Abstract

The influence of carrier-envelope phase (CEP) of a few-cycle laser pulse on non-sequential double ionization (NSDI) of an atom is investigated by applying the three-dimensional semi-classical re-scattering method. The asymmetric momentum distribution of the double-charged ion parallel to the laser polarization, which depends on the CEP, is explained by comparing the contributions from several half-cycles in the laser pulse. The ionization rate and the returning kinetic energy of the first electron dramatically affect the contributions from each half-cycles, and play different roles in different laser intensity regimes.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Y. Amusia and M. Y. Kuchiev, “Multiple pole in the electron-hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1726–1729 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002-1–093002-4 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong -field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008-1–103008-4 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  10. J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  11. X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp. 64, 1191–1194 (1986).
  15. J. Chen, L. B. Fu, J. Liu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser-induced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R)-1–011404(R)-4 (2001).
  16. L. B. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S-G Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416-1–043416-7 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  17. R. Abrines and I. C. Percival, “Classical theory of charge transfer and ionization of hydrogen atoms by protons,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 88, 861–872 (1966).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. S. Cohen, “Comment on the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method for ion-atom collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3008–3010 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. G. Liu, D. H. Chen, and Bao, “ATI spectra and angular distributions of the ionized electrons in strong fields: classical approaches,” Commun. Theor. Phys 25, 129–134 (1996).
  20. J. G. Leopold and I. C. Percival, “Ionisation of highly excited atoms by electric fields 3. microwave ionisation and excitation,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823–L830 (2000).
  21. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distribution within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 12, 709–721 (1979).
  22. B Hu, J. Liu, and S. G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescattering processes” Phys. Lett. A 236533–542 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  23. J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu,“Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003-1–013003-4 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  24. D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory perspective on double-ionization dynamics of diatomic molecules irradiated by ultrashort intense laser pulses” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013403-1–013403-10 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  25. C. F. M. Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses”, Phys. Rev. A 70, 043406-1–043406-12 (2004).
  26. E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  27. A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon”, J. Phys. B. 41, 031001-1–031001-5 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory perspective on double-ionization dynamics of diatomic molecules irradiated by ultrashort intense laser pulses” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013403-1–013403-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon”, J. Phys. B. 41, 031001-1–031001-5 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (4)

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu,“Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003-1–013003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong -field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008-1–103008-4 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002-1–093002-4 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. F. M. Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses”, Phys. Rev. A 70, 043406-1–043406-12 (2004).

2003 (1)

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

J. Chen, L. B. Fu, J. Liu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser-induced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R)-1–011404(R)-4 (2001).

L. B. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S-G Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416-1–043416-7 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. G. Leopold and I. C. Percival, “Ionisation of highly excited atoms by electric fields 3. microwave ionisation and excitation,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823–L830 (2000).

1999 (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

B Hu, J. Liu, and S. G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescattering processes” Phys. Lett. A 236533–542 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. G. Liu, D. H. Chen, and Bao, “ATI spectra and angular distributions of the ionized electrons in strong fields: classical approaches,” Commun. Theor. Phys 25, 129–134 (1996).

1994 (1)

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp. 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

1982 (2)

J. S. Cohen, “Comment on the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method for ion-atom collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3008–3010 (1982).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Amusia and M. Y. Kuchiev, “Multiple pole in the electron-hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1726–1729 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distribution within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 12, 709–721 (1979).

1966 (1)

R. Abrines and I. C. Percival, “Classical theory of charge transfer and ionization of hydrogen atoms by protons,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 88, 861–872 (1966).
[Crossref]

Abrines, R.

R. Abrines and I. C. Percival, “Classical theory of charge transfer and ionization of hydrogen atoms by protons,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 88, 861–872 (1966).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alnaser, A. S.

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon”, J. Phys. B. 41, 031001-1–031001-5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp. 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Amusia, M. Y.

M. Y. Amusia and M. Y. Kuchiev, “Multiple pole in the electron-hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1726–1729 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bao,

S. G. Liu, D. H. Chen, and Bao, “ATI spectra and angular distributions of the ionized electrons in strong fields: classical approaches,” Commun. Theor. Phys 25, 129–134 (1996).

Beker, A.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Breen, L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong -field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008-1–103008-4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. H.

S. G. Liu, D. H. Chen, and Bao, “ATI spectra and angular distributions of the ionized electrons in strong fields: classical approaches,” Commun. Theor. Phys 25, 129–134 (1996).

Chen, J.

D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory perspective on double-ionization dynamics of diatomic molecules irradiated by ultrashort intense laser pulses” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013403-1–013403-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu,“Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003-1–013003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, L. B. Fu, J. Liu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser-induced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R)-1–011404(R)-4 (2001).

L. B. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S-G Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416-1–043416-7 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chen, S. G.

B Hu, J. Liu, and S. G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescattering processes” Phys. Lett. A 236533–542 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, S-G

L. B. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S-G Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416-1–043416-7 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cohen, J. S.

J. S. Cohen, “Comment on the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method for ion-atom collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3008–3010 (1982).
[Crossref]

Comtois, D.

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon”, J. Phys. B. 41, 031001-1–031001-5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deipenwishch, J.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp. 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

DiMauro, L. F.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dörner, R.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dreischuh, A.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Eberly, J. H.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong -field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008-1–103008-4 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002-1–093002-4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eremina, E.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ergler, Th.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ermina, E.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

Faria, C. F. M.

C. F. M. Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses”, Phys. Rev. A 70, 043406-1–043406-12 (2004).

Feuerstein, B.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distribution within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 12, 709–721 (1979).

Fischer, D.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fu, L. B.

J. Chen, L. B. Fu, J. Liu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser-induced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R)-1–011404(R)-4 (2001).

L. B. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S-G Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416-1–043416-7 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fu, P.

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Goulielmakis, E.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grasbon, F.

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Haan, S. L.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong -field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008-1–103008-4 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002-1–093002-4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hasan, A. T.

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon”, J. Phys. B. 41, 031001-1–031001-5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ho, P. J.

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002-1–093002-4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Höhr, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Holzwarth, R.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hu, B

B Hu, J. Liu, and S. G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescattering processes” Phys. Lett. A 236533–542 (1997).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H.

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Karim, A.

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong -field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008-1–103008-4 (2006).
[Crossref]

Keeffe, K. O.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J. C.

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon”, J. Phys. B. 41, 031001-1–031001-5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Korn, G.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. Jetp. 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Krausz, F.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuchiev, M. Y.

M. Y. Amusia and M. Y. Kuchiev, “Multiple pole in the electron-hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1726–1729 (1982).
[Crossref]

Kulander, K. C.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leopold, J. G.

J. G. Leopold and I. C. Percival, “Ionisation of highly excited atoms by electric fields 3. microwave ionisation and excitation,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823–L830 (2000).

Lewenstein, M.

C. F. M. Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses”, Phys. Rev. A 70, 043406-1–043406-12 (2004).

Lezius, M.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lindner, F.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Litvinyuk, I. V.

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon”, J. Phys. B. 41, 031001-1–031001-5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory perspective on double-ionization dynamics of diatomic molecules irradiated by ultrashort intense laser pulses” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013403-1–013403-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu,“Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003-1–013003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, L. B. Fu, J. Liu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser-induced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R)-1–011404(R)-4 (2001).

L. B. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S-G Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416-1–043416-7 (2001).
[Crossref]

B Hu, J. Liu, and S. G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescattering processes” Phys. Lett. A 236533–542 (1997).
[Crossref]

Liu, S. G.

S. G. Liu, D. H. Chen, and Bao, “ATI spectra and angular distributions of the ionized electrons in strong fields: classical approaches,” Commun. Theor. Phys 25, 129–134 (1996).

Liu, X.

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu,“Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003-1–013003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. F. M. Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses”, Phys. Rev. A 70, 043406-1–043406-12 (2004).

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Meckel, M.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moshammer, R.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distribution within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 12, 709–721 (1979).

Neumayer, P.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Panfili, R.

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002-1–093002-4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paulus, G. G.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Percival, I. C.

J. G. Leopold and I. C. Percival, “Ionisation of highly excited atoms by electric fields 3. microwave ionisation and excitation,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823–L830 (2000).

R. Abrines and I. C. Percival, “Classical theory of charge transfer and ionization of hydrogen atoms by protons,” Proc. Phys. Soc. London 88, 861–872 (1966).
[Crossref]

Reichert, J.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rottke, H.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rudenko, A.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ruiz, C.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sandner, M.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sandner, W.

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sanpera, A.

C. F. M. Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses”, Phys. Rev. A 70, 043406-1–043406-12 (2004).

Schafer, K. J.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schätzel, M. G.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schöffler, M.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schössler, S.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schröter, C. D.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sheehy, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Trump, C.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Udem, Th.

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ullrich, J.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distribution within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 12, 709–721 (1979).

Villeneuve, D. M.

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon”, J. Phys. B. 41, 031001-1–031001-5 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Walker, B.

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, B.

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Weber, Th

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wittmann, M.

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z-C

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, D. F.

D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory perspective on double-ionization dynamics of diatomic molecules irradiated by ultrashort intense laser pulses” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013403-1–013403-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu,“Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003-1–013003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zeidler, D.

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zheng, W. M.

J. Chen, L. B. Fu, J. Liu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser-induced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R)-1–011404(R)-4 (2001).

Zrost, K.

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

Commun. Theor. Phys (1)

S. G. Liu, D. H. Chen, and Bao, “ATI spectra and angular distributions of the ionized electrons in strong fields: classical approaches,” Commun. Theor. Phys 25, 129–134 (1996).

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

H. Rottke, X. Liu, E. Ermina, M. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Non-sequential double ionization in a few-cycle laser pulse: the influence of the carrier-envelope phase,” J. Mod. Opt. 53, 149–162 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. B. (4)

J. G. Leopold and I. C. Percival, “Ionisation of highly excited atoms by electric fields 3. microwave ionisation and excitation,” J. Phys. B. 33, L823–L830 (2000).

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distribution within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B. 12, 709–721 (1979).

E. Eremina, X. Liu, H. Rottke, W. Sandner, A. Dreischuh, F. Lindner, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein, and J. Ullrich, “Laser-induced non-sequential double ionization investigated at and below the threshold for electron impact ionization”, J. Phys. B. 36, 3269–3280 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. S. Alnaser, D. Comtois, A. T. Hasan, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, and I. V. Litvinyuk, “Strong-field nonsequential double ionization: wavelength dependence of ion momentum distributions for neon and argon”, J. Phys. B. 41, 031001-1–031001-5 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. Reichert, R. Holzwarth, Th. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Measuring the frequency of light with mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Commun. 172, 59–68 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

B Hu, J. Liu, and S. G. Chen, “Plateau in above-threshold-ionization spectra and chaotic behavior in rescattering processes” Phys. Lett. A 236533–542 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

H. Li, B. Wang, J. Chen, H. Jiang, X. Li, J. Liu, Q. Gong, Z-C Yan, and P. Fu, “Effects of a static electric field on nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 76, 033405-1–033405-5 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. S. Cohen, “Comment on the classical-trajectory Monte Carlo method for ion-atom collisions,” Phys. Rev. A 26, 3008–3010 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Chen, L. B. Fu, J. Liu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laser-induced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R)-1–011404(R)-4 (2001).

L. B. Fu, J. Liu, J. Chen, and S-G Chen, “Classical collisional trajectories as the source of strong-field double ionization of helium in the knee regime,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 043416-1–043416-7 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and J. Liu, “Classical trajectory perspective on double-ionization dynamics of diatomic molecules irradiated by ultrashort intense laser pulses” Phys. Rev. A 77, 013403-1–013403-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. F. M. Faria, X. Liu, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Classical and quantum-mechanical treatments of nonsequential double ionization with few-cycle laser pulses”, Phys. Rev. A 70, 043406-1–043406-12 (2004).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (11)

X. Liu, H. Rottke, E. Eremina, W. Sandner, E. Goulielmakis, K. O. Keeffe, M. Lezius, F. Krausz, F. Lindner, M. G. Schätzel, G. G. Paulus, and H. Walther, “Nonsequential double ionization at the single-optical-cycle limit” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 263001-1–263001-4 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. F. Ye, J. Chen, and X. Liu,“Complex dynamics of correlated electrons in molecular double ionization by an ultrashort intense laser pulse” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 013003-1–013003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. DiMauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Beker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and recoil collisions in strong field double ionization of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002-1–263002-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated two-electron momentum spectra for strong-field nonsequential double ionization of He at 800nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003-1–263003-4 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Amusia and M. Y. Kuchiev, “Multiple pole in the electron-hydrogen-atom scattering amplitude,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1726–1729 (1982).
[Crossref]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. J. Ho, R. Panfili, S. L. Haan, and J. H. Eberly, “Nonsequential double ionization as a completely classical photoelectric effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093002-1–093002-4 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and backward ejection in full-dimensional analysis of strong -field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008-1–103008-4 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwishch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionization of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003-1–043003-4 (2001).
[Crossref]

Proc. Phys. Soc. London (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The electric field of few-cycle pulse with φ 0=0 (solid line) and 0.5π (dot line). Three half-cycles are denoted by H1, H2 and H3. They move towards left as φ0 increases.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The momentum distribution of He2+ parallel to the polarization of few-cycle pulse with φ0=0 (a), 0.5π (b), 0.6π (c), and 0.9π (d). The contributions of half-cycles H1 (empty triangle), H2 (solid circle), and H3 (empty circle) are presented respectively. The laser intensity is I = 7×1014W/cm2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) The tunneling rate of the first ionized electron ejected at the peak of H1 (empty triangle), H2 (solid circle), and H3 (empty circle). (b) The maximum returning kinetic energy obtained by the first ionized electron ejected in H1 (empty triangle), H2 (solid circle), and H3 (empty circle). The laser intensity is 7×1014W/cm2.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The momentum distribution of He2+ parallel to the polarization of laser pulse with φ 0=0 (a) and 0.5π (b). The contributions of H1 (empty triangle), H2 (solid circle), and H3 (empty circle) are presented. The maximum tunneling rate and the returning kinetic energy of the first ionized electron are given in (c) and (d), respectively. The laser intensity is 2.5×1014W/cm2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(Color online) (a) and (b) are two typical trajectories selected from the left and right peak in Fig. 2(a), respectively, for the case of 7.0×1014W/cm2 and φ0=0, while (c) and (d)) are selected from the left and right peak in Fig. 4(a), respectively, for the case of 2.5×1014W/cm2 and φ0=0. The energy evolution of the first electron (blue circle line) and the bound electron (red solid line) is presented. The electric field (dash line) is also presented and the arrows indicate the collision moments.

Equations (2)

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d r j 2 dt 2 = E ( t ) ( V ne j + V ee )
w ˉ ( t 0 , v per ) = ( 2 I p ) 1 2 E ( t 0 ) π exp ( v per 2 ( 2 I p ) 1 2 E ( t 0 ) ) ,

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