Abstract

We study experimentally nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterials operating at microwave frequencies. We fabricate the nonlinear metamaterial composed of double split-ring resonators where a varactor diode is introduced into each resonator so that the magnetic resonance can be tuned dynamically by varying the input power. We demonstrate that at higher powers the transmission of the metamaterial becomes power-dependent and, as a result, such metamaterial can demonstrate various nonlinear properties. In particular, we study experimentally the power-dependent shift of the transmission band and demonstrate nonlinearity-induced enhancement (or suppression) of wave transmission.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. M. Soukoulis, "Bending back light: The science of negative index materials," Opt. Photon. News 17, 16-21 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 037401-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Gorkunov and M. Lapine, "Tuning of a nonlinear metamaterial band gap by an external magnetic field," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235109-9 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Lapine, M. Gorkunov, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Nonlinearity of a metamaterial arising from diode insertions into resonant conductive elements," Phys. Rev. E 67, 065601-4 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Lim, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, "Metamaterial-based electronically controlled transmission-line structure as a novel leaky-wave antenna with tunable radiation angle and beamwidth," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2678-2690 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature (London) 444,597-600 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. V. Shadrivov and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear Effects in Left-Handed Metamaterials," in Physics of Negative refraction and Negative Index Materials, Vol. 98 of Springer Series in Materials Science, C. M. Krowne and Y. Zhang, eds., (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007), pp. 331-371.
  9. I. V. Shadrivov, S. K. Morrison, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Tunable split-ring resonators for nonlinear negative-index metamaterials," Opt. Express 14, 9344-9349 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level," Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, Y. S. Kivshar, and M. V. Gorkunov, "Self-tuning mechanisms of nonlinear split-ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144107 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Tunable transmission and bistability in left-handed band-gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1451-1453 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, "Linear and nonlinear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112-165117 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Second-harmonic generation in nonlinear left-handed metamaterials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 529-534 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. K. Popov and V. M. Shalaev, "Compensating losses in negative-index metamaterials by optical parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 31, 2169-2171 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Wen, Y. Wang, W. Su, Y. Xiang, X. Fu, and D. Fan, "Modulation instability in nonlinear negative-index material," Phys. Rev. E 73, 36617 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Lazarides, M. Eleftheriou, and G. P. Tsironis, "Discrete Breathers in Nonlinear Magnetic Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157406-4 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. Y. Liu, G. Bartal, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, "Subwavelength Discrete Solitons in Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153901-4 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. Feng and K. Halterman, "Parametrically Shielding Electromagnetic Fields by Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 63901-4 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A.B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, A. Karbassi, and D. W. van der Weide, "Wave propagation in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121109-3 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, and D. W. van der Weide, "Parametric amplification in left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 264101-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. B. Kozyrev and D. W. van der Weide, "Trains of envelope solitons in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254111-3 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M.W. Klein, M. Wegener, N. Feth, and S. Linden, "Experiments on second- and third-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 5238-5247 (2007)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. N. A. Zharova, I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear transmission and spatiotemporal solitons in metamaterials with negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 1291-1298 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Feng and K. Halterman, "Parametrically Shielding Electromagnetic Fields by Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 63901-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Y. Liu, G. Bartal, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, "Subwavelength Discrete Solitons in Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Kozyrev and D. W. van der Weide, "Trains of envelope solitons in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254111-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M.W. Klein, M. Wegener, N. Feth, and S. Linden, "Experiments on second- and third-harmonic generation from magnetic metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 5238-5247 (2007)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level," Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, Y. S. Kivshar, and M. V. Gorkunov, "Self-tuning mechanisms of nonlinear split-ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Second-harmonic generation in nonlinear left-handed metamaterials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 529-534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Popov and V. M. Shalaev, "Compensating losses in negative-index metamaterials by optical parametric amplification," Opt. Lett. 31, 2169-2171 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wen, Y. Wang, W. Su, Y. Xiang, X. Fu, and D. Fan, "Modulation instability in nonlinear negative-index material," Phys. Rev. E 73, 36617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Lazarides, M. Eleftheriou, and G. P. Tsironis, "Discrete Breathers in Nonlinear Magnetic Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157406-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, "Bending back light: The science of negative index materials," Opt. Photon. News 17, 16-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature (London) 444,597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, S. K. Morrison, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Tunable split-ring resonators for nonlinear negative-index metamaterials," Opt. Express 14, 9344-9349 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, and D. W. van der Weide, "Parametric amplification in left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 264101-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A.B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, A. Karbassi, and D. W. van der Weide, "Wave propagation in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121109-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Zharova, I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear transmission and spatiotemporal solitons in metamaterials with negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 1291-1298 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Lim, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, "Metamaterial-based electronically controlled transmission-line structure as a novel leaky-wave antenna with tunable radiation angle and beamwidth," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2678-2690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Gorkunov and M. Lapine, "Tuning of a nonlinear metamaterial band gap by an external magnetic field," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235109-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Tunable transmission and bistability in left-handed band-gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1451-1453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, "Linear and nonlinear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112-165117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Lapine, M. Gorkunov, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Nonlinearity of a metamaterial arising from diode insertions into resonant conductive elements," Phys. Rev. E 67, 065601-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 037401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agranovich, V. M.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, "Linear and nonlinear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112-165117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature (London) 444,597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

Y. Liu, G. Bartal, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, "Subwavelength Discrete Solitons in Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baughman, R. H.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, "Linear and nonlinear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112-165117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caloz, C.

S. Lim, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, "Metamaterial-based electronically controlled transmission-line structure as a novel leaky-wave antenna with tunable radiation angle and beamwidth," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2678-2690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. T.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature (London) 444,597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Degiron, A.

Eleftheriou, M.

N. Lazarides, M. Eleftheriou, and G. P. Tsironis, "Discrete Breathers in Nonlinear Magnetic Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157406-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, D.

S. Wen, Y. Wang, W. Su, Y. Xiang, X. Fu, and D. Fan, "Modulation instability in nonlinear negative-index material," Phys. Rev. E 73, 36617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feise, M. W.

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Tunable transmission and bistability in left-handed band-gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1451-1453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S.

S. Feng and K. Halterman, "Parametrically Shielding Electromagnetic Fields by Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 63901-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feth, N.

Fu, X.

S. Wen, Y. Wang, W. Su, Y. Xiang, X. Fu, and D. Fan, "Modulation instability in nonlinear negative-index material," Phys. Rev. E 73, 36617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

Y. Liu, G. Bartal, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, "Subwavelength Discrete Solitons in Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorkunov, M.

M. Gorkunov and M. Lapine, "Tuning of a nonlinear metamaterial band gap by an external magnetic field," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235109-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Lapine, M. Gorkunov, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Nonlinearity of a metamaterial arising from diode insertions into resonant conductive elements," Phys. Rev. E 67, 065601-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gorkunov, M. V.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, Y. S. Kivshar, and M. V. Gorkunov, "Self-tuning mechanisms of nonlinear split-ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature (London) 444,597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Halterman, K.

S. Feng and K. Halterman, "Parametrically Shielding Electromagnetic Fields by Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 63901-4 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Itoh, T.

S. Lim, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, "Metamaterial-based electronically controlled transmission-line structure as a novel leaky-wave antenna with tunable radiation angle and beamwidth," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2678-2690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Karbassi, A.

A.B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, A. Karbassi, and D. W. van der Weide, "Wave propagation in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121109-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

A. B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, and D. W. van der Weide, "Parametric amplification in left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 264101-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A.B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, A. Karbassi, and D. W. van der Weide, "Wave propagation in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121109-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, Y. S. Kivshar, and M. V. Gorkunov, "Self-tuning mechanisms of nonlinear split-ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Yu. S.

Klein, M.W.

Kozyrev, A. B.

A. B. Kozyrev and D. W. van der Weide, "Trains of envelope solitons in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254111-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, and D. W. van der Weide, "Parametric amplification in left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 264101-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kozyrev, A.B.

A.B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, A. Karbassi, and D. W. van der Weide, "Wave propagation in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121109-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lapine, M.

M. Gorkunov and M. Lapine, "Tuning of a nonlinear metamaterial band gap by an external magnetic field," Phys. Rev. B 70, 235109-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Lapine, M. Gorkunov, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Nonlinearity of a metamaterial arising from diode insertions into resonant conductive elements," Phys. Rev. E 67, 065601-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lazarides, N.

N. Lazarides, M. Eleftheriou, and G. P. Tsironis, "Discrete Breathers in Nonlinear Magnetic Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157406-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, S.

S. Lim, C. Caloz, and T. Itoh, "Metamaterial-based electronically controlled transmission-line structure as a novel leaky-wave antenna with tunable radiation angle and beamwidth," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 52, 2678-2690 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, G. Bartal, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, "Subwavelength Discrete Solitons in Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

Morrison, S. K.

Nemat Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature (London) 444,597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popov, A. K.

Powell, D. A.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, Y. S. Kivshar, and M. V. Gorkunov, "Self-tuning mechanisms of nonlinear split-ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ringhofer, K. H.

M. Lapine, M. Gorkunov, and K. H. Ringhofer, "Nonlinearity of a metamaterial arising from diode insertions into resonant conductive elements," Phys. Rev. E 67, 065601-4 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shadrivov, I. V.

D. A. Powell, I. V. Shadrivov, Y. S. Kivshar, and M. V. Gorkunov, "Self-tuning mechanisms of nonlinear split-ring resonators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 144107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. V. Shadrivov, S. K. Morrison, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Tunable split-ring resonators for nonlinear negative-index metamaterials," Opt. Express 14, 9344-9349 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Second-harmonic generation in nonlinear left-handed metamaterials," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 529-534 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Zharova, I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Zharov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear transmission and spatiotemporal solitons in metamaterials with negative refraction," Opt. Express 13, 1291-1298 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Feise, I. V. Shadrivov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Tunable transmission and bistability in left-handed band-gap structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 1451-1453 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zharov, I. V. Shadrivov, and Yu. S. Kivshar, "Nonlinear properties of left-handed metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 037401-4 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shen, Y. R.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, "Linear and nonlinear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112-165117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

A. Degiron, J. J. Mock, and D. R. Smith, "Modulating and tuning the response of metamaterials at the unit cell level," Opt. Express 15, 1115-1127 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, "Bending back light: The science of negative index materials," Opt. Photon. News 17, 16-21 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, W.

S. Wen, Y. Wang, W. Su, Y. Xiang, X. Fu, and D. Fan, "Modulation instability in nonlinear negative-index material," Phys. Rev. E 73, 36617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature (London) 444,597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsironis, G. P.

N. Lazarides, M. Eleftheriou, and G. P. Tsironis, "Discrete Breathers in Nonlinear Magnetic Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157406-4 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Weide, D. W.

A. B. Kozyrev and D. W. van der Weide, "Trains of envelope solitons in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 254111-3 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, and D. W. van der Weide, "Parametric amplification in left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 264101-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A.B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, A. Karbassi, and D. W. van der Weide, "Wave propagation in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121109-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

S. Wen, Y. Wang, W. Su, Y. Xiang, X. Fu, and D. Fan, "Modulation instability in nonlinear negative-index material," Phys. Rev. E 73, 36617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

Wen, S.

S. Wen, Y. Wang, W. Su, Y. Xiang, X. Fu, and D. Fan, "Modulation instability in nonlinear negative-index material," Phys. Rev. E 73, 36617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, Y.

S. Wen, Y. Wang, W. Su, Y. Xiang, X. Fu, and D. Fan, "Modulation instability in nonlinear negative-index material," Phys. Rev. E 73, 36617 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A. A.

V. M. Agranovich, Y. R. Shen, R. H. Baughman, and A. A. Zakhidov, "Linear and nonlinear wave propagation in negative refraction metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 69, 165112-165117 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Y. Liu, G. Bartal, D. A. Genov, and X. Zhang, "Subwavelength Discrete Solitons in Nonlinear Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 153901-4 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zharov, A. A.

Zharova, N. A.

Zide, J. M. O.

H. T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Active terahertz metamaterial devices," Nature (London) 444,597-600 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A.B. Kozyrev, H. Kim, A. Karbassi, and D. W. van der Weide, "Wave propagation in nonlinear left-handed transmission line media," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 121109-3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Photograph of the nonlinear tunable magnetic metamaterial created by a square lattice of nonlinear SRRs. Each SRR contains a varactor which provides the power-dependant nonlinear response.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Measured transmission parameter S 21 detected by a monopole antenna behind the nonlinear magnetic metamaterial at different power levels indicated on the plot.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Measured transmission parameter S 21 detected by a monopole antenna as a function of incident power for two frequencies, demonstrating suppression and enhancement of transmission by a nonlinearity-induced shift of the magnetic resonance.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Electric field distribution behind the magnetic metamaterial slab at 3.2 GHz for (a) low input power, 0dBm, and (b) high power, 30dBm; and 3.425 GHz for (c) low and (d) high power. The metamaterial slab and source are above the shown scanned area.

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