Abstract

We demonstrate the proof-of-concept for surface plasmon resonance sensing and imaging via a virtual probe at the cell-substrate interface of a biological cell in aqueous media. The technique is based on the optical excitation by focused radially polarized beams of localized surface plasmons, which forms a virtual probe on the metal substrate. The intensity distribution at the back focal plane of the objective lens enables quantitative measurements to be made of the cell-substrate contact. The acquired data is then visualized in the form of a local refractive index map.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54,3-15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Measurements of Ultrathin Organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Kano, S. Mizuguchi, and S. Kawata, "Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by a focused laser beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1381-1386 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kano and W. Knoll, "Locally excited surface-plasmon-polaritons for thickness measurement of LBK films," Optic. Commun. 153, 235-239 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Kano and W. Knoll, "A scanning microscope employing localized surface-plasmon-polaritons as a sensing probe," Optic. Commun. 182, 11-15 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Watanabe, N. Horiguchi, and H. Kano, "Optimized measurement probe of the localized surface plasmon microscope by using radially polarized illumination," Appl. Opt. 46, 4985-4990 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "Optical V(z) for high-resolution 2Pi surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 823-825 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "High-Resolution Scanning Surface-Plasmon Microscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 6279-6287 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Zhan, "Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam," Optic. Lett. 31, 1726-1728 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Axelrod, "Cell-Substrate Contacts Illuminated by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence," J. Cell Biol. 89, 141-145 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).
  12. M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Descrovi, V. Paeder, L. Vaccaro, and H. Herzig "A virtual optical probe based on localized Surface Plasmon Polaritons," Opt. Express 13, 7017-7027 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and D. Van Labeke, "Bessel beams as virtual tips for near-field optics, " J. Microsc. 210, 319-323 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, "Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, "Generating radial or azimuthal polarization by axial sampling of circularly polarized vortex beams," Appl. Opt. 46, 7544-7551 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper Focus for a Radially Polarized Light Beam," Physical Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-233901 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. P. Biss, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, "Dark-field imaging with cylindrical-vector beams," Appl. Opt. 45, 470-479 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. A. Stone and J. H. Zimmerman, "Engineering Metrology Toolbox, Index of Refraction of Air" (NIST, 2000), http://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Edlen.asp.

2008 (1)

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

Q. Zhan, "Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam," Optic. Lett. 31, 1726-1728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, "Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Biss, K. S. Youngworth, and T. G. Brown, "Dark-field imaging with cylindrical-vector beams," Appl. Opt. 45, 470-479 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (3)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper Focus for a Radially Polarized Light Beam," Physical Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and D. Van Labeke, "Bessel beams as virtual tips for near-field optics, " J. Microsc. 210, 319-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (4)

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Measurements of Ultrathin Organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano and W. Knoll, "A scanning microscope employing localized surface-plasmon-polaritons as a sensing probe," Optic. Commun. 182, 11-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "Optical V(z) for high-resolution 2Pi surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 823-825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "High-Resolution Scanning Surface-Plasmon Microscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 6279-6287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54,3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

H. Kano and W. Knoll, "Locally excited surface-plasmon-polaritons for thickness measurement of LBK films," Optic. Commun. 153, 235-239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano, S. Mizuguchi, and S. Kawata, "Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by a focused laser beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1381-1386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

D. Axelrod, "Cell-Substrate Contacts Illuminated by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence," J. Cell Biol. 89, 141-145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Axelrod, D.

D. Axelrod, "Cell-Substrate Contacts Illuminated by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence," J. Cell Biol. 89, 141-145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bastmeyer, M.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).

Bechinger, C.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).

Beversluis, M. R.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Biss, D. P.

Bouhelier, A.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Britland, S. T.

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brockman, J. M.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Measurements of Ultrathin Organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Bu, J.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, "Generating radial or azimuthal polarization by axial sampling of circularly polarized vortex beams," Appl. Opt. 46, 7544-7551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, "Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burge, R. E.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, "Generating radial or azimuthal polarization by axial sampling of circularly polarized vortex beams," Appl. Opt. 46, 7544-7551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, "Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corn, R. M.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Measurements of Ultrathin Organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and D. Van Labeke, "Bessel beams as virtual tips for near-field optics, " J. Microsc. 210, 319-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Denyer, M. C. T.

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Descrovi, E.

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper Focus for a Radially Polarized Light Beam," Physical Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B. Z.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54,3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giebel, K.-F.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).

Grosjean, T.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and D. Van Labeke, "Bessel beams as virtual tips for near-field optics, " J. Microsc. 210, 319-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herminghaus, S.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).

Herzig, H.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54,3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horiguchi, N.

Kano, H.

K. Watanabe, N. Horiguchi, and H. Kano, "Optimized measurement probe of the localized surface plasmon microscope by using radially polarized illumination," Appl. Opt. 46, 4985-4990 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano and W. Knoll, "A scanning microscope employing localized surface-plasmon-polaritons as a sensing probe," Optic. Commun. 182, 11-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano, S. Mizuguchi, and S. Kawata, "Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons by a focused laser beam," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1381-1386 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano and W. Knoll, "Locally excited surface-plasmon-polaritons for thickness measurement of LBK films," Optic. Commun. 153, 235-239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

Knoll, W.

H. Kano and W. Knoll, "A scanning microscope employing localized surface-plasmon-polaritons as a sensing probe," Optic. Commun. 182, 11-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano and W. Knoll, "Locally excited surface-plasmon-polaritons for thickness measurement of LBK films," Optic. Commun. 153, 235-239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leiderer, P.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper Focus for a Radially Polarized Light Beam," Physical Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. G.

Low, D. K. Y.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, "Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M.

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mizuguchi, S.

Moh, K. J.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, "Generating radial or azimuthal polarization by axial sampling of circularly polarized vortex beams," Appl. Opt. 46, 7544-7551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, "Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, B. P.

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Measurements of Ultrathin Organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paeder, V.

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper Focus for a Radially Polarized Light Beam," Physical Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Renger, J.

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, M.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).

See, C. W.

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "High-Resolution Scanning Surface-Plasmon Microscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 6279-6287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "Optical V(z) for high-resolution 2Pi surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 823-825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Somekh, M. G.

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "High-Resolution Scanning Surface-Plasmon Microscopy," Appl. Opt. 39, 6279-6287 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Somekh, S. G. Liu, T. S. Velinov, and C. W. See, "Optical V(z) for high-resolution 2Pi surface plasmon microscopy," Opt. Lett. 25, 823-825 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vaccaro, L.

Van Labeke, D.

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and D. Van Labeke, "Bessel beams as virtual tips for near-field optics, " J. Microsc. 210, 319-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Velinov, T. S.

Watanabe, K.

Weiland, U.

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54,3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Youngworth, K. S.

Youseffi, M.

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, X. C.

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, R. E. Burge, and B. Z. Gao, "Generating radial or azimuthal polarization by axial sampling of circularly polarized vortex beams," Appl. Opt. 46, 7544-7551 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, "Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, Q.

Q. Zhan, "Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam," Optic. Lett. 31, 1726-1728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. M. Brockman, B. P. Nelson, and R. M. Corn, "Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Measurements of Ultrathin Organic films," Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 51, 41-63 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. J. Moh, X. C. Yuan, J. Bu, D. K. Y. Low, and R. E. Burge, "Direct noninterference cylindrical vector beam generation applied in the femtosecond regime," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 251114 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

K.-F. Giebel, C. Bechinger, S. Herminghaus, M. Riedel, P. Leiderer, U. Weiland, and M. Bastmeyer, "Imaging of Cell/substrate contacts of living cells with surface Plasmon resonance microscopy," Biophys. J. 76, 509-516 (1999).

J. Cell Biol. (1)

D. Axelrod, "Cell-Substrate Contacts Illuminated by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence," J. Cell Biol. 89, 141-145 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (2)

A. Bouhelier, J. Renger, M. R. Beversluis, and L. Novotny, "Plasmon-coupled tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy," J. Microsc. 210, 220-224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Grosjean, D. Courjon, and D. Van Labeke, "Bessel beams as virtual tips for near-field optics, " J. Microsc. 210, 319-323 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Struct. Biol. (1)

M. Mahadi Abdul Jamil, M. C. T. Denyer, M. Youseffi, S. T. Britland, S. Liu, C. W. See, M. G. Somekh, and J. Zhang, "Imaging of the cell surface interface using objective coupled widefield surface plasmon microscopy," J. Struct. Biol. 164, 75-80 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optic. Commun. (2)

H. Kano and W. Knoll, "Locally excited surface-plasmon-polaritons for thickness measurement of LBK films," Optic. Commun. 153, 235-239 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kano and W. Knoll, "A scanning microscope employing localized surface-plasmon-polaritons as a sensing probe," Optic. Commun. 182, 11-15 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Optic. Lett. (1)

Q. Zhan, "Evanescent Bessel beam generation via surface plasmon resonance excitation by a radially polarized beam," Optic. Lett. 31, 1726-1728 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Physical Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, "Sharper Focus for a Radially Polarized Light Beam," Physical Rev. Lett. 91, 233901-233901 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, "Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review," Sens. Actuators B 54,3-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

J. A. Stone and J. H. Zimmerman, "Engineering Metrology Toolbox, Index of Refraction of Air" (NIST, 2000), http://emtoolbox.nist.gov/Wavelength/Edlen.asp.

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