. Zhang, Z. Wang, J. Liu, Y. Cheng, R. Li, and Z. Xu, "Enhancement and broadening of extreme-ultraviolet supercontinuum in a relative phase controlled two-color laser field," Opt. Lett. 33, 234-236 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nature Physics 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, "Significant enhancement of high-order harmonics below 10 nm in a two-color laser field," Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde "Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Oishi, M. Kaku, A. Suda, F. Kannari, and K. Midorikawa, "Generation of extreme ultraviolet continuum radiation driven by a sub-10-fs two-color field," Opt. Express 14, 7230-7237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

A. Flettner, J. Guther, M. B. Mason, U. Weichmann, R. Duren, and G. Gerber "High harmonic generation at 1 kHz repetition rate with a pulsed valve," Appl. Phys. B 73, 129-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, D. B. Milosevic, and G. G. Paulus, "Phase-dependent effects in dromatic highorder harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few cycle light pulses: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

U. Andiel, G. D. Tsakiris, E. Cormier, and K. Witte, "High-order harmonic amplitude modulation in two-colour phase-controlled frequency mixing," Europhys. Lett. 47, 42-48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1996

1994

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, "Two-Color Phase Control in Tunneling Ionization and Harmonic Generation by a Strong Laser Field and Its Third Harmonic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692-2695 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

1981

N. Taylor, K. D. Bartle, D. Mills, and D. S. Beard "Energy levels in helium and neon atoms by an electron-impact method," Am. J. Phys. 49, 265-268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1966

J. Z. Klose "Atomic Liftimes in Neon I," Phys. Rev. 141, 181-186 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Andiel, U.

U. Andiel, G. D. Tsakiris, E. Cormier, and K. Witte, "High-order harmonic amplitude modulation in two-colour phase-controlled frequency mixing," Europhys. Lett. 47, 42-48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartle, K. D.

N. Taylor, K. D. Bartle, D. Mills, and D. S. Beard "Energy levels in helium and neon atoms by an electron-impact method," Am. J. Phys. 49, 265-268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Beard, D. S.

N. Taylor, K. D. Bartle, D. Mills, and D. S. Beard "Energy levels in helium and neon atoms by an electron-impact method," Am. J. Phys. 49, 265-268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few cycle light pulses: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, "Double Optical Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation with Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nature Physics 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, "Plasma Perspective on Strong-Field Multiphoton Ionization," Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994-1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

U. Andiel, G. D. Tsakiris, E. Cormier, and K. Witte, "High-order harmonic amplitude modulation in two-colour phase-controlled frequency mixing," Europhys. Lett. 47, 42-48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dahlstr¨om, J. M.

E. Mansten, J. M. Dahlstr¨om, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson "Spectral shaping of attosecond pulses using two-colour laser fields," New J. Phys. 10, 083041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Duren, R.

A. Flettner, J. Guther, M. B. Mason, U. Weichmann, R. Duren, and G. Gerber "High harmonic generation at 1 kHz repetition rate with a pulsed valve," Appl. Phys. B 73, 129-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, D. B. Milosevic, and G. G. Paulus, "Phase-dependent effects in dromatic highorder harmonic generation," Phys. Rev. A 61, 063415 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flettner, A.

A. Flettner, J. Guther, M. B. Mason, U. Weichmann, R. Duren, and G. Gerber "High harmonic generation at 1 kHz repetition rate with a pulsed valve," Appl. Phys. B 73, 129-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaarde, M. B.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde "Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

A. Flettner, J. Guther, M. B. Mason, U. Weichmann, R. Duren, and G. Gerber "High harmonic generation at 1 kHz repetition rate with a pulsed valve," Appl. Phys. B 73, 129-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gilbertson, S.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, "Double Optical Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation with Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunther, J.

A. Flettner, J. Guther, M. B. Mason, U. Weichmann, R. Duren, and G. Gerber "High harmonic generation at 1 kHz repetition rate with a pulsed valve," Appl. Phys. B 73, 129-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, E.

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde "Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnsson, P.

E. Mansten, J. M. Dahlstr¨om, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson "Spectral shaping of attosecond pulses using two-colour laser fields," New J. Phys. 10, 083041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde "Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaku, M.

Kanai, T.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, "Significant enhancement of high-order harmonics below 10 nm in a two-color laser field," Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kannari, F.

Khan, S. D.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, "Double Optical Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation with Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, I. J.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam "Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. K.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam "Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Klose, J. Z.

J. Z. Klose "Atomic Liftimes in Neon I," Phys. Rev. 141, 181-186 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

K. Kondo, Y. Kobayashi, A. Sagisaka, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 424-429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, "Two-Color Phase Control in Tunneling Ionization and Harmonic Generation by a Strong Laser Field and Its Third Harmonic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692-2695 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, K.

K. Kondo, Y. Kobayashi, A. Sagisaka, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 424-429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, "Two-Color Phase Control in Tunneling Ionization and Harmonic Generation by a Strong Laser Field and Its Third Harmonic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692-2695 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosuge, A.

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone and V. P. Krainov "Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field," Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191-1194 (1986).

Krausz, F.

P. B. Corkum and F. Krausz, "Attosecond science," Nature Physics 3, 381-387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few cycle light pulses: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuramoto, Y.

L’Huillier, A.

E. Mansten, J. M. Dahlstr¨om, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson "Spectral shaping of attosecond pulses using two-colour laser fields," New J. Phys. 10, 083041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde "Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, G. H.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam "Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam "Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lewenstein, M.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, "Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields," Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117-2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, "Double Optical Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation with Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X

Liu, T. T.

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, "Significant enhancement of high-order harmonics below 10 nm in a two-color laser field," Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mansten, E.

E. Mansten, J. M. Dahlstr¨om, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson "Spectral shaping of attosecond pulses using two-colour laser fields," New J. Phys. 10, 083041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mashiko, H.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, "Double Optical Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation with Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mason, M. B.

A. Flettner, J. Guther, M. B. Mason, U. Weichmann, R. Duren, and G. Gerber "High harmonic generation at 1 kHz repetition rate with a pulsed valve," Appl. Phys. B 73, 129-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mauritsson, J.

E. Mansten, J. M. Dahlstr¨om, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson "Spectral shaping of attosecond pulses using two-colour laser fields," New J. Phys. 10, 083041 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde "Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

Mills, D.

N. Taylor, K. D. Bartle, D. Mills, and D. S. Beard "Energy levels in helium and neon atoms by an electron-impact method," Am. J. Phys. 49, 265-268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Moon, E.

H. Mashiko, S. Gilbertson, C. Li, S. D. Khan, M. M. Shakya, E. Moon, and Z. Chang, "Double Optical Gating of High-Order Harmonic Generation with Carrier-Envelope Phase Stabilized Lasers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 103906 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

Nam, C. H.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam "Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oishi, Y.

Park, S. B.

I. J. Kim, G. H. Lee, S. B. Park, Y. S. Lee, T. K. Kim, and C. H. Nam "Generation of submicrojoule high harmonics using a long gas jet in a two-color laser field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 021125 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sagisaka, A.

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J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde "Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
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T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, "Significant enhancement of high-order harmonics below 10 nm in a two-color laser field," Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
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A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
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E. Mansten, J. M. Dahlstr¨om, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, A. L’Huillier, and J. Mauritsson "Spectral shaping of attosecond pulses using two-colour laser fields," New J. Phys. 10, 083041 (2008).
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U. Andiel, G. D. Tsakiris, E. Cormier, and K. Witte, "High-order harmonic amplitude modulation in two-colour phase-controlled frequency mixing," Europhys. Lett. 47, 42-48 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Liu, T. Kanai, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe, "Significant enhancement of high-order harmonics below 10 nm in a two-color laser field," Phys. Rev. A 73, 063823 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nabekawa, Y. Kuramoto, T. Togashi, T. Sekikawa, and S. Watanabe "Generation of 0.66-TW pulses at 1 kHz by a Ti:sapphire laser," Opt. Lett. 23, 1384-1386 (1998).
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K. Kondo, Y. Kobayashi, A. Sagisaka, Y. Nabekawa, and S. Watanabe, "Tunneling ionization and harmonic generation in two-color fields," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 424-429 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, "Two-Color Phase Control in Tunneling Ionization and Harmonic Generation by a Strong Laser Field and Its Third Harmonic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692-2695 (1994).
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A. Flettner, J. Guther, M. B. Mason, U. Weichmann, R. Duren, and G. Gerber "High harmonic generation at 1 kHz repetition rate with a pulsed valve," Appl. Phys. B 73, 129-132 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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U. Andiel, G. D. Tsakiris, E. Cormier, and K. Witte, "High-order harmonic amplitude modulation in two-colour phase-controlled frequency mixing," Europhys. Lett. 47, 42-48 (1999).
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A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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U. Andiel, G. D. Tsakiris, E. Cormier, and K. Witte, "High-order harmonic amplitude modulation in two-colour phase-controlled frequency mixing," Europhys. Lett. 47, 42-48 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

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J. Mauritsson, P. Johnsson, E. Gustafsson, A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde "Attosecond Pulse Trains Generated Using Two Color Laser Fields," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 013001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Watanabe, K. Kondo, Y. Nabekawa, A. Sagisaka, and Y. Kobayashi, "Two-Color Phase Control in Tunneling Ionization and Harmonic Generation by a Strong Laser Field and Its Third Harmonic," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2692-2695 (1994).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kosuge, T. Sekikawa, X. Zhou, T. Kanai, S. Adachi, and S. Watanabe "Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating of Isolated Attosecond Pulses in the Extreme Ultraviolet," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 263901 (2006).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Electron trajectories in a monochromatic field. (b). Electron trajectories in a bichromatic field. Black and blue lines show the kinetic energy of a return electron as a function of ionization and recombination times. Solid and dotted lines represent a short and a long trajectories of each branch, respectively. A red line shows an electric field. The amplitude ratio of the SH and fundamental (E SH /E f ) is 0.25 as in the experiment. X-axis is plotted in units of a fundamental (800 nm) light period.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Experimental procedure. (b). Two-color Michelson interferometer, BBO, 150µm-thick β -BaB2O4; DM, dichroic-mirror; WP, zero-order half-wave plate at 800 nm. (c). Harmonic generation and detection setup, OMA, optical multichannel analyzer (USB4000, Ocean Optics); SXR-II-1, x-ray spectrometer (Hettrick Scientific); TMP, turbomolecular pump.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(1) Measured high-harmonic spectra as a function of a relative phase. Vertical axis, photon energy; horizontal axis, relative phase, ϕ. A, B, and C indicate measurement points of the spectra shown in Fig. 3(3). (2) Calculated high-harmonic spectra as a function of a relative phase. Vertical axis, photon energy; horizontal axis, relative phase, ϕ. D, E, and F indicate measurement points of the spectra shown in Fig. 3(4). (3) Measured harmonic spectra at three phases. (4) Calculated harmonic spectra at three phases.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Relative-phase dependent electron trajectories with the relative phase of 0.3π (a), 0.5π (b), and 0.8π rad. (c). Black and blue lines (solid line: short trajectory, dotted line: long trajectory) represent the kinetic energy of a return electron as a function of ionization and recombination times in units of fundamental (800-nm) light periods, respectively. A red line shows a two-color field.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Measured high-harmonic intensities and ion yield. Black line, harmonic intensity integrated in the higher-energy region (>88 eV, upper branch); blue line, harmonic intensity in the lower-energy region (<88 eV, lower branch); orange line, Ne recombination emission intensity. (b). Calculated high-harmonic intensities and ion yield. Black line, harmonic intensity integrated in the higher-energy region (>88 eV, upper branch); blue line, harmonic intensity in the lower-energy region (<88 eV, lower branch); orange line, calculated Ne ionization probability.

Equations (1)

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E ( t ) = E f cos ( ω t ) + E SH cos { 2 ω t + ϕ } ,

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