Abstract

We demonstrate the first high speed silicon evanescent Mach Zehnder modulator and switch. The modulator utilizes carrier depletion within AlGaInAs quantum wells to obtain Vπ L of 2 V-mm and clear open eye at 10 Gb/s. The switch exhibits a power penalty of 0.5 dB for all ports at 10 Gb/s modulation.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. Marris-Morini, X. Le Roux, L. Vivien, E. Cassan, D. Pascal, M. Halbwax, S. Maine, S. Laval, J. M. Fedeli, and J. F. Damlencourt, "Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode," Opt. Express 14, 10838-10843 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Q. Xu, S. Pradhan, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, "High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator," Opt. Express 16, 9936-9942 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H.-W. Chen, Y.-H. Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, "A Hybrid Silicon-AlGaInAs Phase Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23 (to be published)
  6. A. W. Fang, E. Lively, Y-H. Kuo, D. Liang, and J. E. Bowers, "A distributed feedback silicon evanescent laser," Opt. Express 16, 4413-4419 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. Park, Y.-h Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Ohe, H. Shimizu, and Y. Nakano, "InGaAlAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Optical Phase Modulators Based on Carrier Depletion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  19, 1616-1618 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Liang, E. A. Lucero, and J. E. Bowers, "Highly Efficient Vertical Outgassing Channels for Robust, Void-Free, Low-Temperature Direct Wafer Bonding," The 35th Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces, Santa Fe, NM, Jan. 2008.
  10. J. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP Guided-Wave Phase Modulators Based on Carrier-induced Effects: Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63-70 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (2)

H. Park, Y.-h Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, "A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector," Opt. Express 15, 13539-13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ohe, H. Shimizu, and Y. Nakano, "InGaAlAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Optical Phase Modulators Based on Carrier Depletion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  19, 1616-1618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, S. Pradhan, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP Guided-Wave Phase Modulators Based on Carrier-induced Effects: Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63-70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Cassan, E.

Cavailles, J. A.

J. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP Guided-Wave Phase Modulators Based on Carrier-induced Effects: Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63-70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Cohen, O.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damlencourt, J. F.

Erman, M.

J. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP Guided-Wave Phase Modulators Based on Carrier-induced Effects: Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63-70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J. M.

Halbwax, M.

Jarry, P.

J. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP Guided-Wave Phase Modulators Based on Carrier-induced Effects: Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63-70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Kuo, Y-H.

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Liang, D.

Liao, L.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Pradhan, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A. S.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lively, E.

Maine, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Nakano, Y.

H. Ohe, H. Shimizu, and Y. Nakano, "InGaAlAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Optical Phase Modulators Based on Carrier Depletion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  19, 1616-1618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohe, H.

H. Ohe, H. Shimizu, and Y. Nakano, "InGaAlAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Optical Phase Modulators Based on Carrier Depletion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  19, 1616-1618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.

Pascal, D.

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, S. Pradhan, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renaud, M.

J. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP Guided-Wave Phase Modulators Based on Carrier-induced Effects: Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63-70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, S. Pradhan, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, S. Pradhan, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, H.

H. Ohe, H. Shimizu, and Y. Nakano, "InGaAlAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Optical Phase Modulators Based on Carrier Depletion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  19, 1616-1618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vinchant, J.

J. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP Guided-Wave Phase Modulators Based on Carrier-induced Effects: Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63-70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Pradhan, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Vinchant, J. A. Cavailles, M. Erman, P. Jarry, and M. Renaud, "InP/GaInAsP Guided-Wave Phase Modulators Based on Carrier-induced Effects: Theory and Experiment," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 63-70 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Ohe, H. Shimizu, and Y. Nakano, "InGaAlAs Multiple-Quantum-Well Optical Phase Modulators Based on Carrier Depletion," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.,  19, 1616-1618 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. S. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427, 615--618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Pradhan, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators," Nature 435, 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Other (2)

H.-W. Chen, Y.-H. Kuo, and J. E. Bowers, "A Hybrid Silicon-AlGaInAs Phase Modulator," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23 (to be published)

D. Liang, E. A. Lucero, and J. E. Bowers, "Highly Efficient Vertical Outgassing Channels for Robust, Void-Free, Low-Temperature Direct Wafer Bonding," The 35th Conference on the Physics and Chemistry of Semiconductor Interfaces, Santa Fe, NM, Jan. 2008.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Top view of a device with a CPW electrode (b) The optical image of the device under microscope (c) Cross section (along A-A’) of the hybrid waveguide.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Modulation efficiency of one port of a silicon hybrid switch with different input power at 1540nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission of a switch as a function of reverse bias.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Experimental electrical and optical response together with RC fitted estimation.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

10 Gb/s NRZ eye diagram with 231-1 PRBS of a MZM at 1550nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

BER versus optical received power for all ports configurations at 10 Gb/s with 231-1 NRZ PRBS. Inset is the response of rise and fall time measured by 10% and 90% with 200ps/div.

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