Abstract

Light scattering detection in the near field, a rapidly expanding family of scattering techniques, has recently proved to be an appropriate procedure for performing dynamic measurements. Here we report an algorithm, first suggested by Oh et al. (Phys. Rev. E 69, 21106 (2004)), based on the evaluation of the Exposure Time Dependent Spectrum (ETDS), which makes it possible to measure the fast dynamics of a colloidal suspension with the aid of a simple near field scattering apparatus and a CCD camera. The algorithm consists in acquiring static spectra in the near field at different exposure times, so that the measured decay times are limited only by the exposure time of the camera and not by its frame rate. The experimental set-up is based on a modified microscope, where the light scattered in the near field is collected by a commercial objective, but (unlike in standard microscopes) the light source is a He-Ne laser which increases the instrument sensitivity. The apparatus and the algorithm have been validated by considering model systems of standard spherical nano-particle.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. P. Y. Wong and P. Wiltzius, "Dynamic light scattering with a CCD camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2547-2549 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Ferri, "Use of a charge coupled device camera for low-angle elastic light scattering," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2265-2274 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, "Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3214-3221 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Wu, G. Ahlers, and D. S. Cannell, "Thermally induced fluctuations below the onset of Reyleight-Benard cpmvection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1743-1746 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. P. Trainoff and D.S. Cannell, "Physical optics treatment of the shadowgraph," Phys. Fluids 14, 1340-1363 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Universal behavior of nonequilibrium fluctuations in free diffusion processes," Phys. Rev. E 61, R1-R4 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "A schlieren method for ultra-low angle light scattering measurements," Europhys. Lett. 63, 220-225 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4109-4111 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Effect of gravity on the dynamics of non equilibrium fluctuations in a free diffusion experiment," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1077, 365-379 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Use of dynamic Schlieren to study fluctuations during free diffusion," Appl. Opt. 45, 2166-2173 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Non-diffusive decay of gradient driven fluctuations in a free-diffusion process," Phys. Rev. E 76, 41112-1-41112-9 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Magatti, M. D. Alaimo, M. A. C. Potenza, and F. Ferri, "Dynamic heterodyne near field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241101-1-241101-3 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Cerbino and V. Trappe, "Differential Dynamic Microscopy: Probing Wave Vector Dependent Dynamics with a Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 188102-1-188102-4 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B.J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. C. J. Takacs, G. Nikolaenko, and D. S. Cannell, "Dynamics of Long-Wavelength Fluctuations in a Fluid Layer Heated from Above," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 234502-1-234502-4 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. O. Schulz-DuBois and I. Rehberg, "Structure function in lieu of correlation function," Appl. Phys. 24, 323-329 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, "X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle," Nature Phys. 4, 238-243 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Oh, J. M. Ortiz de Zárate, J. V. Sengers and G. Ahlers, "Dynamics of fluctuations in a fluid below the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Rev. E 69, 21106-1-21106-13 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, "Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 93110-1-93110-11 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Ferri, D. Magatti, D. Pescini, M. A. C. Potenza, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering: A technique for complex fluids," Phys. Rev. E 70, 41405-1-41405-9 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

D. Magatti, M. D. Alaimo, M. A. C. Potenza, and F. Ferri, "Dynamic heterodyne near field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241101-1-241101-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Cerbino and V. Trappe, "Differential Dynamic Microscopy: Probing Wave Vector Dependent Dynamics with a Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 188102-1-188102-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Takacs, G. Nikolaenko, and D. S. Cannell, "Dynamics of Long-Wavelength Fluctuations in a Fluid Layer Heated from Above," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 234502-1-234502-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, "X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle," Nature Phys. 4, 238-243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Non-diffusive decay of gradient driven fluctuations in a free-diffusion process," Phys. Rev. E 76, 41112-1-41112-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Effect of gravity on the dynamics of non equilibrium fluctuations in a free diffusion experiment," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1077, 365-379 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Use of dynamic Schlieren to study fluctuations during free diffusion," Appl. Opt. 45, 2166-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, "Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 93110-1-93110-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, D. Pescini, M. A. C. Potenza, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering: A technique for complex fluids," Phys. Rev. E 70, 41405-1-41405-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Oh, J. M. Ortiz de Zárate, J. V. Sengers and G. Ahlers, "Dynamics of fluctuations in a fluid below the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Rev. E 69, 21106-1-21106-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "A schlieren method for ultra-low angle light scattering measurements," Europhys. Lett. 63, 220-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4109-4111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Trainoff and D.S. Cannell, "Physical optics treatment of the shadowgraph," Phys. Fluids 14, 1340-1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Universal behavior of nonequilibrium fluctuations in free diffusion processes," Phys. Rev. E 61, R1-R4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, "Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3214-3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Ferri, "Use of a charge coupled device camera for low-angle elastic light scattering," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2265-2274 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. W. Morris, E. Bodenschatz, D. S. Cannell, and G. Ahlers, "The Spatio-Temporal Structure of Spiral-Defect Chaos," Physica D 97, 164-179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Wu, G. Ahlers, and D. S. Cannell, "Thermally induced fluctuations below the onset of Reyleight-Benard cpmvection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1743-1746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. P. Y. Wong and P. Wiltzius, "Dynamic light scattering with a CCD camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2547-2549 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

E. O. Schulz-DuBois and I. Rehberg, "Structure function in lieu of correlation function," Appl. Phys. 24, 323-329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ahlers, G.

J. Oh, J. M. Ortiz de Zárate, J. V. Sengers and G. Ahlers, "Dynamics of fluctuations in a fluid below the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Rev. E 69, 21106-1-21106-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Morris, E. Bodenschatz, D. S. Cannell, and G. Ahlers, "The Spatio-Temporal Structure of Spiral-Defect Chaos," Physica D 97, 164-179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Wu, G. Ahlers, and D. S. Cannell, "Thermally induced fluctuations below the onset of Reyleight-Benard cpmvection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1743-1746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alaimo, M. D.

D. Magatti, M. D. Alaimo, M. A. C. Potenza, and F. Ferri, "Dynamic heterodyne near field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241101-1-241101-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, R.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, "Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 93110-1-93110-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bodenschatz, E.

S. W. Morris, E. Bodenschatz, D. S. Cannell, and G. Ahlers, "The Spatio-Temporal Structure of Spiral-Defect Chaos," Physica D 97, 164-179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bösecke, P.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, "X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle," Nature Phys. 4, 238-243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brogioli, D.

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Non-diffusive decay of gradient driven fluctuations in a free-diffusion process," Phys. Rev. E 76, 41112-1-41112-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Effect of gravity on the dynamics of non equilibrium fluctuations in a free diffusion experiment," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1077, 365-379 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Use of dynamic Schlieren to study fluctuations during free diffusion," Appl. Opt. 45, 2166-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "A schlieren method for ultra-low angle light scattering measurements," Europhys. Lett. 63, 220-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4109-4111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Universal behavior of nonequilibrium fluctuations in free diffusion processes," Phys. Rev. E 61, R1-R4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cannell, D. S.

C. J. Takacs, G. Nikolaenko, and D. S. Cannell, "Dynamics of Long-Wavelength Fluctuations in a Fluid Layer Heated from Above," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 234502-1-234502-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Non-diffusive decay of gradient driven fluctuations in a free-diffusion process," Phys. Rev. E 76, 41112-1-41112-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Effect of gravity on the dynamics of non equilibrium fluctuations in a free diffusion experiment," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1077, 365-379 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Use of dynamic Schlieren to study fluctuations during free diffusion," Appl. Opt. 45, 2166-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Morris, E. Bodenschatz, D. S. Cannell, and G. Ahlers, "The Spatio-Temporal Structure of Spiral-Defect Chaos," Physica D 97, 164-179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Wu, G. Ahlers, and D. S. Cannell, "Thermally induced fluctuations below the onset of Reyleight-Benard cpmvection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1743-1746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cannell, D.S.

S. P. Trainoff and D.S. Cannell, "Physical optics treatment of the shadowgraph," Phys. Fluids 14, 1340-1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cerbino, R.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, "X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle," Nature Phys. 4, 238-243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Cerbino and V. Trappe, "Differential Dynamic Microscopy: Probing Wave Vector Dependent Dynamics with a Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 188102-1-188102-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cipelletti, L.

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, "Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3214-3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Croccolo, F.

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Non-diffusive decay of gradient driven fluctuations in a free-diffusion process," Phys. Rev. E 76, 41112-1-41112-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Effect of gravity on the dynamics of non equilibrium fluctuations in a free diffusion experiment," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1077, 365-379 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Use of dynamic Schlieren to study fluctuations during free diffusion," Appl. Opt. 45, 2166-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dixon, P. K.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, "Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 93110-1-93110-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Durian, D. J.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, "Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 93110-1-93110-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ferri, F.

D. Magatti, M. D. Alaimo, M. A. C. Potenza, and F. Ferri, "Dynamic heterodyne near field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241101-1-241101-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, D. Pescini, M. A. C. Potenza, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering: A technique for complex fluids," Phys. Rev. E 70, 41405-1-41405-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, "Use of a charge coupled device camera for low-angle elastic light scattering," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2265-2274 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giglio, M.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, "X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle," Nature Phys. 4, 238-243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Non-diffusive decay of gradient driven fluctuations in a free-diffusion process," Phys. Rev. E 76, 41112-1-41112-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Effect of gravity on the dynamics of non equilibrium fluctuations in a free diffusion experiment," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1077, 365-379 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Use of dynamic Schlieren to study fluctuations during free diffusion," Appl. Opt. 45, 2166-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, D. Pescini, M. A. C. Potenza, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering: A technique for complex fluids," Phys. Rev. E 70, 41405-1-41405-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "A schlieren method for ultra-low angle light scattering measurements," Europhys. Lett. 63, 220-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4109-4111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Universal behavior of nonequilibrium fluctuations in free diffusion processes," Phys. Rev. E 61, R1-R4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gittings, A. S.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, "Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 93110-1-93110-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magatti, D.

D. Magatti, M. D. Alaimo, M. A. C. Potenza, and F. Ferri, "Dynamic heterodyne near field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241101-1-241101-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, D. Pescini, M. A. C. Potenza, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering: A technique for complex fluids," Phys. Rev. E 70, 41405-1-41405-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. W.

S. W. Morris, E. Bodenschatz, D. S. Cannell, and G. Ahlers, "The Spatio-Temporal Structure of Spiral-Defect Chaos," Physica D 97, 164-179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikolaenko, G.

C. J. Takacs, G. Nikolaenko, and D. S. Cannell, "Dynamics of Long-Wavelength Fluctuations in a Fluid Layer Heated from Above," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 234502-1-234502-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J.

J. Oh, J. M. Ortiz de Zárate, J. V. Sengers and G. Ahlers, "Dynamics of fluctuations in a fluid below the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Rev. E 69, 21106-1-21106-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ortiz de Zárate, J. M.

J. Oh, J. M. Ortiz de Zárate, J. V. Sengers and G. Ahlers, "Dynamics of fluctuations in a fluid below the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Rev. E 69, 21106-1-21106-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pescini, D.

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, D. Pescini, M. A. C. Potenza, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering: A technique for complex fluids," Phys. Rev. E 70, 41405-1-41405-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Peverini, L.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, "X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle," Nature Phys. 4, 238-243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Potenza, M. A. C.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, "X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle," Nature Phys. 4, 238-243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Magatti, M. D. Alaimo, M. A. C. Potenza, and F. Ferri, "Dynamic heterodyne near field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241101-1-241101-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, D. Pescini, M. A. C. Potenza, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering: A technique for complex fluids," Phys. Rev. E 70, 41405-1-41405-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rehberg, I.

E. O. Schulz-DuBois and I. Rehberg, "Structure function in lieu of correlation function," Appl. Phys. 24, 323-329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Robert, A.

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, "X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle," Nature Phys. 4, 238-243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schulz-DuBois, E. O.

E. O. Schulz-DuBois and I. Rehberg, "Structure function in lieu of correlation function," Appl. Phys. 24, 323-329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sengers, J. V.

J. Oh, J. M. Ortiz de Zárate, J. V. Sengers and G. Ahlers, "Dynamics of fluctuations in a fluid below the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Rev. E 69, 21106-1-21106-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suh, S. S.

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, "Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 93110-1-93110-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takacs, C. J.

C. J. Takacs, G. Nikolaenko, and D. S. Cannell, "Dynamics of Long-Wavelength Fluctuations in a Fluid Layer Heated from Above," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 234502-1-234502-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Trainoff, S. P.

S. P. Trainoff and D.S. Cannell, "Physical optics treatment of the shadowgraph," Phys. Fluids 14, 1340-1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Trappe, V.

R. Cerbino and V. Trappe, "Differential Dynamic Microscopy: Probing Wave Vector Dependent Dynamics with a Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 188102-1-188102-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vailati, A.

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Non-diffusive decay of gradient driven fluctuations in a free-diffusion process," Phys. Rev. E 76, 41112-1-41112-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Effect of gravity on the dynamics of non equilibrium fluctuations in a free diffusion experiment," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1077, 365-379 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Use of dynamic Schlieren to study fluctuations during free diffusion," Appl. Opt. 45, 2166-2173 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "A schlieren method for ultra-low angle light scattering measurements," Europhys. Lett. 63, 220-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4109-4111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Universal behavior of nonequilibrium fluctuations in free diffusion processes," Phys. Rev. E 61, R1-R4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, D. A.

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, "Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3214-3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wiltzius, P.

A. P. Y. Wong and P. Wiltzius, "Dynamic light scattering with a CCD camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2547-2549 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wong, A. P. Y.

A. P. Y. Wong and P. Wiltzius, "Dynamic light scattering with a CCD camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2547-2549 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

M. Wu, G. Ahlers, and D. S. Cannell, "Thermally induced fluctuations below the onset of Reyleight-Benard cpmvection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1743-1746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1)

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Effect of gravity on the dynamics of non equilibrium fluctuations in a free diffusion experiment," Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1077, 365-379 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

E. O. Schulz-DuBois and I. Rehberg, "Structure function in lieu of correlation function," Appl. Phys. 24, 323-329 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Magatti, M. D. Alaimo, M. A. C. Potenza, and F. Ferri, "Dynamic heterodyne near field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 241101-1-241101-3 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 4109-4111 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "A schlieren method for ultra-low angle light scattering measurements," Europhys. Lett. 63, 220-225 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature Phys. (1)

R. Cerbino, L. Peverini, M. A. C. Potenza, A. Robert, P. Bösecke, and M. Giglio, "X-ray-scattering information obtained from near-field speckle," Nature Phys. 4, 238-243 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Fluids (1)

S. P. Trainoff and D.S. Cannell, "Physical optics treatment of the shadowgraph," Phys. Fluids 14, 1340-1363 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (4)

D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, and M. Giglio, "Universal behavior of nonequilibrium fluctuations in free diffusion processes," Phys. Rev. E 61, R1-R4 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. Croccolo, D. Brogioli, A. Vailati, M. Giglio, and D. S. Cannell, "Non-diffusive decay of gradient driven fluctuations in a free-diffusion process," Phys. Rev. E 76, 41112-1-41112-9 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Oh, J. M. Ortiz de Zárate, J. V. Sengers and G. Ahlers, "Dynamics of fluctuations in a fluid below the onset of Rayleigh-Bénard convection," Phys. Rev. E 69, 21106-1-21106-13 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, D. Magatti, D. Pescini, M. A. C. Potenza, and M. Giglio, "Heterodyne near-field scattering: A technique for complex fluids," Phys. Rev. E 70, 41405-1-41405-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

C. J. Takacs, G. Nikolaenko, and D. S. Cannell, "Dynamics of Long-Wavelength Fluctuations in a Fluid Layer Heated from Above," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 234502-1-234502-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Cerbino and V. Trappe, "Differential Dynamic Microscopy: Probing Wave Vector Dependent Dynamics with a Microscope," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 188102-1-188102-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wu, G. Ahlers, and D. S. Cannell, "Thermally induced fluctuations below the onset of Reyleight-Benard cpmvection," Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1743-1746 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica D (1)

S. W. Morris, E. Bodenschatz, D. S. Cannell, and G. Ahlers, "The Spatio-Temporal Structure of Spiral-Defect Chaos," Physica D 97, 164-179 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (4)

R. Bandyopadhyay, A. S. Gittings, S. S. Suh, P. K. Dixon, and D. J. Durian, "Speckle-visibility spectroscopy: A tool to study time-varying dynamics," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 93110-1-93110-11 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Y. Wong and P. Wiltzius, "Dynamic light scattering with a CCD camera," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2547-2549 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Ferri, "Use of a charge coupled device camera for low-angle elastic light scattering," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 2265-2274 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Cipelletti and D. A. Weitz, "Ultralow-angle dynamic light scattering with a charge coupled device camera based multispeckle, multitau correlator," Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3214-3221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

B.J. Berne and R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Scheme of the optical set-up. A plane parallel beam of a He-Ne laser is attenuated by a neutral filter and bend upwards by a mirror. The beam is expanded by means of a negative focal length lens, making it diverge slightly before it enters the sample cell. Scattered light is acquired in the near field together with transmitted light, through a 40x microscope objective, which conjugates a plane close to the sample onto the CCD sensor.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Acquired images of nano-particles of 80 nm diameter at four different exposure times Δt (a) 18 ms, b) 55 ms, c) 180 ms, d) 550 ms). The image size corresponds to 75×75 µm2 in real space.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Exposure Time Dependent Spectra Si(q,Δt) measured as a function of the scattering vector q, at different exposure times Δt for particles of 80 nm diameter. The central arrow indicates the increase of the exposure time, while the vertical lines indicate the lower and upper boundaries of the q range over which the fitting procedure has been performed.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Exposure time dependent spectra Si(q,Δt) measured as a function of the exposure times Δt, at four different wave vectors q, for particles of 80 nm diameter. Lines correspond to fitting curves determined by equations 4 and 5, see the main text for details.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Time constant τ measured as a function of the wave vector q, for 3 different particle sizes. Straight lines in the log-log plot correspond to fitting curves with the power law τ(Q)=1/(DQ2).

Equations (15)

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s i ( q ) = i ˜ ( q ) 2 = [ i ( x ) ] 2
Q ( q ) = 2 k 1 1 ( q k ) 2
S i ( q ) = I ( q ) · T ( q ) + B ( q )
s i ( q , Δ t ) = i ˜ ( q , Δ t ) 2 = 1 Δ t 2 t 0 t 0 + Δ t dt t 0 t 0 + Δ t dt i ˜ ( q , t ) i ˜ * ( q , t )
= 1 Δ t 2 t 0 t 0 + Δ t dt t 0 t 0 + Δ t dt C i ( q , t t )
t = t 0 + Δ t 2 + 1 2 s + 1 2 s
t = t 0 + Δ t 2 1 2 s + 1 2 s
s i ( q , Δ t ) = 1 Δ t 2 1 2 Δ t Δ t ds Δ t + s Δ t s ds C i ( q , s )
s j ( q , Δ t ) = 2 Δ t 2 0 Δ t ds ( Δ t s ) C i ( q , s )
S i ( q , Δ t ) T ( q ) · 2 Δ t 2 0 Δ t ds ( Δ t s ) C E ( q , s ) + B ( q )
C E ( q , t ) = I ( q ) · exp ( t τ )
S i ( q , Δ t ) I ( q ) · T ( q ) · f ( Δ t τ ) + B ( q )
f ( z ) = 2 exp ( z ) 1 + z z 2
lim Δ t τ 1 S i ( q , Δ t ) I ( q ) T ( q ) + B ( q )
lim Δ t τ 1 S i ( q , Δ t ) B ( q )

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