Abstract

We report a time-resolved fluorescence apparatus utilizing fluorescence upconversion by noncollinear sum frequency generation and two photon absorption as an excitation. Near perfect time-resolution is achieved with 20 fs pulses to give the instrument response of 33 fs (FWHM) over the entire fluorescence wavelength for a 100 µm thick mixing crystal. Through experiments and numerical simulations, it is shown that 40 fs time-resolution can be obtained even for a 580 µm thick mixing crystal at a fluorescence wavelength longer than 500 nm.

©2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. R. Fleming, Chemical Applications of Ultrafast Spectroscopy, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1986).
  2. M. L. Horng, J. A. Gardecki, A. Papazyan, and M. Maroncelli, “Subpicosecond measurements of polar solvation dynamics: Coumarin 153 revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17311–17337 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. J. Walla, J. Yom, B. P. Krueger, and G. R. Fleming, “Two-photon excitation spectrum of light-harvesting complex II and fluorescence upconversion after one- and two-photon excitation of the carotenoids,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 4799–4806 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. H. Rhee, T. Joo, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Cho, and D. Kim, “Intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfers in donor-acceptor linear porphyrin arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074902 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. C. H. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Kim, S. Y. Park, and T. Joo, “Excited state intramolecular proton transfer dynamics of semi-rigid polyquinoline in solution and polymer film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 450, 302–307 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  6. H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsch, “An optical up-conversion light gate with picosecond resolution,” Opt. Commun. 13, 96–99 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Shah, “Ultrafast luminescence spectroscopy using sum frequency generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276–288 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. A. Kahlow, W. Jarzeba, T. P. DuBruil, and P. F. Barbara, “Ultrafast emission spectroscopy in the ultraviolet by time-gated upconversion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1098–1109 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Rhee and T. Joo, “Noncollinear phase matching in fluorescence upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 30, 96–98 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. L. Zhao, J. Luis Perez Lustres, V. Farztdinov, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy by upconversion with tilted gate pulses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1716–1725 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  11. A. Cannizzo, O. Bram, G. Zgrablic, A. Tortschanoff, A. A. Oskouei, F. van Mourik, and M. Chergui, “Femtosecond fluorescence upconversion setup with broadband detection in the ultraviolet,” Opt. Lett. 32, 3555–3557 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, “Direct measurement of picosecond lifetimes,” Opt. Commun. 1, 254–256 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  13. S. Kinoshita, H. Ozawa, Y. Kanematsu, I. Tanaka, N. Sugimoto, and S. Fujiwara, “Efficient optical Kerr shutter for femtosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3317–3322 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A broadband Kerr shutter for femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 809–814 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  15. S. Arzhantsev and M. Maroncelli, “Design and characterization of a femtosecond fluorescence spectrometer based on optical Kerr gating,” Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 206–220 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. S. Lochbrunner, A. J. Wurzer, and E. Riedle, “Ultrafast excited-state proton transfer and subsequent coherent skeletal motion of 2-(2 ’-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10699–10702 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Ishii, S. Takeuchi, and T. Tahara, “A 40-fs time-resolved absorption study on cis-stilbene in solution: observation of wavepacket motion on the reactive excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 400–406 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, “Short pulse nonlinear frequency conversion without group-velocity-mismatch broadening,” Opt. Commun. 117, 295–302 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  20. P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Generation of tunable 7-fs ultraviolet pulses: achromatic phase matching and chirp management,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1027–1032 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. Jones, W. R. Jackson, C. Choi, and W. R. Bergmark, “Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser-dyes-requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 294–300 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  22. W. T. Pollard, S.-Y. Lee, and R. A. Mathies, “Wave packet theory of dynamic absorption spectra in femtosecond pump--probe experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 4012–4029 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  23. R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, “Femtosecond solvation dynamics of water,” Nature 369, 471–473 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  24. I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump-probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Vibrational frequencies and dephasing times in excited electronic states by femtosecond time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 173, 17–26 (1993).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

C. H. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Kim, S. Y. Park, and T. Joo, “Excited state intramolecular proton transfer dynamics of semi-rigid polyquinoline in solution and polymer film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 450, 302–307 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

H. Rhee, T. Joo, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Cho, and D. Kim, “Intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfers in donor-acceptor linear porphyrin arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

K. Ishii, S. Takeuchi, and T. Tahara, “A 40-fs time-resolved absorption study on cis-stilbene in solution: observation of wavepacket motion on the reactive excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 400–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Generation of tunable 7-fs ultraviolet pulses: achromatic phase matching and chirp management,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1027–1032 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A broadband Kerr shutter for femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 809–814 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

S. Lochbrunner, A. J. Wurzer, and E. Riedle, “Ultrafast excited-state proton transfer and subsequent coherent skeletal motion of 2-(2 ’-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10699–10702 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. Kinoshita, H. Ozawa, Y. Kanematsu, I. Tanaka, N. Sugimoto, and S. Fujiwara, “Efficient optical Kerr shutter for femtosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3317–3322 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. J. Walla, J. Yom, B. P. Krueger, and G. R. Fleming, “Two-photon excitation spectrum of light-harvesting complex II and fluorescence upconversion after one- and two-photon excitation of the carotenoids,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 4799–4806 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

M. L. Horng, J. A. Gardecki, A. Papazyan, and M. Maroncelli, “Subpicosecond measurements of polar solvation dynamics: Coumarin 153 revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17311–17337 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, “Short pulse nonlinear frequency conversion without group-velocity-mismatch broadening,” Opt. Commun. 117, 295–302 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, “Femtosecond solvation dynamics of water,” Nature 369, 471–473 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Vibrational frequencies and dephasing times in excited electronic states by femtosecond time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 173, 17–26 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

W. T. Pollard, S.-Y. Lee, and R. A. Mathies, “Wave packet theory of dynamic absorption spectra in femtosecond pump--probe experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 4012–4029 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (3)

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump-probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Shah, “Ultrafast luminescence spectroscopy using sum frequency generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276–288 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kahlow, W. Jarzeba, T. P. DuBruil, and P. F. Barbara, “Ultrafast emission spectroscopy in the ultraviolet by time-gated upconversion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1098–1109 (1988).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

G. Jones, W. R. Jackson, C. Choi, and W. R. Bergmark, “Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser-dyes-requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 294–300 (1985).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsch, “An optical up-conversion light gate with picosecond resolution,” Opt. Commun. 13, 96–99 (1975).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, “Direct measurement of picosecond lifetimes,” Opt. Commun. 1, 254–256 (1969).
[Crossref]

Albrecht, A. C.

T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Vibrational frequencies and dephasing times in excited electronic states by femtosecond time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 173, 17–26 (1993).
[Crossref]

Aratani, N.

H. Rhee, T. Joo, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Cho, and D. Kim, “Intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfers in donor-acceptor linear porphyrin arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Arzhantsev, S.

Band, Y. B.

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, “Short pulse nonlinear frequency conversion without group-velocity-mismatch broadening,” Opt. Commun. 117, 295–302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Barbara, P. F.

M. A. Kahlow, W. Jarzeba, T. P. DuBruil, and P. F. Barbara, “Ultrafast emission spectroscopy in the ultraviolet by time-gated upconversion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1098–1109 (1988).
[Crossref]

Baum, P.

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Generation of tunable 7-fs ultraviolet pulses: achromatic phase matching and chirp management,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1027–1032 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bergmark, W. R.

G. Jones, W. R. Jackson, C. Choi, and W. R. Bergmark, “Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser-dyes-requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 294–300 (1985).
[Crossref]

Bram, O.

Cannizzo, A.

Chang, D. W.

C. H. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Kim, S. Y. Park, and T. Joo, “Excited state intramolecular proton transfer dynamics of semi-rigid polyquinoline in solution and polymer film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 450, 302–307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chergui, M.

Cho, S.

H. Rhee, T. Joo, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Cho, and D. Kim, “Intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfers in donor-acceptor linear porphyrin arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, C.

G. Jones, W. R. Jackson, C. Choi, and W. R. Bergmark, “Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser-dyes-requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 294–300 (1985).
[Crossref]

DuBruil, T. P.

M. A. Kahlow, W. Jarzeba, T. P. DuBruil, and P. F. Barbara, “Ultrafast emission spectroscopy in the ultraviolet by time-gated upconversion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1098–1109 (1988).
[Crossref]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, “Direct measurement of picosecond lifetimes,” Opt. Commun. 1, 254–256 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ernsting, N. P.

L. Zhao, J. Luis Perez Lustres, V. Farztdinov, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy by upconversion with tilted gate pulses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1716–1725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Farztdinov, V.

L. Zhao, J. Luis Perez Lustres, V. Farztdinov, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy by upconversion with tilted gate pulses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1716–1725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Fleming, G. R.

P. J. Walla, J. Yom, B. P. Krueger, and G. R. Fleming, “Two-photon excitation spectrum of light-harvesting complex II and fluorescence upconversion after one- and two-photon excitation of the carotenoids,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 4799–4806 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, “Femtosecond solvation dynamics of water,” Nature 369, 471–473 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. R. Fleming, Chemical Applications of Ultrafast Spectroscopy, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1986).

Fujiwara, S.

S. Kinoshita, H. Ozawa, Y. Kanematsu, I. Tanaka, N. Sugimoto, and S. Fujiwara, “Efficient optical Kerr shutter for femtosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3317–3322 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gardecki, J. A.

M. L. Horng, J. A. Gardecki, A. Papazyan, and M. Maroncelli, “Subpicosecond measurements of polar solvation dynamics: Coumarin 153 revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17311–17337 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gilch, P.

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A broadband Kerr shutter for femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 809–814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hansen, J. W.

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, “Direct measurement of picosecond lifetimes,” Opt. Commun. 1, 254–256 (1969).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M. D.

H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsch, “An optical up-conversion light gate with picosecond resolution,” Opt. Commun. 13, 96–99 (1975).
[Crossref]

Horng, M. L.

M. L. Horng, J. A. Gardecki, A. Papazyan, and M. Maroncelli, “Subpicosecond measurements of polar solvation dynamics: Coumarin 153 revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17311–17337 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ishii, K.

K. Ishii, S. Takeuchi, and T. Tahara, “A 40-fs time-resolved absorption study on cis-stilbene in solution: observation of wavepacket motion on the reactive excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 400–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jackson, W. R.

G. Jones, W. R. Jackson, C. Choi, and W. R. Bergmark, “Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser-dyes-requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 294–300 (1985).
[Crossref]

Jarzeba, W.

M. A. Kahlow, W. Jarzeba, T. P. DuBruil, and P. F. Barbara, “Ultrafast emission spectroscopy in the ultraviolet by time-gated upconversion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1098–1109 (1988).
[Crossref]

Jimenez, R.

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, “Femtosecond solvation dynamics of water,” Nature 369, 471–473 (1994).
[Crossref]

Jones, G.

G. Jones, W. R. Jackson, C. Choi, and W. R. Bergmark, “Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser-dyes-requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 294–300 (1985).
[Crossref]

Joo, T.

C. H. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Kim, S. Y. Park, and T. Joo, “Excited state intramolecular proton transfer dynamics of semi-rigid polyquinoline in solution and polymer film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 450, 302–307 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Rhee, T. Joo, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Cho, and D. Kim, “Intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfers in donor-acceptor linear porphyrin arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rhee and T. Joo, “Noncollinear phase matching in fluorescence upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 30, 96–98 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Vibrational frequencies and dephasing times in excited electronic states by femtosecond time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 173, 17–26 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kahlow, M. A.

M. A. Kahlow, W. Jarzeba, T. P. DuBruil, and P. F. Barbara, “Ultrafast emission spectroscopy in the ultraviolet by time-gated upconversion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1098–1109 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kanematsu, Y.

S. Kinoshita, H. Ozawa, Y. Kanematsu, I. Tanaka, N. Sugimoto, and S. Fujiwara, “Efficient optical Kerr shutter for femtosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3317–3322 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, C. H.

C. H. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Kim, S. Y. Park, and T. Joo, “Excited state intramolecular proton transfer dynamics of semi-rigid polyquinoline in solution and polymer film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 450, 302–307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

H. Rhee, T. Joo, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Cho, and D. Kim, “Intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfers in donor-acceptor linear porphyrin arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

C. H. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Kim, S. Y. Park, and T. Joo, “Excited state intramolecular proton transfer dynamics of semi-rigid polyquinoline in solution and polymer film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 450, 302–307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kinoshita, S.

S. Kinoshita, H. Ozawa, Y. Kanematsu, I. Tanaka, N. Sugimoto, and S. Fujiwara, “Efficient optical Kerr shutter for femtosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3317–3322 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krasinski, J. S.

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, “Short pulse nonlinear frequency conversion without group-velocity-mismatch broadening,” Opt. Commun. 117, 295–302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Krueger, B. P.

P. J. Walla, J. Yom, B. P. Krueger, and G. R. Fleming, “Two-photon excitation spectrum of light-harvesting complex II and fluorescence upconversion after one- and two-photon excitation of the carotenoids,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 4799–4806 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kumar, P. V.

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, “Femtosecond solvation dynamics of water,” Nature 369, 471–473 (1994).
[Crossref]

Laimgruber, S.

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A broadband Kerr shutter for femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 809–814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-Y.

W. T. Pollard, S.-Y. Lee, and R. A. Mathies, “Wave packet theory of dynamic absorption spectra in femtosecond pump--probe experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 4012–4029 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lochbrunner, S.

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Generation of tunable 7-fs ultraviolet pulses: achromatic phase matching and chirp management,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1027–1032 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Lochbrunner, A. J. Wurzer, and E. Riedle, “Ultrafast excited-state proton transfer and subsequent coherent skeletal motion of 2-(2 ’-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10699–10702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Luis Perez Lustres, J.

L. Zhao, J. Luis Perez Lustres, V. Farztdinov, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy by upconversion with tilted gate pulses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1716–1725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Mahr, H.

H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsch, “An optical up-conversion light gate with picosecond resolution,” Opt. Commun. 13, 96–99 (1975).
[Crossref]

Maroncelli, M.

S. Arzhantsev and M. Maroncelli, “Design and characterization of a femtosecond fluorescence spectrometer based on optical Kerr gating,” Appl. Spectrosc. 59, 206–220 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. L. Horng, J. A. Gardecki, A. Papazyan, and M. Maroncelli, “Subpicosecond measurements of polar solvation dynamics: Coumarin 153 revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17311–17337 (1995).
[Crossref]

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, “Femtosecond solvation dynamics of water,” Nature 369, 471–473 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mathies, R. A.

W. T. Pollard, S.-Y. Lee, and R. A. Mathies, “Wave packet theory of dynamic absorption spectra in femtosecond pump--probe experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 4012–4029 (1990).
[Crossref]

Mitsunaga, M.

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump-probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oskouei, A. A.

Osuka, A.

H. Rhee, T. Joo, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Cho, and D. Kim, “Intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfers in donor-acceptor linear porphyrin arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ozawa, H.

S. Kinoshita, H. Ozawa, Y. Kanematsu, I. Tanaka, N. Sugimoto, and S. Fujiwara, “Efficient optical Kerr shutter for femtosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3317–3322 (2000).
[Crossref]

Papazyan, A.

M. L. Horng, J. A. Gardecki, A. Papazyan, and M. Maroncelli, “Subpicosecond measurements of polar solvation dynamics: Coumarin 153 revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17311–17337 (1995).
[Crossref]

Park, S. Y.

C. H. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Kim, S. Y. Park, and T. Joo, “Excited state intramolecular proton transfer dynamics of semi-rigid polyquinoline in solution and polymer film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 450, 302–307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pearson, G. W.

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, “Short pulse nonlinear frequency conversion without group-velocity-mismatch broadening,” Opt. Commun. 117, 295–302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pollard, W. T.

W. T. Pollard, S.-Y. Lee, and R. A. Mathies, “Wave packet theory of dynamic absorption spectra in femtosecond pump--probe experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 4012–4029 (1990).
[Crossref]

Radzewicz, C.

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, “Short pulse nonlinear frequency conversion without group-velocity-mismatch broadening,” Opt. Commun. 117, 295–302 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rhee, H.

H. Rhee, T. Joo, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Cho, and D. Kim, “Intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfers in donor-acceptor linear porphyrin arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Rhee and T. Joo, “Noncollinear phase matching in fluorescence upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 30, 96–98 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Riedle, E.

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Generation of tunable 7-fs ultraviolet pulses: achromatic phase matching and chirp management,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1027–1032 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Lochbrunner, A. J. Wurzer, and E. Riedle, “Ultrafast excited-state proton transfer and subsequent coherent skeletal motion of 2-(2 ’-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10699–10702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rosker, M. J.

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A broadband Kerr shutter for femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 809–814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shah, J.

J. Shah, “Ultrafast luminescence spectroscopy using sum frequency generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276–288 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sugimoto, N.

S. Kinoshita, H. Ozawa, Y. Kanematsu, I. Tanaka, N. Sugimoto, and S. Fujiwara, “Efficient optical Kerr shutter for femtosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3317–3322 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tahara, T.

K. Ishii, S. Takeuchi, and T. Tahara, “A 40-fs time-resolved absorption study on cis-stilbene in solution: observation of wavepacket motion on the reactive excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 400–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, S.

K. Ishii, S. Takeuchi, and T. Tahara, “A 40-fs time-resolved absorption study on cis-stilbene in solution: observation of wavepacket motion on the reactive excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 400–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, I.

S. Kinoshita, H. Ozawa, Y. Kanematsu, I. Tanaka, N. Sugimoto, and S. Fujiwara, “Efficient optical Kerr shutter for femtosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3317–3322 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. L.

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump-probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tortschanoff, A.

van Mourik, F.

Walla, P. J.

P. J. Walla, J. Yom, B. P. Krueger, and G. R. Fleming, “Two-photon excitation spectrum of light-harvesting complex II and fluorescence upconversion after one- and two-photon excitation of the carotenoids,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 4799–4806 (2000).
[Crossref]

Walmsley, I. A.

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump-probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wurzer, A. J.

S. Lochbrunner, A. J. Wurzer, and E. Riedle, “Ultrafast excited-state proton transfer and subsequent coherent skeletal motion of 2-(2 ’-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10699–10702 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yom, J.

P. J. Walla, J. Yom, B. P. Krueger, and G. R. Fleming, “Two-photon excitation spectrum of light-harvesting complex II and fluorescence upconversion after one- and two-photon excitation of the carotenoids,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 4799–4806 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zgrablic, G.

Zhao, L.

L. Zhao, J. Luis Perez Lustres, V. Farztdinov, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy by upconversion with tilted gate pulses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1716–1725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Zinth, W.

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A broadband Kerr shutter for femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 809–814 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

B. Schmidt, S. Laimgruber, W. Zinth, and P. Gilch, “A broadband Kerr shutter for femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. B 76, 809–814 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, “Generation of tunable 7-fs ultraviolet pulses: achromatic phase matching and chirp management,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 1027–1032 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Chem. Phys. (1)

T. Joo and A. C. Albrecht, “Vibrational frequencies and dephasing times in excited electronic states by femtosecond time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Chem. Phys. 173, 17–26 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Ishii, S. Takeuchi, and T. Tahara, “A 40-fs time-resolved absorption study on cis-stilbene in solution: observation of wavepacket motion on the reactive excited state,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 398, 400–406 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. H. Kim, D. W. Chang, S. Kim, S. Y. Park, and T. Joo, “Excited state intramolecular proton transfer dynamics of semi-rigid polyquinoline in solution and polymer film,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 450, 302–307 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Shah, “Ultrafast luminescence spectroscopy using sum frequency generation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 276–288 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

H. Rhee, T. Joo, N. Aratani, A. Osuka, S. Cho, and D. Kim, “Intramolecular and intermolecular energy transfers in donor-acceptor linear porphyrin arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 125, 074902 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Lochbrunner, A. J. Wurzer, and E. Riedle, “Ultrafast excited-state proton transfer and subsequent coherent skeletal motion of 2-(2 ’-hydroxyphenyl)benzothiazole,” J. Chem. Phys. 112, 10699–10702 (2000).
[Crossref]

W. T. Pollard, S.-Y. Lee, and R. A. Mathies, “Wave packet theory of dynamic absorption spectra in femtosecond pump--probe experiments,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 4012–4029 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

G. Jones, W. R. Jackson, C. Choi, and W. R. Bergmark, “Solvent effects on emission yield and lifetime for coumarin laser-dyes-requirements for a rotatory decay mechanism,” J. Phys. Chem. 89, 294–300 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. L. Horng, J. A. Gardecki, A. Papazyan, and M. Maroncelli, “Subpicosecond measurements of polar solvation dynamics: Coumarin 153 revisited,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17311–17337 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

P. J. Walla, J. Yom, B. P. Krueger, and G. R. Fleming, “Two-photon excitation spectrum of light-harvesting complex II and fluorescence upconversion after one- and two-photon excitation of the carotenoids,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104, 4799–4806 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

R. Jimenez, G. R. Fleming, P. V. Kumar, and M. Maroncelli, “Femtosecond solvation dynamics of water,” Nature 369, 471–473 (1994).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

C. Radzewicz, Y. B. Band, G. W. Pearson, and J. S. Krasinski, “Short pulse nonlinear frequency conversion without group-velocity-mismatch broadening,” Opt. Commun. 117, 295–302 (1995).
[Crossref]

H. Mahr and M. D. Hirsch, “An optical up-conversion light gate with picosecond resolution,” Opt. Commun. 13, 96–99 (1975).
[Crossref]

M. A. Duguay and J. W. Hansen, “Direct measurement of picosecond lifetimes,” Opt. Commun. 1, 254–256 (1969).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

L. Zhao, J. Luis Perez Lustres, V. Farztdinov, and N. P. Ernsting, “Femtosecond fluorescence spectroscopy by upconversion with tilted gate pulses,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 7, 1716–1725 (2005).
[PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

I. A. Walmsley, M. Mitsunaga, and C. L. Tang, “Theory of quantum beats in optical transmission-correlation and pump-probe experiments for a general Raman configuration,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 4681–4689 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. J. Rosker, F. W. Wise, and C. L. Tang, “Femtosecond relaxation dynamics of large molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 321–324 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

S. Kinoshita, H. Ozawa, Y. Kanematsu, I. Tanaka, N. Sugimoto, and S. Fujiwara, “Efficient optical Kerr shutter for femtosecond time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3317–3322 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. A. Kahlow, W. Jarzeba, T. P. DuBruil, and P. F. Barbara, “Ultrafast emission spectroscopy in the ultraviolet by time-gated upconversion,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 1098–1109 (1988).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

G. R. Fleming, Chemical Applications of Ultrafast Spectroscopy, (Oxford University Press, New York, 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of the upconversion setup employing TPA. Frequencies of the two input pulses are the same (λpg=800 nm). Fluorescence (ωf) following the TPA was collected by the Cassegrainian pair and focused onto the BBO crystal.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Cross-correlation measurements by the SFG signals and their Gaussian fitting results: (a) 800 nm+800 nm in a 100 µm crystal, (b) 400 nm+ 800 nm in a 100 µm crystal, (c) 800+800 nm in a 580 µm crystal, and (d) 400 nm+800 nm in a 580 µm crystal. Fitted FWHM of each Gaussian pulse is also shown in each panel.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated width (FWHM) of the cross-correlation of the SFG output in the noncollinear phase matching scheme as a function of the fluorescence wavelength and the external crossing angle. Thicknesses of the BBO crystals are (a) 100 µm and (b) 580 µm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Time-resolved fluorescence of coumarin 153 in methanol. The molecule is excited by the two photon absorption with the 800 nm pulses, and the detection wavelength is 580 nm. Thicknesses of the BBO crystals are (a) 100 µm and (b) 580 µm, respectively. Red solid lines represent the exponential fits. Insets show the Fourier power spectra of the residuals.

Equations (1)

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I SFG ( τ d ) dt dx −L 2 L 2 d y I p ( x , y , t ) I g ( x , y , t τ d ) ,

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