Abstract

We report on the development of a passive millimeter-wave (MMW) imager for remote sensing, and the comparison of the experimentally acquired images with the theoretical images from our MMW scene simulator. The imager has an aperture diameter of 0.6m, and the detector and the imaging optics are mechanically raster-scanned over the scene to form an image. The angular resolution was experimentally found to be 0.4 degrees, which is close to the theoretical diffraction limit of 0.37 degrees, and the imager NEDT was measured to be 0.9K. Qualitatively, simulated MMW imagery showed good agreement with an experimental MMW image.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
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[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

G. Francisco, J. Tillman, K. Hanna, J. Heubusch, and R. Ayers, "Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics," Proc. SPIE 6542, 65423E (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Fetterman, J. A. Grata, R. Dinu, M. Koenig, A. D. Visnansky, and W. L. KiserJr, "Electro-optic polymer modulators as passive mm wave detectors," Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720K (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Brooker, R. Hennessey, C. Lobsey, and M. Bishop, "Seeing through Dust and Water Vapor: Millimeter Wave Radar Sensors for Mining Applications," J. Field Robotics 24, 527-557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Wikner, "Millimeter-Wave Propagation through a Controlled Dust Environment," Proc. SPIE 6548, 654803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Marzano, "Predicting antenna noise temperature due to rain clouds at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation 55, 2022-2031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Dietlein, Z. Popovic, and E. Grossman, "Broadband THz aqueous blackbody calibration source," Proc. SPIE 6548, 65480M (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, M. Kehoe, C. Smith, T. Moon, and R. Swarnson, "Measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging spectrometers at infinite focus with roof-line images," Proc. SPIE 6661, 66610M (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

R. N. Anderton, R. Appleby, and P. R. Coward, "Sampling passive millimetre wave imagery," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Terahertz characterisation of building materials," Electron. Lett. 41, 1002-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R. Appleby, "Passive millimetre-wave imaging and how it differs from terahertz imaging," Phil. Trans.: Math. Phys. Engin. Sci. 362, 379-393 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, "Passive millimeter-wave imaging," IEEE Microwave Mag. 4, 39-50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, "Fundamentals of Terrestrial Millimeter-Wave and THz Remote Sensing," Int. J. High-Speed Electron. Systems 13, 93 (2003).

2001 (2)

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wikner, and G. Samples, "Polarimetric passive millimeter-wave sensing," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. Sopori, W. Chen, J. Madjdpour, and N. M. Ravindra, "Calculation of emissivity of Si wafers," J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1385-1389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

T. Manabe, K. Taira, K. Sato, T. Ihara, Y. Kasashima, and K. Yamaki, "Multipath measurement at 60GHz for indoor wireless communication systems," 1994 IEEE 44th Vehicular Tech. Conf. 2, 905-909 (1994).

1992 (1)

C. D. Capps, R. A. Falk, S. G. Ferrier, and T. R. Majoch, "Broad-band microwave measurement of water using transient radiation," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 96-101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agravante, H. H.

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderton, R. N.

R. N. Anderton, R. Appleby, and P. R. Coward, "Sampling passive millimetre wave imagery," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appleby, R.

R. N. Anderton, R. Appleby, and P. R. Coward, "Sampling passive millimetre wave imagery," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Appleby, "Passive millimetre-wave imaging and how it differs from terahertz imaging," Phil. Trans.: Math. Phys. Engin. Sci. 362, 379-393 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ayers, R.

G. Francisco, J. Tillman, K. Hanna, J. Heubusch, and R. Ayers, "Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics," Proc. SPIE 6542, 65423E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, M.

G. Brooker, R. Hennessey, C. Lobsey, and M. Bishop, "Seeing through Dust and Water Vapor: Millimeter Wave Radar Sensors for Mining Applications," J. Field Robotics 24, 527-557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brooker, G.

G. Brooker, R. Hennessey, C. Lobsey, and M. Bishop, "Seeing through Dust and Water Vapor: Millimeter Wave Radar Sensors for Mining Applications," J. Field Robotics 24, 527-557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, "Fundamentals of Terrestrial Millimeter-Wave and THz Remote Sensing," Int. J. High-Speed Electron. Systems 13, 93 (2003).

Capps, C. D.

C. D. Capps, R. A. Falk, S. G. Ferrier, and T. R. Majoch, "Broad-band microwave measurement of water using transient radiation," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 96-101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Castro, C.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

B. Sopori, W. Chen, J. Madjdpour, and N. M. Ravindra, "Calculation of emissivity of Si wafers," J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1385-1389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Coward, P. R.

R. N. Anderton, R. Appleby, and P. R. Coward, "Sampling passive millimetre wave imagery," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De Amici, G.

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Lucia, F. C.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dietlein, C.

C. Dietlein, Z. Popovic, and E. Grossman, "Broadband THz aqueous blackbody calibration source," Proc. SPIE 6548, 65480M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, R.

M. R. Fetterman, J. A. Grata, R. Dinu, M. Koenig, A. D. Visnansky, and W. L. KiserJr, "Electro-optic polymer modulators as passive mm wave detectors," Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, D.

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Falk, R. A.

C. D. Capps, R. A. Falk, S. G. Ferrier, and T. R. Majoch, "Broad-band microwave measurement of water using transient radiation," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 96-101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ferrier, S. G.

C. D. Capps, R. A. Falk, S. G. Ferrier, and T. R. Majoch, "Broad-band microwave measurement of water using transient radiation," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 96-101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, M. R.

M. R. Fetterman, J. A. Grata, R. Dinu, M. Koenig, A. D. Visnansky, and W. L. KiserJr, "Electro-optic polymer modulators as passive mm wave detectors," Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fornaca, S. W.

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Francisco, G.

G. Francisco, J. Tillman, K. Hanna, J. Heubusch, and R. Ayers, "Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics," Proc. SPIE 6542, 65423E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franck, C.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grata, J. A.

M. R. Fetterman, J. A. Grata, R. Dinu, M. Koenig, A. D. Visnansky, and W. L. KiserJr, "Electro-optic polymer modulators as passive mm wave detectors," Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, S.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, E.

C. Dietlein, Z. Popovic, and E. Grossman, "Broadband THz aqueous blackbody calibration source," Proc. SPIE 6548, 65480M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halford, C.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, K.

G. Francisco, J. Tillman, K. Hanna, J. Heubusch, and R. Ayers, "Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics," Proc. SPIE 6542, 65423E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Helminger, P.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hennessey, R.

G. Brooker, R. Hennessey, C. Lobsey, and M. Bishop, "Seeing through Dust and Water Vapor: Millimeter Wave Radar Sensors for Mining Applications," J. Field Robotics 24, 527-557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heubusch, J.

G. Francisco, J. Tillman, K. Hanna, J. Heubusch, and R. Ayers, "Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics," Proc. SPIE 6542, 65423E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, B.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. N. Schulman, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, and Y. Yoon, "Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Module with Preamplified Zero Bias Detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ihara, T.

T. Manabe, K. Taira, K. Sato, T. Ihara, Y. Kasashima, and K. Yamaki, "Multipath measurement at 60GHz for indoor wireless communication systems," 1994 IEEE 44th Vehicular Tech. Conf. 2, 905-909 (1994).

Jackson, C. M.

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, E. L.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, T.

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, K.

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kasashima, Y.

T. Manabe, K. Taira, K. Sato, T. Ihara, Y. Kasashima, and K. Yamaki, "Multipath measurement at 60GHz for indoor wireless communication systems," 1994 IEEE 44th Vehicular Tech. Conf. 2, 905-909 (1994).

Kehoe, M.

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, M. Kehoe, C. Smith, T. Moon, and R. Swarnson, "Measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging spectrometers at infinite focus with roof-line images," Proc. SPIE 6661, 66610M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiser, W. L.

M. R. Fetterman, J. A. Grata, R. Dinu, M. Koenig, A. D. Visnansky, and W. L. KiserJr, "Electro-optic polymer modulators as passive mm wave detectors," Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kleine-Ostmann, T.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Terahertz characterisation of building materials," Electron. Lett. 41, 1002-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Terahertz characterisation of building materials," Electron. Lett. 41, 1002-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, M.

M. R. Fetterman, J. A. Grata, R. Dinu, M. Koenig, A. D. Visnansky, and W. L. KiserJr, "Electro-optic polymer modulators as passive mm wave detectors," Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Terahertz characterisation of building materials," Electron. Lett. 41, 1002-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurner, T.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Terahertz characterisation of building materials," Electron. Lett. 41, 1002-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee Stein, J. E.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lobsey, C.

G. Brooker, R. Hennessey, C. Lobsey, and M. Bishop, "Seeing through Dust and Water Vapor: Millimeter Wave Radar Sensors for Mining Applications," J. Field Robotics 24, 527-557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, J. J.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. N. Schulman, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, and Y. Yoon, "Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Module with Preamplified Zero Bias Detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Macario, J.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mackrides, D. G.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Madjdpour, J.

B. Sopori, W. Chen, J. Madjdpour, and N. M. Ravindra, "Calculation of emissivity of Si wafers," J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1385-1389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Majoch, T. R.

C. D. Capps, R. A. Falk, S. G. Ferrier, and T. R. Majoch, "Broad-band microwave measurement of water using transient radiation," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 96-101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Manabe, T.

T. Manabe, K. Taira, K. Sato, T. Ihara, Y. Kasashima, and K. Yamaki, "Multipath measurement at 60GHz for indoor wireless communication systems," 1994 IEEE 44th Vehicular Tech. Conf. 2, 905-909 (1994).

Martin, R. D.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marzano, F. S.

F. S. Marzano, "Predicting antenna noise temperature due to rain clouds at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation 55, 2022-2031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Terahertz characterisation of building materials," Electron. Lett. 41, 1002-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moffa, P.

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, "Passive millimeter-wave imaging," IEEE Microwave Mag. 4, 39-50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moon, T.

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, M. Kehoe, C. Smith, T. Moon, and R. Swarnson, "Measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging spectrometers at infinite focus with roof-line images," Proc. SPIE 6661, 66610M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, H. P.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. N. Schulman, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, and Y. Yoon, "Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Module with Preamplified Zero Bias Detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, S. K.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murrill, S.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, P. W.

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, M. Kehoe, C. Smith, T. Moon, and R. Swarnson, "Measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging spectrometers at infinite focus with roof-line images," Proc. SPIE 6661, 66610M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Petkie, D. T.

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Piesiewicz, R.

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Terahertz characterisation of building materials," Electron. Lett. 41, 1002-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, Z.

C. Dietlein, Z. Popovic, and E. Grossman, "Broadband THz aqueous blackbody calibration source," Proc. SPIE 6548, 65480M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D. W.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Quon, R.

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ravindra, N. M.

B. Sopori, W. Chen, J. Madjdpour, and N. M. Ravindra, "Calculation of emissivity of Si wafers," J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1385-1389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Royter, Y.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. N. Schulman, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, and Y. Yoon, "Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Module with Preamplified Zero Bias Detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samluk, J. P.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samples, G.

D. Wikner, and G. Samples, "Polarimetric passive millimeter-wave sensing," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sato, K.

T. Manabe, K. Taira, K. Sato, T. Ihara, Y. Kasashima, and K. Yamaki, "Multipath measurement at 60GHz for indoor wireless communication systems," 1994 IEEE 44th Vehicular Tech. Conf. 2, 905-909 (1994).

Schaffner, J. H.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. N. Schulman, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, and Y. Yoon, "Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Module with Preamplified Zero Bias Detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scheutz, C. A.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulman, J. N.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. N. Schulman, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, and Y. Yoon, "Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Module with Preamplified Zero Bias Detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, J. A.

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, M. Kehoe, C. Smith, T. Moon, and R. Swarnson, "Measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging spectrometers at infinite focus with roof-line images," Proc. SPIE 6661, 66610M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shireen, R.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shoucri, M.

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, "Passive millimeter-wave imaging," IEEE Microwave Mag. 4, 39-50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C.

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, M. Kehoe, C. Smith, T. Moon, and R. Swarnson, "Measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging spectrometers at infinite focus with roof-line images," Proc. SPIE 6661, 66610M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sokolich, M.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. N. Schulman, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, and Y. Yoon, "Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Module with Preamplified Zero Bias Detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sopori, B.

B. Sopori, W. Chen, J. Madjdpour, and N. M. Ravindra, "Calculation of emissivity of Si wafers," J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1385-1389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swarnson, R.

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, M. Kehoe, C. Smith, T. Moon, and R. Swarnson, "Measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging spectrometers at infinite focus with roof-line images," Proc. SPIE 6661, 66610M (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

T. Manabe, K. Taira, K. Sato, T. Ihara, Y. Kasashima, and K. Yamaki, "Multipath measurement at 60GHz for indoor wireless communication systems," 1994 IEEE 44th Vehicular Tech. Conf. 2, 905-909 (1994).

Tillman, J.

G. Francisco, J. Tillman, K. Hanna, J. Heubusch, and R. Ayers, "Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics," Proc. SPIE 6542, 65423E (2007).
[CrossRef]

Visnansky, A. D.

M. R. Fetterman, J. A. Grata, R. Dinu, M. Koenig, A. D. Visnansky, and W. L. KiserJr, "Electro-optic polymer modulators as passive mm wave detectors," Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wikner, D.

D. Wikner, "Millimeter-Wave Propagation through a Controlled Dust Environment," Proc. SPIE 6548, 654803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Wikner, and G. Samples, "Polarimetric passive millimeter-wave sensing," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamaki, K.

T. Manabe, K. Taira, K. Sato, T. Ihara, Y. Kasashima, and K. Yamaki, "Multipath measurement at 60GHz for indoor wireless communication systems," 1994 IEEE 44th Vehicular Tech. Conf. 2, 905-909 (1994).

Yao, P.

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, Y.

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. N. Schulman, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, and Y. Yoon, "Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Module with Preamplified Zero Bias Detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yujiri, L.

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, "Passive millimeter-wave imaging," IEEE Microwave Mag. 4, 39-50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Conf. (1)

T. Manabe, K. Taira, K. Sato, T. Ihara, Y. Kasashima, and K. Yamaki, "Multipath measurement at 60GHz for indoor wireless communication systems," 1994 IEEE 44th Vehicular Tech. Conf. 2, 905-909 (1994).

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. Piesiewicz, T. Kleine-Ostmann, N. Krumbholz, D. Mittleman, M. Koch, and T. Kurner, "Terahertz characterisation of building materials," Electron. Lett. 41, 1002-1004 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Mag. (1)

L. Yujiri, M. Shoucri, and P. Moffa, "Passive millimeter-wave imaging," IEEE Microwave Mag. 4, 39-50 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation (1)

F. S. Marzano, "Predicting antenna noise temperature due to rain clouds at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies," IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation 55, 2022-2031 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (2)

J. J. Lynch, H. P. Moyer, J. N. Schulman, J. H. Schaffner, Y. Royter, M. Sokolich, B. Hughes, and Y. Yoon, "Passive Millimeter Wave Imaging Module with Preamplified Zero Bias Detection," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 56, 1592-1600 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Capps, R. A. Falk, S. G. Ferrier, and T. R. Majoch, "Broad-band microwave measurement of water using transient radiation," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 40, 96-101 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. High-Speed Electron. Systems (1)

E. R. Brown, "Fundamentals of Terrestrial Millimeter-Wave and THz Remote Sensing," Int. J. High-Speed Electron. Systems 13, 93 (2003).

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

B. Sopori, W. Chen, J. Madjdpour, and N. M. Ravindra, "Calculation of emissivity of Si wafers," J. Electron. Mater. 28, 1385-1389 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Field Robotics (1)

G. Brooker, R. Hennessey, C. Lobsey, and M. Bishop, "Seeing through Dust and Water Vapor: Millimeter Wave Radar Sensors for Mining Applications," J. Field Robotics 24, 527-557 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phil. Trans.: Math. Phys. Engin. Sci. (1)

R. Appleby, "Passive millimetre-wave imaging and how it differs from terahertz imaging," Phil. Trans.: Math. Phys. Engin. Sci. 362, 379-393 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (10)

P. W. Nugent, J. A. Shaw, M. Kehoe, C. Smith, T. Moon, and R. Swarnson, "Measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging spectrometers at infinite focus with roof-line images," Proc. SPIE 6661, 66610M (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. N. Anderton, R. Appleby, and P. R. Coward, "Sampling passive millimetre wave imagery," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598915 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Dietlein, Z. Popovic, and E. Grossman, "Broadband THz aqueous blackbody calibration source," Proc. SPIE 6548, 65480M (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Wikner, "Millimeter-Wave Propagation through a Controlled Dust Environment," Proc. SPIE 6548, 654803 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Moffa, L. Yujiri, H. H. Agravante, G. De Amici, D. Dixon, S. W. Fornaca, C. M. Jackson, T. Jaeger, K. Jordan, and R. Quon, "Large-aperture passive millimeter-wave pushbroom camera," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Wikner, and G. Samples, "Polarimetric passive millimeter-wave sensing," Proc. SPIE 4373, 86-93 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. T. Petkie, F. C. De Lucia, C. Castro, P. Helminger, E. L. Jacobs, S. K. Moyer, S. Murrill, C. Halford, S. Griffin, and C. Franck, "Active and passive millimeter-and sub-millimeter-wave imaging," Proc. SPIE 5989, 598918 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Samluk, C. A. Scheutz, R. D. Martin, J. E. Lee Stein, D. G. Mackrides, C. Chen, P. Yao, R. Shireen, J. Macario, and D. W. Prather, "94 GHz Millimeter Wave Imaging System Implementing Optical Upconversion," Proc. SPIE 7117, 71170T (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Francisco, J. Tillman, K. Hanna, J. Heubusch, and R. Ayers, "Integrated homeland security system with passive thermal imaging and advanced video analytics," Proc. SPIE 6542, 65423E (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Fetterman, J. A. Grata, R. Dinu, M. Koenig, A. D. Visnansky, and W. L. KiserJr, "Electro-optic polymer modulators as passive mm wave detectors," Proc. SPIE 6472, 64720K (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

TeraView, (www.teraview.com).

K. D. Moller, Optics (University Science Books, Mill Valley, CA, 1988).

J. Ruoskanen, P. Eskelinen, H. Heikkild, and A. Serkola, "Ka-and V-band clutter measurements at grazing angle extremes," Radar Conference, 2004. EURAD. First European, 325-328 (2004).

M. D. Blue, "Reflectance of Ice and Seawater at Millimeter Wavelengths," Microwave Symposium Digest, MTT-S International 79, 545-546 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Fetterman, J. Dougherty, and W. L. Kiser Jr., "Scene simulation of mm-wave images," IEEE 2007 AP-S Int. Symposium 1493-1496 (2007).

R. J. Dengler, A. Skalare, and P. H. Siegel, "Passive and active imaging of humans for contraband detection at 640 GHz," Microwave Symposium Digest, 2004 IEEE MTT-S International 3, 1591-1594 (2004).

HRL, (www.hrl.com).

National Instruments, (www.ni.com).

C. Bruckner, S. Riehemann, G. Notni, and A. Tunnermann, "Optimized THz Systems for Imaging and Spectroscopic Applications," Infrared Millimeter Waves and 14th Int. Conf. on Terahertz Electron. (IRMMW-THz 2006), 36 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zemax, (www.zemax.com).

Newmark Systems, (www.newmark.com).

Quinstar, (www.quinstar.com).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Simulated and experimental images of a trawler boat, at a distance of 30m. The color bar at right shows the temperature(Kelvin) grayscale for the MMW images. (a) Simulated visible image of boat at a distance of 30m. (b) Experimental visible image of boat. (c) Simulated MMW image of boat in vertical polarization, including the effects of finite resolution and 1K noise temperature. (d) Experimental passive MMW image of boat with imager vertically polarized. Boat motion during the imager acquisition time is apparent in this image from the slanted appearance of the boat cabin. (e) Simulated mm-wave image in horizontal polarization. (f) Experimental passive MMW image with imager horizontally polarized. (g) As in Fig. 1(c), this simulated MMW image shows the boat in vertical polarization, including the effects of finite resolution and noise temperature increased to 12K (h) This is the same image as Fig. 1(d), with 12K noise computationally added.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) The HRL chipset is mounted in the Quinstar package. (b) The radiometer, showing the scalar feedhorn connected to the Quinstar package. The braided wires are used to bias the HRL components, and the radiometer output is from the SMA connector on the Quinstar package. Ruler marks are in inches.(c) Block diagram of the radiometer. A scalar feedhorn couples to a 95GHz amplifier, and then to a zero-bias diode. The resultant output is coupled into the SMA connector.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Single-pixel millimeter-wave imager and associated electronics. (a) Oblique view of imaging system, showing the 0.6m primary dish. The detector is behind the central aperture of the primary reflector. (b) Side view of the system., showing the feedhorn and electronics behind the primary. (c) Zemax optical simulation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Visible image of sky (b) MMW image of sky. The region of sky corresponds to the bounding box in Fig. 4(a). (c) Plot of the temperature as a function of angle, along the red line of Fig. 4(b).

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

MTF curves.(a) (Red) experimental MTF along the x-axis (Black) Theoretical MTF (Green) Theoretical diffractive MTF. (b) The PSF (point spread function) is calculated by taking the Fourier transform of the MTF

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Visible image of the trawler boat (length: 22m), side angle. (b) Passive millimeter-wave image corresponding to 6(a); detector vertically polarized. (c) Visible image of men in a rigid-hull inflatable boat (RHIB)- boat length is 3.7m. (d) Passive MMW image corresponding to 6(c). Distance to target is 30m for images 6(a)–6(d).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Scene temperatures (K) from Fig. 1, at different locations and polarizations.

Metrics