Abstract

The edge emission from AlGaInP light-emitting diodes showed a red-shifted peak in addition to the peak of surface emission. This shift resulted from the quantum-well absorption of the guided wave. Although the shift degrades the color quality and the extraction efficiency of the device, it helps elucidate many important optical properties of the material and the dynamics of carrier recombination, including the electron-hole recombination lifetime, the optical joint density of state, the spontaneous emission spectrum and the absorption spectrum. A simple concept of the bimolecular recombination is established. The corresponding coefficient can be expressed by a simple formula and was therefore determined.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2007 (1)

N. C. Chen, Y. K. Yang, W. C. Lien, and C. Y. Tseng, “Forward current-voltage characteristics of an AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043706 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. Y. Tseng, and Y. K. Yang, “Determination of junction temperature in AlGaInP/GaAs light emitting diodes by self-excited photoluminescence signal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1084–L1086 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421, 241–245 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, G. Jones, and S. Bland, “Measurement of transverse electric and transverse magnetic spontaneous emission and gain in tensile strained GaInP laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3488–3490 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, and P. Blood, “Measurement of true spontaneous emission spectra from the facet of diode laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1–3 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

H. D. Summers, J. D. Thomson, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermodynamic balance in quantum dot lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 140–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (4)

L. P. Lee and S. J. Chua, “Analysis and design of AlGaInP single-quantum-well LED,” Proc. SPIE 3896, 155–162 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, J. M. Pikal, C. S. Menoni, K. J. Thomas, F. A. Kish, and M. R. Hueschen, “Effect of indirect minima carrier population on the output characteristics of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3201–3203 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. Roura, M. L. Miguel, A. Cornet, and J. R. Morante, “Determination of the direct band-gap energy of InAlAs matched to InP by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6916–6920 (1997).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

D. J. Mowbray, O. P. Kowalski, M. Hopkinson, M. S. Skolnick, and J. P. R. David, “Electronic band structure of AlGaInP grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 213–215 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

Y. Kaneko and K. Kishino, “Refractive indices measurement of (GaInP)m/(AlInP)n quasi-quaternaries and GaInP/AlInP multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1809–1818 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J. Rennie, M. Okajima, M. Watanabe, and G. Hatakoshi, “High temperature (74°C) cw operation of 634 nm InGaAlP laser diodes utilizing a multiple quantum barrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1857–1862 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

H. Sugawara, K. Itaya, H. Nozaki, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-brightness InGaAlP green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1775–1777 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (3)

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

R. M. Fletcher, C. P. Kao, T. D. Osentowski, K. H. Huang, M. G. Graford, and V. M. Robbins, “The growth and properties of high performance AlGaInP emitters using a lattice mismatched GaP window layer,” J. Electron. Mater. 20, 1125–1130 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. Blood, A. I. Kucharska, J. P. Jacobs, and K. Griffiths, “Measurement and calculation of spontaneous recombination current and optical gain in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1144–1156 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V.M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

P. Zhou, H. X. Jiang, R. Bannwart, S. A. Solin, and G. Bai, “Excitonic transitions in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells affected by interface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 11862–11867 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

P. Blood, E. D. Fletcher, P. J. Hulyer, and P. M. Smowton, “Emission wavelength of AlGaAs-GaAs multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1111–1113 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

M. Honda, M. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Kaneko, and N. Watanabe, “The energy of Zn and Se in (AlxGa1-x)0.52In0.48P,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L187–L189 (1985).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, and F. R. Merritt, “Absorption, emission and gain spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP quaternary lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  QE-19, 941–946 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

C. Weisbuch, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Optical characterization of interface disorder in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs multi-quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun.  38, 709–712 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and F. R. Merritt, “Measurement of gain and absorption spectra in AlGaAs buried heterostructure lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3042–3050 (1980).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

H. C. Casey and F. Stern, “Concentration-dependent absorption and spontaneous emission on heavily doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 631 (1976).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

P. Lawaetz, “Valence-band parameters in cubic semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3460 (1971).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

G. Lasher and F. Stern, “Spontaneous and stimulated recombination radiation in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 113, A553 (1964).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

E. O. Kane, “Band structure of indium antimonide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 1, 249 (1957).
[Crossref]

Adams, A. R.

A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, R.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421, 241–245 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bai, G.

P. Zhou, H. X. Jiang, R. Bannwart, S. A. Solin, and G. Bai, “Excitonic transitions in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells affected by interface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 11862–11867 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bannwart, R.

P. Zhou, H. X. Jiang, R. Bannwart, S. A. Solin, and G. Bai, “Excitonic transitions in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells affected by interface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 11862–11867 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bland, S.

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, G. Jones, and S. Bland, “Measurement of transverse electric and transverse magnetic spontaneous emission and gain in tensile strained GaInP laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3488–3490 (2002).
[Crossref]

Blood, P.

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, G. Jones, and S. Bland, “Measurement of transverse electric and transverse magnetic spontaneous emission and gain in tensile strained GaInP laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3488–3490 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, and P. Blood, “Measurement of true spontaneous emission spectra from the facet of diode laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1–3 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. D. Summers, J. D. Thomson, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermodynamic balance in quantum dot lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 140–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Blood, A. I. Kucharska, J. P. Jacobs, and K. Griffiths, “Measurement and calculation of spontaneous recombination current and optical gain in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1144–1156 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. Blood, E. D. Fletcher, P. J. Hulyer, and P. M. Smowton, “Emission wavelength of AlGaAs-GaAs multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1111–1113 (1986).
[Crossref]

Burroughs, M, S.

J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
[Crossref]

Camras, M. D.

J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
[Crossref]

Carter-Coman, C.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Casey, H. C.

H. C. Casey and F. Stern, “Concentration-dependent absorption and spontaneous emission on heavily doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 631 (1976).
[Crossref]

Chang, P. H.

P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, E. I.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
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Chen, N. C.

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N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. Y. Tseng, and Y. K. Yang, “Determination of junction temperature in AlGaInP/GaAs light emitting diodes by self-excited photoluminescence signal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101114 (2006).
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P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
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Chua, S. J.

L. P. Lee and S. J. Chua, “Analysis and design of AlGaInP single-quantum-well LED,” Proc. SPIE 3896, 155–162 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, New York, 1995), Chap. 9.

Chui, H. C.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Coleman, J. J.

J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
[Crossref]

Collins, D.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
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Cornet, A.

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Crafold, M. G.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Craford, M. G.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V.M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Dapkus, P. D.

J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
[Crossref]

David, J. P. R.

D. J. Mowbray, O. P. Kowalski, M. Hopkinson, M. S. Skolnick, and J. P. R. David, “Electronic band structure of AlGaInP grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 213–215 (1994).
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DeFevere, D. C.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
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Deguchi, K.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1084–L1086 (2006).
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Dekker, J.

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
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C. Weisbuch, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Optical characterization of interface disorder in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs multi-quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun.  38, 709–712 (1981).
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Duan, X.

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M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
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Dunstan, D. J.

A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
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P. Blood, E. D. Fletcher, P. J. Hulyer, and P. M. Smowton, “Emission wavelength of AlGaAs-GaAs multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1111–1113 (1986).
[Crossref]

Fletcher, R. M.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. M. Fletcher, C. P. Kao, T. D. Osentowski, K. H. Huang, M. G. Graford, and V. M. Robbins, “The growth and properties of high performance AlGaInP emitters using a lattice mismatched GaP window layer,” J. Electron. Mater. 20, 1125–1130 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V.M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Gardner, N. F.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
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Gasiorowicz, S.

S. Gasiorowicz, Quantum Physics, 3rd edition (Wiley, Hoboken, 2003), Chap. 17.

Gossard, A. C.

C. Weisbuch, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Optical characterization of interface disorder in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs multi-quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun.  38, 709–712 (1981).
[Crossref]

Graford, M. G.

R. M. Fletcher, C. P. Kao, T. D. Osentowski, K. H. Huang, M. G. Graford, and V. M. Robbins, “The growth and properties of high performance AlGaInP emitters using a lattice mismatched GaP window layer,” J. Electron. Mater. 20, 1125–1130 (1991).
[Crossref]

Griffiths, K.

P. Blood, A. I. Kucharska, J. P. Jacobs, and K. Griffiths, “Measurement and calculation of spontaneous recombination current and optical gain in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1144–1156 (1991).
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Grillot, P.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hatakoshi, G.

J. Rennie, M. Okajima, M. Watanabe, and G. Hatakoshi, “High temperature (74°C) cw operation of 634 nm InGaAlP laser diodes utilizing a multiple quantum barrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1857–1862 (1993).
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H. Sugawara, K. Itaya, H. Nozaki, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-brightness InGaAlP green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1775–1777 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010–1012 (1991).
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Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, and F. R. Merritt, “Absorption, emission and gain spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP quaternary lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  QE-19, 941–946 (1983).
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C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and F. R. Merritt, “Measurement of gain and absorption spectra in AlGaAs buried heterostructure lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3042–3050 (1980).
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Hess, K.

J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
[Crossref]

Höfler, G. E.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Holonyak, N.

J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
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Honda, M.

M. Honda, M. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Kaneko, and N. Watanabe, “The energy of Zn and Se in (AlxGa1-x)0.52In0.48P,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L187–L189 (1985).
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Hopkinson, M.

H. D. Summers, J. D. Thomson, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermodynamic balance in quantum dot lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 140–143 (2001).
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D. J. Mowbray, O. P. Kowalski, M. Hopkinson, M. S. Skolnick, and J. P. R. David, “Electronic band structure of AlGaInP grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 213–215 (1994).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.-W.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, J-W.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Huang, K. H.

K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. M. Fletcher, C. P. Kao, T. D. Osentowski, K. H. Huang, M. G. Graford, and V. M. Robbins, “The growth and properties of high performance AlGaInP emitters using a lattice mismatched GaP window layer,” J. Electron. Mater. 20, 1125–1130 (1991).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421, 241–245 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hueschen, M.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hueschen, M. R.

D. Patel, J. M. Pikal, C. S. Menoni, K. J. Thomas, F. A. Kish, and M. R. Hueschen, “Effect of indirect minima carrier population on the output characteristics of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3201–3203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hulyer, P. J.

P. Blood, E. D. Fletcher, P. J. Hulyer, and P. M. Smowton, “Emission wavelength of AlGaAs-GaAs multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1111–1113 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ikeda, M.

M. Honda, M. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Kaneko, and N. Watanabe, “The energy of Zn and Se in (AlxGa1-x)0.52In0.48P,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L187–L189 (1985).
[Crossref]

Ishikawa, M.

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

Itaya, K.

H. Sugawara, K. Itaya, H. Nozaki, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-brightness InGaAlP green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1775–1777 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, J. P.

P. Blood, A. I. Kucharska, J. P. Jacobs, and K. Griffiths, “Measurement and calculation of spontaneous recombination current and optical gain in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1144–1156 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

P. Zhou, H. X. Jiang, R. Bannwart, S. A. Solin, and G. Bai, “Excitonic transitions in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells affected by interface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 11862–11867 (1989).
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Jones, G.

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, G. Jones, and S. Bland, “Measurement of transverse electric and transverse magnetic spontaneous emission and gain in tensile strained GaInP laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3488–3490 (2002).
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Kaneko, K.

M. Honda, M. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Kaneko, and N. Watanabe, “The energy of Zn and Se in (AlxGa1-x)0.52In0.48P,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L187–L189 (1985).
[Crossref]

Kaneko, Y.

Y. Kaneko and K. Kishino, “Refractive indices measurement of (GaInP)m/(AlInP)n quasi-quaternaries and GaInP/AlInP multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1809–1818 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kao, C. P.

R. M. Fletcher, C. P. Kao, T. D. Osentowski, K. H. Huang, M. G. Graford, and V. M. Robbins, “The growth and properties of high performance AlGaInP emitters using a lattice mismatched GaP window layer,” J. Electron. Mater. 20, 1125–1130 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kish, F. A.

D. Patel, J. M. Pikal, C. S. Menoni, K. J. Thomas, F. A. Kish, and M. R. Hueschen, “Effect of indirect minima carrier population on the output characteristics of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3201–3203 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kishino, K.

Y. Kaneko and K. Kishino, “Refractive indices measurement of (GaInP)m/(AlInP)n quasi-quaternaries and GaInP/AlInP multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1809–1818 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kocot, C. P.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Kowalski, O. P.

D. J. Mowbray, O. P. Kowalski, M. Hopkinson, M. S. Skolnick, and J. P. R. David, “Electronic band structure of AlGaInP grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 213–215 (1994).
[Crossref]

Krames, M. R.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
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H. Kroemer, Quantum Mechanics: for Engineering, Materials Science, and Applied Physics (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1994), Chap. 17.

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F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
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K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V.M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937–2939 (1990).
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J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
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C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V.M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937–2939 (1990).
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G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, G. Jones, and S. Bland, “Measurement of transverse electric and transverse magnetic spontaneous emission and gain in tensile strained GaInP laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3488–3490 (2002).
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G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, and P. Blood, “Measurement of true spontaneous emission spectra from the facet of diode laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1–3 (2002).
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Liao, A. S. H.

K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
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Lieber, C. M.

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421, 241–245 (2003).
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N. C. Chen, Y. K. Yang, W. C. Lien, and C. Y. Tseng, “Forward current-voltage characteristics of an AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043706 (2007).
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C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, and F. R. Merritt, “Absorption, emission and gain spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP quaternary lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  QE-19, 941–946 (1983).
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C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and F. R. Merritt, “Measurement of gain and absorption spectra in AlGaAs buried heterostructure lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3042–3050 (1980).
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Loh, B.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
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Low, T. S.

J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
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Meney, A. T.

A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
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Menoni, C. S.

D. Patel, J. M. Pikal, C. S. Menoni, K. J. Thomas, F. A. Kish, and M. R. Hueschen, “Effect of indirect minima carrier population on the output characteristics of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3201–3203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Merritt, F. R.

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, and F. R. Merritt, “Absorption, emission and gain spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP quaternary lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  QE-19, 941–946 (1983).
[Crossref]

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and F. R. Merritt, “Measurement of gain and absorption spectra in AlGaAs buried heterostructure lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3042–3050 (1980).
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Miguel, M. L.

P. Roura, M. L. Miguel, A. Cornet, and J. R. Morante, “Determination of the direct band-gap energy of InAlAs matched to InP by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6916–6920 (1997).
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Moll, N.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
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Morante, J. R.

P. Roura, M. L. Miguel, A. Cornet, and J. R. Morante, “Determination of the direct band-gap energy of InAlAs matched to InP by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6916–6920 (1997).
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M. Honda, M. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Kaneko, and N. Watanabe, “The energy of Zn and Se in (AlxGa1-x)0.52In0.48P,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L187–L189 (1985).
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Mowbray, D. J.

D. J. Mowbray, O. P. Kowalski, M. Hopkinson, M. S. Skolnick, and J. P. R. David, “Electronic band structure of AlGaInP grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 213–215 (1994).
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Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1084–L1086 (2006).
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Narita, J.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1084–L1086 (2006).
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Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1084–L1086 (2006).
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Neamen, D. A.

D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices, 3rd edition (McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2003), Chap. 4.

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H. Sugawara, K. Itaya, H. Nozaki, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-brightness InGaAlP green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1775–1777 (1992).
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A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
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Ochiai-Holcomb, M.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
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Okajima, M.

J. Rennie, M. Okajima, M. Watanabe, and G. Hatakoshi, “High temperature (74°C) cw operation of 634 nm InGaAlP laser diodes utilizing a multiple quantum barrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1857–1862 (1993).
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Orsila, S.

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
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Osentowski, T. D.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. M. Fletcher, C. P. Kao, T. D. Osentowski, K. H. Huang, M. G. Graford, and V. M. Robbins, “The growth and properties of high performance AlGaInP emitters using a lattice mismatched GaP window layer,” J. Electron. Mater. 20, 1125–1130 (1991).
[Crossref]

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V.M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Park, K. G.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

Patel, D.

D. Patel, J. M. Pikal, C. S. Menoni, K. J. Thomas, F. A. Kish, and M. R. Hueschen, “Effect of indirect minima carrier population on the output characteristics of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3201–3203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peanasky, M. J.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

Pessa, M.

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
[Crossref]

Phillips, A. F.

A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pikal, J. M.

D. Patel, J. M. Pikal, C. S. Menoni, K. J. Thomas, F. A. Kish, and M. R. Hueschen, “Effect of indirect minima carrier population on the output characteristics of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3201–3203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Posselt, J.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Prins, A. D.

A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rennie, J.

J. Rennie, M. Okajima, M. Watanabe, and G. Hatakoshi, “High temperature (74°C) cw operation of 634 nm InGaAlP laser diodes utilizing a multiple quantum barrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1857–1862 (1993).
[Crossref]

Robbins, V. M.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. M. Fletcher, C. P. Kao, T. D. Osentowski, K. H. Huang, M. G. Graford, and V. M. Robbins, “The growth and properties of high performance AlGaInP emitters using a lattice mismatched GaP window layer,” J. Electron. Mater. 20, 1125–1130 (1991).
[Crossref]

Robbins, V.M.

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V.M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

Roura, P.

P. Roura, M. L. Miguel, A. Cornet, and J. R. Morante, “Determination of the direct band-gap energy of InAlAs matched to InP by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6916–6920 (1997).
[Crossref]

Saarinen, M.

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1084–L1086 (2006).
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Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 15.
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Sasser, G.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Savolainen, P.

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
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Schubert, E. F.

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge, Cambridge, 2003), Chap. 3.

Shih, C. F.

P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
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Sipilä, P.

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
[Crossref]

Skolnick, M. S.

D. J. Mowbray, O. P. Kowalski, M. Hopkinson, M. S. Skolnick, and J. P. R. David, “Electronic band structure of AlGaInP grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 213–215 (1994).
[Crossref]

Sly, J. L.

A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
[Crossref]

Smowton, P. M.

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, G. Jones, and S. Bland, “Measurement of transverse electric and transverse magnetic spontaneous emission and gain in tensile strained GaInP laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3488–3490 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, and P. Blood, “Measurement of true spontaneous emission spectra from the facet of diode laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1–3 (2002).
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H. D. Summers, J. D. Thomson, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermodynamic balance in quantum dot lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 140–143 (2001).
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Steigerwald, D. A.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
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H. C. Casey and F. Stern, “Concentration-dependent absorption and spontaneous emission on heavily doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 631 (1976).
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G. Lasher and F. Stern, “Spontaneous and stimulated recombination radiation in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 113, A553 (1964).
[Crossref]

Stinson, L. J.

K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stockman, S. A.

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sugawara, H.

H. Sugawara, K. Itaya, H. Nozaki, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-brightness InGaAlP green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1775–1777 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

Summers, H. D.

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, and P. Blood, “Measurement of true spontaneous emission spectra from the facet of diode laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1–3 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. D. Summers, J. D. Thomson, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermodynamic balance in quantum dot lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 140–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tan, I.-H.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tan, T. S.

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 15.
[Crossref]

Temkin, H.

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, and F. R. Merritt, “Absorption, emission and gain spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP quaternary lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  QE-19, 941–946 (1983).
[Crossref]

Thomas, K. J.

D. Patel, J. M. Pikal, C. S. Menoni, K. J. Thomas, F. A. Kish, and M. R. Hueschen, “Effect of indirect minima carrier population on the output characteristics of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3201–3203 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thomson, J. D.

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, and P. Blood, “Measurement of true spontaneous emission spectra from the facet of diode laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1–3 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. D. Summers, J. D. Thomson, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermodynamic balance in quantum dot lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 140–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tseng, C. Y.

N. C. Chen, Y. K. Yang, W. C. Lien, and C. Y. Tseng, “Forward current-voltage characteristics of an AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043706 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. Y. Tseng, and Y. K. Yang, “Determination of junction temperature in AlGaInP/GaAs light emitting diodes by self-excited photoluminescence signal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tukiainen, A.

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tzou, Y. H.

P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Valster, A.

A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
[Crossref]

Vanderwater, D. A.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. J.

P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. N.

N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. Y. Tseng, and Y. K. Yang, “Determination of junction temperature in AlGaInP/GaAs light emitting diodes by self-excited photoluminescence signal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101114 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

J. Rennie, M. Okajima, M. Watanabe, and G. Hatakoshi, “High temperature (74°C) cw operation of 634 nm InGaAlP laser diodes utilizing a multiple quantum barrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1857–1862 (1993).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, N.

M. Honda, M. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Kaneko, and N. Watanabe, “The energy of Zn and Se in (AlxGa1-x)0.52In0.48P,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L187–L189 (1985).
[Crossref]

Weisbuch, C.

C. Weisbuch, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Optical characterization of interface disorder in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs multi-quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun.  38, 709–712 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wiegmann, W.

C. Weisbuch, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Optical characterization of interface disorder in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs multi-quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun.  38, 709–712 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wu, M. H.

P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yamada, T.

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1084–L1086 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, T. H.

P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. K.

N. C. Chen, Y. K. Yang, W. C. Lien, and C. Y. Tseng, “Forward current-voltage characteristics of an AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043706 (2007).
[Crossref]

N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. Y. Tseng, and Y. K. Yang, “Determination of junction temperature in AlGaInP/GaAs light emitting diodes by self-excited photoluminescence signal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101114 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. G.

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

P. Zhou, H. X. Jiang, R. Bannwart, S. A. Solin, and G. Bai, “Excitonic transitions in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells affected by interface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 11862–11867 (1989).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (13)

D. J. Mowbray, O. P. Kowalski, M. Hopkinson, M. S. Skolnick, and J. P. R. David, “Electronic band structure of AlGaInP grown by solid-source molecular-beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 213–215 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. Patel, J. M. Pikal, C. S. Menoni, K. J. Thomas, F. A. Kish, and M. R. Hueschen, “Effect of indirect minima carrier population on the output characteristics of AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3201–3203 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Sugawara, M. Ishikawa, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-efficiency InGaAlP/GaAs visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1010–1012 (1991).
[Crossref]

H. Sugawara, K. Itaya, H. Nozaki, and G. Hatakoshi, “High-brightness InGaAlP green light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1775–1777 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. H. Huang, J. G. Yu, C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, L. J. Stinson, M. G. Craford, and A. S. H. Liao, “Twofold efficiency improvement in high performance AlGaInP light-emitting diodes in the 555–620 nm spectral region using a thick GaP window layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1045–1047 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. A. Kish, F. M. Steranka, D. C. DeFevere, D. A. Vanderwater, K. G. Park, C. P. Kuo, T. D. Osentowski, M. J. Peanasky, J. G. Yu, R. M. Fletcher, D. A. Steigerwald, M. G. Craford, and V. M. Robbins, “Very high-efficiency semiconductor wafer-bonded transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2839–2841 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, E. I. Chen, M. R. Krames, J-W. Huang, F. A. Kish, S. A. Stockman, C. P. Kocot, T. S. Tan, and N. Moll, “1.4× efficiency improvement in transparent-substrate (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P light-emitting diodes with thin (≤2000 A) active regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2230–2232 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. P. Kuo, R. M. Fletcher, T. D. Osentowski, M. C. Lardizabal, M. G. Craford, and V.M. Robbins, “High performance AlGaInP visible light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2937–2939 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. R. Krames, M. Ochiai-Holcomb, G. E. Höfler, C. Carter-Coman, E. I. Chen, I.-H. Tan, P. Grillot, N. F. Gardner, H. C. Chui, J.-W. Huang, S. A. Stockman, F. A. Kish, M. G. Crafold, T. S. Tan, C. P. Kocot, M. Hueschen, J. Posselt, B. Loh, G. Sasser, and D. Collins, “High-power truncated-inverted-pyramid (AlxGa1-x)0.5In0.5P/GaAs light-emitting diodes exhibiting >50% external quantum efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2365–2367 (1999).
[Crossref]

N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. Y. Tseng, and Y. K. Yang, “Determination of junction temperature in AlGaInP/GaAs light emitting diodes by self-excited photoluminescence signal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 101114 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, G. Jones, and S. Bland, “Measurement of transverse electric and transverse magnetic spontaneous emission and gain in tensile strained GaInP laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 3488–3490 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Blood, E. D. Fletcher, P. J. Hulyer, and P. M. Smowton, “Emission wavelength of AlGaAs-GaAs multiple quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 1111–1113 (1986).
[Crossref]

G. M. Lewis, P. M. Smowton, J. D. Thomson, H. D. Summers, and P. Blood, “Measurement of true spontaneous emission spectra from the facet of diode laser structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 1–3 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron (1)

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, H. Temkin, and F. R. Merritt, “Absorption, emission and gain spectra of 1.3 µm InGaAsP quaternary lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.  QE-19, 941–946 (1983).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Rennie, M. Okajima, M. Watanabe, and G. Hatakoshi, “High temperature (74°C) cw operation of 634 nm InGaAlP laser diodes utilizing a multiple quantum barrier,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1857–1862 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. T. Meney, A. D. Prins, A. F. Phillips, J. L. Sly, E. P. O’Reilly, D. J. Dunstan, A. R. Adams, and A. Valster, “Determination of the band structure of disordered AlGaInP and its influence on visible-laser characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 697–706 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (8)

P. Blood, A. I. Kucharska, J. P. Jacobs, and K. Griffiths, “Measurement and calculation of spontaneous recombination current and optical gain in GaAs-AlGaAs quantum-well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 1144–1156 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. J. Coleman, P. D. Dapkus, M. D. Camras, N. Holonyak, W. D. Laidig, T. S. Low, M, S. Burroughs, and K. Hess, “Absorption, stimulated emission, and clustering in AlAs-AlxGa1-xAs-GaAs superlattices,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7291–7295 (1981).
[Crossref]

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and F. R. Merritt, “Measurement of gain and absorption spectra in AlGaAs buried heterostructure lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 51, 3042–3050 (1980).
[Crossref]

Y. Kaneko and K. Kishino, “Refractive indices measurement of (GaInP)m/(AlInP)n quasi-quaternaries and GaInP/AlInP multiple quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1809–1818 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. C. Chen, Y. K. Yang, W. C. Lien, and C. Y. Tseng, “Forward current-voltage characteristics of an AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 043706 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. C. Casey and F. Stern, “Concentration-dependent absorption and spontaneous emission on heavily doped GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 47, 631 (1976).
[Crossref]

P. Roura, M. L. Miguel, A. Cornet, and J. R. Morante, “Determination of the direct band-gap energy of InAlAs matched to InP by photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 6916–6920 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Guina, J. Dekker, A. Tukiainen, S. Orsila, M. Saarinen, M. Dumitrescu, P. Sipilä, P. Savolainen, and M. Pessa, “Influence of deep level impurities on modulation response of InGaP light emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 1151–1155 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

R. M. Fletcher, C. P. Kao, T. D. Osentowski, K. H. Huang, M. G. Graford, and V. M. Robbins, “The growth and properties of high performance AlGaInP emitters using a lattice mismatched GaP window layer,” J. Electron. Mater. 20, 1125–1130 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

E. O. Kane, “Band structure of indium antimonide,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 1, 249 (1957).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

P. H. Chang, N. C. Chen, Y. N. Wang, C. F. Shih, M. H. Wu, T. H. Yang, Y. H. Tzou, and S. J. Wang, “Light-emitting diodes with nickel substrates fabricated by electroplating,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 23, L22–L24 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y. Narukawa, J. Narita, T. Sakamoto, K. Deguchi, T. Yamada, and T. Mukai, “Ultra-high efficiency white light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45, L1084–L1086 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Honda, M. Ikeda, Y. Mori, K. Kaneko, and N. Watanabe, “The energy of Zn and Se in (AlxGa1-x)0.52In0.48P,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L187–L189 (1985).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

X. Duan, Y. Huang, R. Agarwal, and C. M. Lieber, “Single-nanowire electrically driven lasers,” Nature 421, 241–245 (2003).
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G. Lasher and F. Stern, “Spontaneous and stimulated recombination radiation in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 113, A553 (1964).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Zhou, H. X. Jiang, R. Bannwart, S. A. Solin, and G. Bai, “Excitonic transitions in GaAs-AlxGa1-xAs multiple quantum wells affected by interface roughness,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 11862–11867 (1989).
[Crossref]

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L. P. Lee and S. J. Chua, “Analysis and design of AlGaInP single-quantum-well LED,” Proc. SPIE 3896, 155–162 (1999).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. D. Summers, J. D. Thomson, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, and M. Hopkinson, “Thermodynamic balance in quantum dot lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 16, 140–143 (2001).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun (1)

C. Weisbuch, R. Dingle, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Optical characterization of interface disorder in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs multi-quantum well structures,” Solid State Commun.  38, 709–712 (1981).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics, (Wiley, New York, 1991), Chap. 15.
[Crossref]

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Optoelectronic Devices (Wiley, New York, 1995), Chap. 9.

H. Kroemer, Quantum Mechanics: for Engineering, Materials Science, and Applied Physics (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1994), Chap. 17.

S. Gasiorowicz, Quantum Physics, 3rd edition (Wiley, Hoboken, 2003), Chap. 17.

D. A. Neamen, Semiconductor Physics and Devices, 3rd edition (McGraw-Hill, Boston, 2003), Chap. 4.

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge, Cambridge, 2003), Chap. 3.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Edge image of a working yellow-green chip. (b). Surface image of a working yellow-green chip. (c). Surface and edge emission spectra from yellow-green, amber and red chips at 20mA.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). Solid lines represent the surface emission spectrum of the sample at 20 mA. The dashed line represents the linear regression of the high-energy tail and the dotted line represents the obtained broadened step function. (b). Transverse electric mode edge emission spectrum of the device operated at 20 mA.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Active layer and ray traces. Solid arrows indicate the edge escape cone while dashed arrows indicate the angle of total internal reflection. (b). When the angles of the photons are inside the edge escape cone and exceed 16.6°, the photons can emerge from the GaP layer. As the angles are less than 16.6°, the photons are confined and emerge from the AlGaInP active layer.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Numerical power distributions of guided transverse electric modes in the sample. ΓMQWs and Γw are the fractions of the power that is confined in the MQWs and wells, respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Absorption spectra obtained at various τ r . (b). Dashed-dotted line represents surface emission while other lines represent edge emissions deduced from surface emission for various τ r . Dashed lines: TE0; Dotted lines: TE1; Solid lines: average of TE0 and TE1. (c). Relationship between peak shift and τ r (solid line). The peak intensity (long dashed line) and integrated intensity (short dashed line) decrease with τ r as well.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Peak positions of spontaneous and edge emissions at various temperatures. Inset shows red-shift.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Peak positions of spontaneous and edge emissions at various concentrations. Top x-axis represents the current that results from spontaneous radiative recombination.

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Γ c v = 2 π ϕ v e m 0 2 n r 2 ε 0 ω V e i k · r ε · p op ϕ c 2 δ ( E ci E vf ω )
= e 2 2 m 0 2 n r 2 ε 0 v V ε · u v p op u c 2 δ ( k c k v k ) δ ( E ci E vf h v )
τ r 1 = Γ c v
= e 2 2 m 0 2 n r 2 ε 0 v V ε · u v p op u c 2 δ ( E ci E vf hv )
= e 2 2 m 0 2 n r 2 ε 0 v V ε · u v P op u c 2 ¯ h v = 0 δ ( E ci E vf hv ) V M ( h v ) d h v
= e 2 2 m 0 2 n r 2 ε 0 v 1 3 u v p op u c 2 M ( h v )
= 4 π n r e 2 v 3 ε 0 h m 0 2 C 0 3 u v p op u c 2
r sp ( h v ) = 1 τ r ρ ( h v ) f c ( 1 f v )
r sp ( h v ) = 1 τ r ρ ( h v ) e E f n E f p K T e h v K T
r sp ( h v ) = m r u ( h v E g ) τ r π 2 d e E f n E f p K T e h v K T .
α ( h v ) = n r C 0 B A r sp ( h v ) f v f c f c ( 1 f v ) = n r C 0 B A 1 τ r ρ ( h v ) ( f v f c )
= n r C 0 1 M ( h v ) 1 τ r ρ ( h v ) = n r C 0 h C 0 3 8 π n r 3 v 2 1 τ r m r u ( h v E g ) π 2 d
= m r C 0 2 h 2 n r 2 d τ r u ( h v E g ) ( h v ) 2
r edge ( h v ) = L L 2 0 L r sp ( h v ) e Γ w α ( h v ) x d x = r sp ( h v ) Γ w α ( h v ) L ( 1 e Γ w α ( h v ) L )
u v p op u c 2 = m 0 2 P 2 2 = ( 1 m e * m 0 ) m 0 2 E g 2 m e * E g + Δ E g + 2 3 Δ
τ r 1 = 4 π n r e 2 E g 3 ε 0 h 2 m 0 2 C 0 3 ( 1 m e * m 0 ) m 0 2 E g 2 m e * E g + Δ E g + 2 3 Δ .
R = B n p = B ( n 0 + Δ n ) ( p 0 + Δ p ) R 0 + Δ n τ c
R = E g r sp ( h v ) d h v = 1 τ r 2 ( 2 π n r K T h 2 ) 3 2 e E f n E f p E g K T = 1 τ r N r e E g ( E f n E f n ) K T
B = 1 τ r N r N c N v
B = ( m hh * ) 3 2 B e h h + ( m h * ) 3 2 B e h ( m h h * ) 3 2 + ( m h * ) 3 2 .

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