Abstract

The excitation of ‘designer’ surface-plasmon-like modes on periodically perforated metals is demonstrated at microwave frequencies using the classical method of prism-coupling. In addition we provide a complete formalism for accurately determining the dispersion of these surface modes. Our findings fully validate the use of metamaterials to give surface plasmon-like behavior at frequencies below the visible.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. Q1. A. Sommerfeld, "Ueber die fortpflanzung elektrodynamischer wellen längs eines drahtes," Ann. Phys. Chem. 67, 233-290 (1899).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Zenneck, "Fortplfanzung ebener elektromagnetischer Wellen längs einer ebenen Leiterfläche," Ann. Phys. 23, 846-866 (1907).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. W. Wood, "On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum," Philos. Mag. 4, 396-397 (1902).
  4. U. Fano, "The Theory of Anomalous Diffraction Gratings and of Quasi-Stationary Waves on Metallic Surfaces (Sommerfeld’s Waves)," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 31, 213-222 (1941).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Otto, "Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Zeitschrift fur Physik 216, 398-410 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  7. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low Frequency Plasmons in Thin Wire Structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. R. Smith, R. C. Vier, W. Padilla, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Loop-wire medium for investigating plasmons at microwave frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1425-1427 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Q2. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A 7, S97-S101 (2005)
  11. C. H. Palmer, F. C. Evering, Jr., and F. M. Nelson, "Diffraction Anomalies for Gratings of Rectangular Profile," Appl. Opt. 4, 1271-1274 (1965)
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Ulrich, and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. J. García de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, "Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 233901 (2005)
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944)
    [CrossRef]
  16. HFSS, High-frequency structure simulator version 11.1.1 Finite-element package, Ansoft Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (2008).
  17. E. Hendry, A. P. Hibbins, and J. R. Sambles, Electromagnetic Materials Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL, United Kingdom are preparing a manuscript to be called "The importance of diffraction in determining the dispersion of designer surface plasmons".
  18. K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, "Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 233901 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Q2. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A 7, S97-S101 (2005)

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

D. R. Smith, R. C. Vier, W. Padilla, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Loop-wire medium for investigating plasmons at microwave frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1425-1427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low Frequency Plasmons in Thin Wire Structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. Ulrich, and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. Otto, "Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Zeitschrift fur Physik 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944)
[CrossRef]

1941 (1)

1907 (1)

J. Zenneck, "Fortplfanzung ebener elektromagnetischer Wellen längs einer ebenen Leiterfläche," Ann. Phys. 23, 846-866 (1907).
[CrossRef]

1902 (1)

R. W. Wood, "On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum," Philos. Mag. 4, 396-397 (1902).

1899 (1)

Q1. A. Sommerfeld, "Ueber die fortpflanzung elektrodynamischer wellen längs eines drahtes," Ann. Phys. Chem. 67, 233-290 (1899).
[CrossRef]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944)
[CrossRef]

Boardman, A. D.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Evans, B. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Evering, F. C.

Fano, U.

García de Abajo, F. J.

F. J. García de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, "Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 233901 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

Q2. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A 7, S97-S101 (2005)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hess, O.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hibbins, A. P.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low Frequency Plasmons in Thin Wire Structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

Q2. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A 7, S97-S101 (2005)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, F. M.

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, R. C. Vier, W. Padilla, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Loop-wire medium for investigating plasmons at microwave frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1425-1427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, "Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Zeitschrift fur Physik 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W.

D. R. Smith, R. C. Vier, W. Padilla, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Loop-wire medium for investigating plasmons at microwave frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1425-1427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, C. H.

Pendry, J. B.

Q2. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A 7, S97-S101 (2005)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low Frequency Plasmons in Thin Wire Structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low Frequency Plasmons in Thin Wire Structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sáenz, J. J.

F. J. García de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, "Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 233901 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, R. C. Vier, W. Padilla, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Loop-wire medium for investigating plasmons at microwave frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1425-1427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, R. C. Vier, W. Padilla, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Loop-wire medium for investigating plasmons at microwave frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1425-1427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sommerfeld, A.

Q1. A. Sommerfeld, "Ueber die fortpflanzung elektrodynamischer wellen längs eines drahtes," Ann. Phys. Chem. 67, 233-290 (1899).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low Frequency Plasmons in Thin Wire Structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tacke, M.

R. Ulrich, and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Tsakmakidis, K. L.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

R. Ulrich, and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Vier, R. C.

D. R. Smith, R. C. Vier, W. Padilla, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Loop-wire medium for investigating plasmons at microwave frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1425-1427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. W.

R. W. Wood, "On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum," Philos. Mag. 4, 396-397 (1902).

Zenneck, J.

J. Zenneck, "Fortplfanzung ebener elektromagnetischer Wellen längs einer ebenen Leiterfläche," Ann. Phys. 23, 846-866 (1907).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (1)

J. Zenneck, "Fortplfanzung ebener elektromagnetischer Wellen längs einer ebenen Leiterfläche," Ann. Phys. 23, 846-866 (1907).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. Chem. (1)

Q1. A. Sommerfeld, "Ueber die fortpflanzung elektrodynamischer wellen längs eines drahtes," Ann. Phys. Chem. 67, 233-290 (1899).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. R. Smith, R. C. Vier, W. Padilla, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Loop-wire medium for investigating plasmons at microwave frequencies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1425-1427 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Ulrich, and M. Tacke, "Submillimeter waveguiding on periodic metal structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 251-253 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

Q2. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, "Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials," J. Opt. A 7, S97-S101 (2005)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Low Frequency Plasmons in Thin Wire Structures," J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10, 4785-4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "‘Trapped rainbow’ storage of light in metamaterials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag. (1)

R. W. Wood, "On a remarkable case of uneven distribution of light in a diffraction grating spectrum," Philos. Mag. 4, 396-397 (1902).

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, "Theory of diffraction by small holes," Phys. Rev. 66, 163-182 (1944)
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. J. García de Abajo and J. J. Sáenz, "Electromagnetic surface modes in structured perfect-conductor surfaces," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 233901 (2005)
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

A. P. Hibbins, B. R. Evans, and J. R. Sambles, "Experimental verification of designer surface plasmons," Science 308, 670-672 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeitschrift fur Physik (1)

A. Otto, "Excitation of nonradiative surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection," Zeitschrift fur Physik 216, 398-410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

HFSS, High-frequency structure simulator version 11.1.1 Finite-element package, Ansoft Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (2008).

E. Hendry, A. P. Hibbins, and J. R. Sambles, Electromagnetic Materials Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QL, United Kingdom are preparing a manuscript to be called "The importance of diffraction in determining the dispersion of designer surface plasmons".

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