Abstract

An optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) monitoring technique using a cascaded long-period fiber grating with a tunable phase shifter is proposed for non return-to-zero on-off-keying (NRZ-OOK) and differential phase shift keying (DPSK) signals. This method is based on two key points: first, the cascaded long period fiber grating (CLPG) acts as an optical delay interferometer (ODI) by Mach-Zehnder configuration consisting of the core and cladding modes inside the CLPG. Secondly, an optically tunable phase shifter using an Yb3+ doped optical fiber (YDF) is inserted between the CLPG. The phase of the modulated signal propagating along the core mode of YDF is controlled by adjusting pumping power of 976-nm laser diode (LD). By combining the CLPG with the optically tunable phase shifter, the OSNR monitoring could be successfully executed.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. H. Lee, H. Y. Choi, S. K. Shin, and Y. C. Chung, "A review of the polarization-nulling technique for monitoring optical-signal-to-noise ratio in dynamic WDM networks," J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4162-4171 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686 -688 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. D. Feuer, "Measurement of OSNR in the presence of partially polarized ASE," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,435-437 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Xie, D. C. Kilper, L. Möller, and R. Ryf, "Orthogonal-polarization heterodyne OSNR monitoring insensitive to polarization-mode dispersion and nonlinear polarization scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 177-183 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Z. Tao, Z. Chen, L. Fu, D. Wu, and A. Xu, "Monitoring of OSNR by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Microw. and Opt. Technol. Lett. 30, 63-65 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 -1174 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y.-C. Ku, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, "A novel robust OSNR monitoring technique with 40-dB dynamic range using phase modulator embedded fiber loop mirror," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’2006), Anaheim, USA, Paper OWN6 (2006).
  8. T.-Y. Kim, M. Hanawa, Y. Chung, W.-T. Han, and C.-S. Park, "Cascaded long period fibre grating-based DPSK demodulator with optically tunable phase shifter," in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’2007), Berlin, Germany, Paper 9.4.5 (2007).
  9. T. J. Ahn, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "Measurement of refractive index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair," in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC’2000), Chiba, Japan, Tech. Dig., 12P-45, 276-277, (2000).

2007 (2)

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 -1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Xie, D. C. Kilper, L. Möller, and R. Ryf, "Orthogonal-polarization heterodyne OSNR monitoring insensitive to polarization-mode dispersion and nonlinear polarization scattering," J. Lightwave Technol. 25, 177-183 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

M. D. Feuer, "Measurement of OSNR in the presence of partially polarized ASE," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,435-437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686 -688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Z. Tao, Z. Chen, L. Fu, D. Wu, and A. Xu, "Monitoring of OSNR by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Microw. and Opt. Technol. Lett. 30, 63-65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 -1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 -1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekhar, S.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 -1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Z. Tao, Z. Chen, L. Fu, D. Wu, and A. Xu, "Monitoring of OSNR by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Microw. and Opt. Technol. Lett. 30, 63-65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. Y.

Chung, Y. C.

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, "Measurement of OSNR in the presence of partially polarized ASE," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,435-437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Z. Tao, Z. Chen, L. Fu, D. Wu, and A. Xu, "Monitoring of OSNR by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Microw. and Opt. Technol. Lett. 30, 63-65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, I.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 -1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kao, Y.-H.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 -1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686 -688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kilper, D. C.

Lee, J. H.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 -1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Möller, L.

Olsson, B.-E.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686 -688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Petersson, M.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686 -688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

Shin, S. K.

Sunnerud, H.

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686 -688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Z.

Z. Tao, Z. Chen, L. Fu, D. Wu, and A. Xu, "Monitoring of OSNR by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Microw. and Opt. Technol. Lett. 30, 63-65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Z. Tao, Z. Chen, L. Fu, D. Wu, and A. Xu, "Monitoring of OSNR by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Microw. and Opt. Technol. Lett. 30, 63-65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xie, C.

Xu, A.

Z. Tao, Z. Chen, L. Fu, D. Wu, and A. Xu, "Monitoring of OSNR by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Microw. and Opt. Technol. Lett. 30, 63-65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Microw. and Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

Z. Tao, Z. Chen, L. Fu, D. Wu, and A. Xu, "Monitoring of OSNR by using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer," Microw. and Opt. Technol. Lett. 30, 63-65 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

X. Liu, Y.-H. Kao, S. Chandrasekhar, I. Kang, S. Cabot, and L. L. Buhl, "OSNR monitoring method for OOK and DPSK based on optical delay interferometer," Photon. Technol. Lett. 19, 1172 -1174 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Petersson, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and B.-E. Olsson, "Performance monitoring in optical networks using Stokes parameters," Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 686 -688 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feuer, "Measurement of OSNR in the presence of partially polarized ASE," Photon. Technol. Lett. 17,435-437 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Y.-C. Ku, C.-K. Chan, and L.-K. Chen, "A novel robust OSNR monitoring technique with 40-dB dynamic range using phase modulator embedded fiber loop mirror," in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC’2006), Anaheim, USA, Paper OWN6 (2006).

T.-Y. Kim, M. Hanawa, Y. Chung, W.-T. Han, and C.-S. Park, "Cascaded long period fibre grating-based DPSK demodulator with optically tunable phase shifter," in European Conference on Optical Communications (ECOC’2007), Berlin, Germany, Paper 9.4.5 (2007).

T. J. Ahn, B. H. Lee, Y. Chung, U. C. Paek, and W. T. Han, "Measurement of refractive index change upon UV irradiation of optical fiber using a LPG pair," in Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC’2000), Chiba, Japan, Tech. Dig., 12P-45, 276-277, (2000).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram and working principle for OSNR monitoring.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup. TLS: tunable laser source, PC: polarization controller, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, PPG: pulse pattern generator, LPG: long-period fiber grating VOA: variable optical attenuator, BPF: optical bandpass filter, WDM: 980/1550 WDM coupler, OSA: optical spectrum analyzer, ISO: isolator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Spectra for pumping power of 0, 44.62 and 87.04 mW, (b) phase change by pumping power calculated from the wavelength shift.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Measured OSNR and monitoring errors at 1, 2.5, and 10 Gbit/s: (a) OSNR and (b) monitoring error for NRZ-OOK signal, (c) OSNR and (d) monitoring errors for NRZ-DPSK signal.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured OSNR monitoring error induced by PMD for 10 and 20-dB OSNR.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Measured OSNR monitoring error induced by CD for 10 and 20-dB OSNR.

Equations (3)

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Δ t = ( L 1 L 2 ) Δ m eff ( SMF ) + L 2 Δ m eff ( YDF ) c ,
Φ ( β co β cl ) L 1 ,
OSNR = 1 a a ( 1 γ sig ) ( 1 + γ sig ) ,

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