Abstract

We calculate the limit to which the density of two-dimensional arrays of diffraction limited fiber waveguides can be reduced while maintaining weakly-coupled characteristics. We demonstrate that this density can be experimentally reached in an array of trefoil channels formed by the air holes of a microstructured optical fiber specially designed to meet limiting size and density specifications at λ=1.55µm.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  3. A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. K. Lizé, E. C. Mägi, V. G. Ta'eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Express 12, 3209-3217 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3209.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880.
  10. H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchinson, "Diffraction management," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
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  11. D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, "Discretizing light behavior in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature 424, 817-823 (2003).
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  12. E. J. Bochove, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, "Self-organization in a multicore fiber laser array," Opt. Lett. 28, 1200-1202 (2003).
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  13. P. K. Cheo, A. Liu, and G. G. King, "A high-brightness laser beam from a phase-locked multicore Yb-doped fiber laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 439-441 (2001).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, Ph. Pédeboscq, A. Fleureau, S. Lempereur, and L. Gasca, "Light transmission in multiple or single subwavelength trefoil channels of microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 1193-1201 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-04-1193.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Express 15, 2325 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-2-325.
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. Dupriez, F. Poletti, P. Horak, M. N. Petrovich, Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Efficient white light generation in secondary cores of holey fibers," Opt. Express 15, 3729-3736 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-07-3729.
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    [CrossRef]
  29. J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, A. Fleureau, E. Bourov, and L. Gasca, "Evaluation of a highly non-linear microstructured optical fiber by near-field scanning optical microscopy and simulations: nonlinear coefficient and coupling losses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 73-76 (2005).
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2007

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, "Two-dimensional high-precision fiber waveguide arrays for coherent light propagation," Opt. Express 15, 6894-6899 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-11-6894.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Rosberg, F. H. Bennet, D. N. Neshev, P. D. Rasmussen, O. Bang, W. Krolikowski, A. Bjarklev, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Tunable diffraction and self-defocusing in liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Express 15, 12145-12150 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-19-12145.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Rosberg, D. N. Neshev, A. A. Sukhorukov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. S. Kivshar, "Observation of nonlinear self-trapping in triangular photonic lattices," Opt. Lett. 32, 397-399 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Peleg, G. Bartal, B. Freedman, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Conical diffraction and gap solitons in honeycomb photonic lattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 103901-1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Express 15, 2325 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-2-325.
[CrossRef]

P. Dupriez, F. Poletti, P. Horak, M. N. Petrovich, Y. Jeong, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, "Efficient white light generation in secondary cores of holey fibers," Opt. Express 15, 3729-3736 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-07-3729.
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, N. Y. Joly, A. K. George, W. J. Wadsworth, G. Kakarantzas, and P. StJ. Russell, "Splice-free interfacing of photonic crystal fibers," Opt. Lett. 30, 1629-1631 (2005).

J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, A. Fleureau, E. Bourov, and L. Gasca, "Evaluation of a highly non-linear microstructured optical fiber by near-field scanning optical microscopy and simulations: nonlinear coefficient and coupling losses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 73-76 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Chen, H. Martin, E. D. Eugenieva, and J. Xu, "Formation of discrete solitons in light-induced photonic lattices," Opt. Express 13, 1816-1826 (2005),
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, Ph. Pédeboscq, A. Fleureau, S. Lempereur, and L. Gasca, "Light transmission in multiple or single subwavelength trefoil channels of microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 1193-1201 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-04-1193.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. C. Mägi, H. C. Nguyen, and B. J. Eggleton, "Air-hole collapse and mode transitions in microstructured fiber photonic wires," Opt. Express 13, 453-459 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-02-453.
[CrossRef]

2004

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. Richardson, "Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers," Opt. Express 12, 2258-2263 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-10-2258.
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, "Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions," Opt. Express 12, 2880-2887 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-13-2880.

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. K. Lizé, E. C. Mägi, V. G. Ta'eed, J. A. Bolger, P. Steinvurzel, and B. J. Eggleton, "Microstructured optical fiber photonic wires with subwavelength core diameter," Opt. Express 12, 3209-3217 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-14-3209.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, "Nonlinearity and disorder in fiber arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hu, C. Wang, Y. Li, Z. Wang, L. Chai, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Multiplex frequency conversion of unamplified 30-fs Ti: sapphire laser pulses by an array of waveguiding wires in a random-hole microstructure fiber," Opt. Express 12, 6129-6134 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-25-6129.
[CrossRef]

K. Tajima, J. Zhou, K. Nakajima, and K. Sato, "Ultralow loss and long length photonic crystal fiber," J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 7-10 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, "Discretizing light behavior in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature 424, 817-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Bochove, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, "Self-organization in a multicore fiber laser array," Opt. Lett. 28, 1200-1202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices", Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Zheltikov, "The physical limit for the waveguide enhancement on nonlinear optical processes," Opt. Spectrosc. 95, 410-415 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. St J. Russell, "Photonic crystal fibers," Science 299, 358-362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, "Photonic crystal fibres," Nature 424,847-851 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

P. K. Cheo, A. Liu, and G. G. King, "A high-brightness laser beam from a phase-locked multicore Yb-doped fiber laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 439-441 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchinson, "Diffraction management," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

1984

1973

S. Someck, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, and R. G. Hunsperger, "Channel optical waveguide directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46-47 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965

Aitchinson, J. S.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchinson, "Diffraction management," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apetrei, A. M.

A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, Ph. Pédeboscq, A. Fleureau, S. Lempereur, and L. Gasca, "Light transmission in multiple or single subwavelength trefoil channels of microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 1193-1201 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-04-1193.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, A. Fleureau, E. Bourov, and L. Gasca, "Evaluation of a highly non-linear microstructured optical fiber by near-field scanning optical microscopy and simulations: nonlinear coefficient and coupling losses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 73-76 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bang, O.

Bartal, G.

O. Peleg, G. Bartal, B. Freedman, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Conical diffraction and gap solitons in honeycomb photonic lattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 103901-1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartelt, H.

U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, "Two-dimensional high-precision fiber waveguide arrays for coherent light propagation," Opt. Express 15, 6894-6899 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-11-6894.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, "Nonlinearity and disorder in fiber arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benabid, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Express 15, 2325 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-2-325.
[CrossRef]

Bennet, F. H.

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Bochove, E. J.

Bolger, J. A.

Bourov, E.

J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, A. Fleureau, E. Bourov, and L. Gasca, "Evaluation of a highly non-linear microstructured optical fiber by near-field scanning optical microscopy and simulations: nonlinear coefficient and coupling losses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 73-76 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, G.

Burghoff, J.

Burnett, M. T.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Express 15, 2325 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-2-325.
[CrossRef]

Chai, L.

Chen, Z.

Cheo, P. K.

E. J. Bochove, P. K. Cheo, and G. G. King, "Self-organization in a multicore fiber laser array," Opt. Lett. 28, 1200-1202 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Cheo, A. Liu, and G. G. King, "A high-brightness laser beam from a phase-locked multicore Yb-doped fiber laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 439-441 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Christodoulides, D. N.

O. Peleg, G. Bartal, B. Freedman, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Conical diffraction and gap solitons in honeycomb photonic lattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 103901-1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices", Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, "Discretizing light behavior in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature 424, 817-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Couny, F.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Express 15, 2325 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-2-325.
[CrossRef]

Cucinotta, A.

A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

Dukel’skii, K. V.

A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dupriez, P.

Efremidis, N. K.

J. W. Fleischer, M. Segev, N. K. Efremidis, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Observation of two-dimensional discrete solitons in optically induced nonlinear photonic lattices", Nature 422, 147-150 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

Eisenberg, H. S.

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J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, Ph. Pédeboscq, A. Fleureau, S. Lempereur, and L. Gasca, "Light transmission in multiple or single subwavelength trefoil channels of microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 1193-1201 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-04-1193.
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A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
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J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, Ph. Pédeboscq, A. Fleureau, S. Lempereur, and L. Gasca, "Light transmission in multiple or single subwavelength trefoil channels of microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 1193-1201 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-04-1193.
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A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
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A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
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A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
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J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, Ph. Pédeboscq, A. Fleureau, S. Lempereur, and L. Gasca, "Light transmission in multiple or single subwavelength trefoil channels of microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 1193-1201 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-04-1193.
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J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, A. Fleureau, E. Bourov, and L. Gasca, "Evaluation of a highly non-linear microstructured optical fiber by near-field scanning optical microscopy and simulations: nonlinear coefficient and coupling losses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 73-76 (2005).
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Levenson, J. A.

J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, Ph. Pédeboscq, A. Fleureau, S. Lempereur, and L. Gasca, "Light transmission in multiple or single subwavelength trefoil channels of microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 1193-1201 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-04-1193.
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J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, A. Fleureau, E. Bourov, and L. Gasca, "Evaluation of a highly non-linear microstructured optical fiber by near-field scanning optical microscopy and simulations: nonlinear coefficient and coupling losses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 73-76 (2005).
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P. K. Cheo, A. Liu, and G. G. King, "A high-brightness laser beam from a phase-locked multicore Yb-doped fiber laser array," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 439-441 (2001).
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Lou, J.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
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Maier, S. A.

F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Express 15, 2325 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-2-325.
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O. Peleg, G. Bartal, B. Freedman, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Conical diffraction and gap solitons in honeycomb photonic lattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 103901-1-4 (2007).
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Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
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L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
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J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, Ph. Pédeboscq, A. Fleureau, S. Lempereur, and L. Gasca, "Light transmission in multiple or single subwavelength trefoil channels of microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 1193-1201 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-04-1193.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, A. Fleureau, E. Bourov, and L. Gasca, "Evaluation of a highly non-linear microstructured optical fiber by near-field scanning optical microscopy and simulations: nonlinear coefficient and coupling losses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 73-76 (2005).
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J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, S. Lempereur, A. Fleureau, E. Bourov, and L. Gasca, "Evaluation of a highly non-linear microstructured optical fiber by near-field scanning optical microscopy and simulations: nonlinear coefficient and coupling losses," Appl. Phys. B 80, 73-76 (2005).
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J. M. Moison, A. M. Apetrei, J. A. Levenson, G. Mélin, Ph. Pédeboscq, A. Fleureau, S. Lempereur, and L. Gasca, "Light transmission in multiple or single subwavelength trefoil channels of microstructured fibers," Opt. Express 13, 1193-1201 (2005), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-13-04-1193.
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, "Nonlinearity and disorder in fiber arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901-1-4 (2004).
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Pédeboscq, Ph.

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O. Peleg, G. Bartal, B. Freedman, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Conical diffraction and gap solitons in honeycomb photonic lattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 103901-1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, "Nonlinearity and disorder in fiber arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901-1-4 (2004).
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T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, "Nonlinearity and disorder in fiber arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901-1-4 (2004).
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T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
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A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
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F. Couny, F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, M. T. Burnett, and S. A. Maier, "Identification of Bloch-modes in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber cladding," Opt. Express 15, 2325 (2007), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-2-325.
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U. Röpke, H. Bartelt, S. Unger, K. Schuster, and J. Kobelke, "Two-dimensional high-precision fiber waveguide arrays for coherent light propagation," Opt. Express 15, 6894-6899 (2007). http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-15-11-6894.
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T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, "Nonlinearity and disorder in fiber arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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O. Peleg, G. Bartal, B. Freedman, O. Manela, M. Segev, and D. N. Christodoulides, "Conical diffraction and gap solitons in honeycomb photonic lattices," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 103901-1-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
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A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
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Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
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A. M. Apetrei, J. M. Moison, J. A. Levenson, M. Foroni, F. Poli, A. Cucinotta, S. Selleri, M. Legré, M. Wegmüller, N. Gisin, K. V. Dukel’skii, A. V. Khokhlov, V. S. Shevandin, Yu. N. Kondrat’ev, C. Sibilia, E. E. Serebryannikov, and A. M. Zheltikov," Electromagnetic field confined and tailored with a few air holes in a photonic-crystal fiber," Appl. Phys. B 81, 409-414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, "Discretizing light behavior in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices," Nature 424, 817-823 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchinson, "Diffraction management," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 1863-1866 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Someck, S.

S. Someck, E. Garmire, A. Yariv, H. L. Garvin, and R. G. Hunsperger, "Channel optical waveguide directional couplers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 46-47 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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Steinvurzel, P.

Streifer, W.

Sukhorukov, A. A.

Ta'eed, V. G.

Tajima, K.

Tam, H.

Tong, L.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, H. Bartelt, S. Nolte, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, "Nonlinearity and disorder in fiber arrays," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053901-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, F. Lederer, J. Burghoff, M. Will, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, "Discrete diffraction in two-dimensional arrays of coupled waveguides in silica," Opt. Lett. 29, 468-470 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unger, S.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, C.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Coupling strength vs. channel density for arrays of multicore fibers (green line), trefoil channels of MOFs (red line), and silica rods (blue line); vertical bars correspond to the two polarizations. Dots indicate reported values for multicore fibers [11,12,14] (green), photorefractive patterns [16] (purple) and trefoil channels [this work] (red).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematics of the test MOF fiber. Channels are marked by red triangles.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Cleaved sections of the test fiber: (left) optical microscopy, (right) scanning electron microscopy.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Intensity maps of the output of a 1.3cm-long channel fiber upon light injection in the center channel. In map (b) the hole structure is revealed by an additional white-light illumination of the output face.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(left) overall transmission of setup versus length of channel fiber. (right) loss for various silica waveguides (rods [4], tapered MOFs [5,6], tapered SMFs [0], and trefoil channels [22, this work]) versus waveguide radius in λ/n units. Lines are guides to the eye. The variation of the waist for silica rods [8] is recalled by the black curve.

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