Abstract

Ternary chalcogenide glass films from identical parent bulk glasses were prepared by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and subjected to 810-nm femtosecond laser exposure at both kHz and MHz repetition rates. The exposure-induced modification on the glass film’s surface profile, refractive index, and structural properties were shown to be a function of laser irradiance, the number of laser pulses per focal spot, and repetition rate. Film response was shown to be related to deposition technique-related density and the number of glass bonds within the irradiated focal volume. The induced changes resulted from a reduction in glass network connectivity among GeS4/2, GeS4, S-S and S3Ge-S-GeS3 units.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2007 (3)

2006 (3)

N. J. Baker, H. W. Lee, I. C. Littler, C. M. de Sterke, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, "Sampled Bragg gratings in chalcogenide (As2S3) rib-waveguides," Opt. Express 14, 9451-9459 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, J. Zhou, and R. Ahuja, "Structure of phase change materials for Data Storage," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 055507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Tasseva, K. Petkov, D. Kozhuharova, and T. Iliev, "Light-induced changes in the physico-chemical and optical properties of thin Ge-S-Se-As films," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 7, 1287-1292 (2005).

2004 (3)

2003 (7)

E. Verpoorte and N. D. Rooij, "Microfluidics meets MEMS," Proc. IEEE 91, 930-953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Laniel, J. Ménard, K. Turcotte, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide thin film," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328, 183-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Mei, J. Saienga, J. Schrooten, B. Meyer, and S. W. Martin, "Preparation and characterization of glasses in the Ag_{2}S+B_{2}S_{3}+GeS_{2} system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 264-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Messaddeq, V. R. Mastelaro, M. S. Li, M. Tabackniks, D. Lezal, A. Ramos, and Y. Messaddeq, "The infludence of oxygen in the photoexpansion of GaGeS glasses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

N. Petersen, K. Mogensen, and J. P. Kutter, "Performance of an in-plane detection cell with integrated waveguides for UV/VIS absorbance measurements on microfluidic separation devices," Electrophoresis 23, 3528-3536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (5)

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, "Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. V. Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mat. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Messaddeq, M. S. Li, D. Lezal, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Massaddeq, "Above bandgap induced photoexpansion and photobleaching in Ga-Ge-S based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 282-287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. B. Schaffer, A. Brodeur, J. F. Garcia, and E. Mazur, "Micromachining bulk glass by use of femtosecond laser pulses with nanojoule energy," Opt. Lett. 26, 93-95 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Friis, K. Hoppe, O. Leistiko, K. B. Mogensen, J. Hübner, and J. P. Kutter, "Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon," Appl. Opt. 40, 6246-6251 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguidesin sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlcek, "Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge-Sb-S:PrCl_{3} glass system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 266-270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, "Spectral dependence of photoexpansion in As_{2}S_{3} glass," Philos. Mag. Lett. 79, 25-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

C. Z. Tan and J. Arndt, "The mean polarizability and density of glasses," Physica B 229, 217-224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Kotlokov and G. V. Tereshchenko, "The use of chalcogenide compounds for fabricating antireflection coatings in the mid-IR region," J. Opt. Technol. 64, 264-268. (1997).

1996 (3)

K. Tanaka and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced phenomena in As2S3 glass under sub-bandgap excitation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198-200, 714-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, I. Bar, S. Rosenwaks, V. Volterra, L. Boehm, and Z. Vagish, "Laser-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 502-506 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

L. Zan, L. Huang, and C. Zhang, "New chalcogenide glasses from the Sb_{2}S_{3}-MXn system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 1-4 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, "Chalcogenide glasses: a review of their preparation, properties, and applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

J. S. Sanghera, F. H. Kung, P. C. Pureza, V. Q. Nguyen, R. E. Miklos, and I. D. Aggarwal, "Infrared Evanescent-Absorption Spectroscopy with Chalcogenide Glass-Fibers," Appl. Opt. 33, 6315-6322 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac'h, and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge---Ga---Ag sulphide glasses," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 22, 191-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

S. R. Elliott, "A unified model for reversible photostructural effects in chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81, 71-98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16, 1214-1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Aggarwal, I. D.

Ahuja, R.

Z. Sun, J. Zhou, and R. Ahuja, "Structure of phase change materials for Data Storage," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 055507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, T.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, "Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses," Opt. Mater. 29, 1075-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Antoine, K.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arndt, J.

C. Z. Tan and J. Arndt, "The mean polarizability and density of glasses," Physica B 229, 217-224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N. J.

Bar, I.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, I. Bar, S. Rosenwaks, V. Volterra, L. Boehm, and Z. Vagish, "Laser-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 502-506 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnier, S.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac'h, and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge---Ga---Ag sulphide glasses," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 22, 191-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boehm, L.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, I. Bar, S. Rosenwaks, V. Volterra, L. Boehm, and Z. Vagish, "Laser-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 502-506 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boesewetter, D. E.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boussard-Plédel, C.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brodeur, A.

Brunéel, J. L.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. V. Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mat. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bureau, B.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cai, X.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac'h, and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge---Ga---Ag sulphide glasses," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 22, 191-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. V. Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mat. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguidesin sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carlie, N.

Chan, J. W.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chbani, N.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac'h, and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge---Ga---Ag sulphide glasses," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 22, 191-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Choi, D. Y.

Choi, J.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, "Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses," Opt. Mater. 29, 1075-1083 (2007).
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Collier, J.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Compton, D. A. C.

Couzi, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, "Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses," Opt. Mater. 29, 1075-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. V. Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mat. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

de Sterke, C. M.

Druy, M. A.

Du, K. M.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, "Table-top 50W laser system for ultra-fast ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).

Duering, M.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, "Table-top 50W laser system for ultra-fast ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).

Duguay, M. A.

Efimov, O. M.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. V. Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mat. 17, 379-386 (2001).
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Elliott, S. R.

S. R. Elliott, "A unified model for reversible photostructural effects in chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81, 71-98 (1986).
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Feng, N.

Foulgoc, K. L.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Friis, P.

Frumar, M.

B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlcek, "Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge-Sb-S:PrCl_{3} glass system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 266-270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frumarova, B.

B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlcek, "Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge-Sb-S:PrCl_{3} glass system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 266-270 (1999).
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Galstian, T.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, "Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
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Galstian, T. V.

Garcia, J. F.

Giesekus, J.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, "Table-top 50W laser system for ultra-fast ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).

Glebov, L. B.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. V. Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mat. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hamel, V.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, "Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hayden, J. S.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
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Hirao, K.

Hisakuni, H.

K. Tanaka and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced phenomena in As2S3 glass under sub-bandgap excitation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198-200, 714-718 (1996).
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Hô, N.

Hoppe, K.

Hu, J.

Huang, L.

L. Zan, L. Huang, and C. Zhang, "New chalcogenide glasses from the Sb_{2}S_{3}-MXn system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 1-4 (1995).
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Hübner, J.

Huser, T.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
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Iliev, T.

J. Tasseva, K. Petkov, D. Kozhuharova, and T. Iliev, "Light-induced changes in the physico-chemical and optical properties of thin Ge-S-Se-As films," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 7, 1287-1292 (2005).

Jain, H.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
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Jarvis, R.

Julien, C.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac'h, and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge---Ga---Ag sulphide glasses," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 22, 191-200 (1994).
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Juncker, C.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
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Kimerling, L.

Klebanov, M.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, I. Bar, S. Rosenwaks, V. Volterra, L. Boehm, and Z. Vagish, "Laser-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 502-506 (1996).
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Knystautas, E. J.

Kolev, V. Z.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, "Table-top 50W laser system for ultra-fast ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).

Kotlokov, E. N.

E. N. Kotlokov and G. V. Tereshchenko, "The use of chalcogenide compounds for fabricating antireflection coatings in the mid-IR region," J. Opt. Technol. 64, 264-268. (1997).

Kozhuharova, D.

J. Tasseva, K. Petkov, D. Kozhuharova, and T. Iliev, "Light-induced changes in the physico-chemical and optical properties of thin Ge-S-Se-As films," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 7, 1287-1292 (2005).

Krol, D. M.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kung, F. H.

Kutter, J. P.

N. Petersen, K. Mogensen, and J. P. Kutter, "Performance of an in-plane detection cell with integrated waveguides for UV/VIS absorbance measurements on microfluidic separation devices," Electrophoresis 23, 3528-3536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Friis, K. Hoppe, O. Leistiko, K. B. Mogensen, J. Hübner, and J. P. Kutter, "Monolithic integration of microfluidic channels and optical waveguides in silica on silicon," Appl. Opt. 40, 6246-6251 (2001).
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Laniel, J. M.

J. M. Laniel, J. Ménard, K. Turcotte, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide thin film," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328, 183-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Le Coq, D.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, M. J.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, "Table-top 50W laser system for ultra-fast ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).

Lee, H. W.

Leistiko, O.

Lezal, D.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. R. Mastelaro, M. S. Li, M. Tabackniks, D. Lezal, A. Ramos, and Y. Messaddeq, "The infludence of oxygen in the photoexpansion of GaGeS glasses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Messaddeq, M. S. Li, D. Lezal, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Massaddeq, "Above bandgap induced photoexpansion and photobleaching in Ga-Ge-S based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 282-287 (2001).
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P. Loeffler, T. Schwarz, H. Sautter, and D. Lezal, "Structural changes of GeGaS bulk glasses induced by UV exposure," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232-234, 526-531 (1998).
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Li, M. S.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. R. Mastelaro, M. S. Li, M. Tabackniks, D. Lezal, A. Ramos, and Y. Messaddeq, "The infludence of oxygen in the photoexpansion of GaGeS glasses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Messaddeq, M. S. Li, D. Lezal, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Massaddeq, "Above bandgap induced photoexpansion and photobleaching in Ga-Ge-S based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 282-287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
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Y. Ruan, W. Li, R. Jarvis, N. Madsen, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, "Fabrication and characterization of low loss rib chalcogenide waveguides made by dry etching," Opt. Express 12, 5140-5145 (2004).
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Littler, I. C.

Loeffler, P.

P. Loeffler, T. Schwarz, H. Sautter, and D. Lezal, "Structural changes of GeGaS bulk glasses induced by UV exposure," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232-234, 526-531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
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A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Laniel, J. Ménard, K. Turcotte, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide thin film," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328, 183-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, P.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Lyubin, V.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, I. Bar, S. Rosenwaks, V. Volterra, L. Boehm, and Z. Vagish, "Laser-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 502-506 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

Madsen, N.

Madsen, N. R.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, "Table-top 50W laser system for ultra-fast ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).

Martin, S. W.

Q. Mei, J. Saienga, J. Schrooten, B. Meyer, and S. W. Martin, "Preparation and characterization of glasses in the Ag_{2}S+B_{2}S_{3}+GeS_{2} system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 264-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Massaddeq, Y.

S. H. Messaddeq, M. S. Li, D. Lezal, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Massaddeq, "Above bandgap induced photoexpansion and photobleaching in Ga-Ge-S based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 282-287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Massot, M.

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac'h, and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge---Ga---Ag sulphide glasses," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 22, 191-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mastelaro, V. R.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. R. Mastelaro, M. S. Li, M. Tabackniks, D. Lezal, A. Ramos, and Y. Messaddeq, "The infludence of oxygen in the photoexpansion of GaGeS glasses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Mei, Q.

Q. Mei, J. Saienga, J. Schrooten, B. Meyer, and S. W. Martin, "Preparation and characterization of glasses in the Ag_{2}S+B_{2}S_{3}+GeS_{2} system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 264-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ménard, J.

J. M. Laniel, J. Ménard, K. Turcotte, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide thin film," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328, 183-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguidesin sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, S. H.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. R. Mastelaro, M. S. Li, M. Tabackniks, D. Lezal, A. Ramos, and Y. Messaddeq, "The infludence of oxygen in the photoexpansion of GaGeS glasses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Messaddeq, M. S. Li, D. Lezal, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Massaddeq, "Above bandgap induced photoexpansion and photobleaching in Ga-Ge-S based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 282-287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. R. Mastelaro, M. S. Li, M. Tabackniks, D. Lezal, A. Ramos, and Y. Messaddeq, "The infludence of oxygen in the photoexpansion of GaGeS glasses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B.

Q. Mei, J. Saienga, J. Schrooten, B. Meyer, and S. W. Martin, "Preparation and characterization of glasses in the Ag_{2}S+B_{2}S_{3}+GeS_{2} system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 264-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miklos, R. E.

Miller, A. C.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Mogensen, K.

N. Petersen, K. Mogensen, and J. P. Kutter, "Performance of an in-plane detection cell with integrated waveguides for UV/VIS absorbance measurements on microfluidic separation devices," Electrophoresis 23, 3528-3536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mogensen, K. B.

Myneni, S.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, P.

B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlcek, "Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge-Sb-S:PrCl_{3} glass system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 266-270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, V. Q.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
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Oswald, J.

B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlcek, "Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge-Sb-S:PrCl_{3} glass system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 266-270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. V. Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mat. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, N.

N. Petersen, K. Mogensen, and J. P. Kutter, "Performance of an in-plane detection cell with integrated waveguides for UV/VIS absorbance measurements on microfluidic separation devices," Electrophoresis 23, 3528-3536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petit, L.

Petkov, K.

J. Tasseva, K. Petkov, D. Kozhuharova, and T. Iliev, "Light-induced changes in the physico-chemical and optical properties of thin Ge-S-Se-As films," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 7, 1287-1292 (2005).

Piche, J.

Pope, A.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pureza, P. C.

Ramos, A.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. R. Mastelaro, M. S. Li, M. Tabackniks, D. Lezal, A. Ramos, and Y. Messaddeq, "The infludence of oxygen in the photoexpansion of GaGeS glasses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

S. H. Messaddeq, M. S. Li, D. Lezal, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Massaddeq, "Above bandgap induced photoexpansion and photobleaching in Ga-Ge-S based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 282-287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, "Fabrication and Testing of Planar Chalcogenide Waveguide Intregrated Microfluidic Sensor," Opt. Express 15, 2307 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, "Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides," Opt. Express 15, 11798 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Laniel, J. Ménard, K. Turcotte, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide thin film," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328, 183-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, "Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. V. Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mat. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguidesin sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. C.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, "Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses," Opt. Mater. 29, 1075-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

L. Petit, N. Carlie, T. Anderson, M. Couzi, J. Choi, M. Richardson, and K. C. Richardson, "Effect of IR femtosecond laser irradiation on the structure of new sulfo-selenide glasses," Opt. Mater. 29, 1075-1083 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

Riley, M. R.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Risbud, S.

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, "Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

Rode, A. V.

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, "Table-top 50W laser system for ultra-fast ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).

Rooij, N. D.

E. Verpoorte and N. D. Rooij, "Microfluidics meets MEMS," Proc. IEEE 91, 930-953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rosenwaks, S.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, I. Bar, S. Rosenwaks, V. Volterra, L. Boehm, and Z. Vagish, "Laser-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 502-506 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

Saienga, J.

Q. Mei, J. Saienga, J. Schrooten, B. Meyer, and S. W. Martin, "Preparation and characterization of glasses in the Ag_{2}S+B_{2}S_{3}+GeS_{2} system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 264-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Sautter, H.

P. Loeffler, T. Schwarz, H. Sautter, and D. Lezal, "Structural changes of GeGaS bulk glasses induced by UV exposure," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232-234, 526-531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

Schrooten, J.

Q. Mei, J. Saienga, J. Schrooten, B. Meyer, and S. W. Martin, "Preparation and characterization of glasses in the Ag_{2}S+B_{2}S_{3}+GeS_{2} system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 264-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, A.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, "Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, T.

P. Loeffler, T. Schwarz, H. Sautter, and D. Lezal, "Structural changes of GeGaS bulk glasses induced by UV exposure," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232-234, 526-531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seal, S.

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seddon, A. B.

A. B. Seddon, "Chalcogenide glasses: a review of their preparation, properties, and applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shah, L.

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

Shim, H.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Solis, M. A.

P. Lucas, M. A. Solis, D. Le Coq, C. Juncker, M. R. Riley, J. Collier, D. E. Boesewetter, C. Boussard-Plédel, and B. Bureau, "Infrared biosensors using hydrophobic chalcogenide fibers sensitized with live cells," Sensor Actuator B 119, 355-362 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, W. A.

Stryland, E. V.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. V. Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, and J. L. Brunéel, "Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses," Opt. Mat. 17, 379-386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Sun, Z.

Z. Sun, J. Zhou, and R. Ahuja, "Structure of phase change materials for Data Storage," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 055507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanepoel, R.

R. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16, 1214-1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tabackniks, M.

S. H. Messaddeq, V. R. Mastelaro, M. S. Li, M. Tabackniks, D. Lezal, A. Ramos, and Y. Messaddeq, "The infludence of oxygen in the photoexpansion of GaGeS glasses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C. Z.

C. Z. Tan and J. Arndt, "The mean polarizability and density of glasses," Physica B 229, 217-224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka, "Spectral dependence of photoexpansion in As_{2}S_{3} glass," Philos. Mag. Lett. 79, 25-30 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced phenomena in As2S3 glass under sub-bandgap excitation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198-200, 714-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tarasov, V.

Tasseva, J.

J. Tasseva, K. Petkov, D. Kozhuharova, and T. Iliev, "Light-induced changes in the physico-chemical and optical properties of thin Ge-S-Se-As films," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 7, 1287-1292 (2005).

Tereshchenko, G. V.

E. N. Kotlokov and G. V. Tereshchenko, "The use of chalcogenide compounds for fabricating antireflection coatings in the mid-IR region," J. Opt. Technol. 64, 264-268. (1997).

Tünnermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Turcotte, K.

J. M. Laniel, J. Ménard, K. Turcotte, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide thin film," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328, 183-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, "Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vagish, Z.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, I. Bar, S. Rosenwaks, V. Volterra, L. Boehm, and Z. Vagish, "Laser-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 502-506 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, R.

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, "Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Laniel, J. Ménard, K. Turcotte, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide thin film," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328, 183-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Verpoorte, E.

E. Verpoorte and N. D. Rooij, "Microfluidics meets MEMS," Proc. IEEE 91, 930-953 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vidrine, D. W.

Viens, J. F.

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguidesin sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

J. M. Laniel, J. Ménard, K. Turcotte, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide thin film," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328, 183-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Schulte, C. Rivero, K. Richardson, K. Turcotte, V. Hamel, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, and R. Vallee, "Bulk-film structural differences of chalcogenide glasses probed in situ by near-infrared waveguide Raman spectroscopy," Opt. Commun. 198, 125-128 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, "Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguidesin sulfide chalcogenide glasses," J. Lightwave Technol. 17, 1184-1191 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vlcek, M.

B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlcek, "Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge-Sb-S:PrCl_{3} glass system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 266-270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Volterra, V.

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, I. Bar, S. Rosenwaks, V. Volterra, L. Boehm, and Z. Vagish, "Laser-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 502-506 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wright, N. A.

Zan, L.

L. Zan, L. Huang, and C. Zhang, "New chalcogenide glasses from the Sb_{2}S_{3}-MXn system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 1-4 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

L. Zan, L. Huang, and C. Zhang, "New chalcogenide glasses from the Sb_{2}S_{3}-MXn system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 1-4 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

Z. Sun, J. Zhou, and R. Ahuja, "Structure of phase change materials for Data Storage," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 055507 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zoubir, A.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Hô, and R. Vallée, "Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films," Opt. Lett. 29, 748-750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. A (3)

B. Luther-Davies, V. Z. Kolev, M. J. Lederer, N. R. Madsen, A. V. Rode, J. Giesekus, K. M. Du, and M. Duering, "Table-top 50W laser system for ultra-fast ablation," Appl. Phys. A 79, 1051-1055 (2004).

A. Zoubir, L. Shah, K. Richardson, and M. Richardson, "Practical uses of femtosecond laser micro-materials processing," Appl. Phys. A 77, 311-315 (2003).

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. W. Chan, T. Huser, S. Risbud, J. S. Hayden, and D. M. Krol, "Waveguide fabrication in phosphate glasses using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 2371-2373 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Appl. Surf. Sci. (2)

V. Lyubin, M. Klebanov, I. Bar, S. Rosenwaks, V. Volterra, L. Boehm, and Z. Vagish, "Laser-induced phenomena in chalcogenide glassy films," Appl. Surf. Sci. 106, 502-506 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Messaddeq, V. R. Mastelaro, M. S. Li, M. Tabackniks, D. Lezal, A. Ramos, and Y. Messaddeq, "The infludence of oxygen in the photoexpansion of GaGeS glasses," Appl. Surf. Sci. 205, 143-150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electrophoresis (1)

N. Petersen, K. Mogensen, and J. P. Kutter, "Performance of an in-plane detection cell with integrated waveguides for UV/VIS absorbance measurements on microfluidic separation devices," Electrophoresis 23, 3528-3536 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Li, S. Seal, C. Rivero, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, A. Pope, A. Schulte, S. Myneni, H. Jain, K. Antoine, and A. C. Miller, "Role of S/Se ratio in chemical bonding of As-S-Se glasses investigated by Raman, x-ray photoelectron, and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 053503 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (10)

B. Frumarova, P. Nemec, M. Frumar, J. Oswald, and M. Vlcek, "Synthesis and optical properties of the Ge-Sb-S:PrCl_{3} glass system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 266-270 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Mei, J. Saienga, J. Schrooten, B. Meyer, and S. W. Martin, "Preparation and characterization of glasses in the Ag_{2}S+B_{2}S_{3}+GeS_{2} system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 324, 264-276 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Messaddeq, M. S. Li, D. Lezal, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and Y. Massaddeq, "Above bandgap induced photoexpansion and photobleaching in Ga-Ge-S based glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 284, 282-287 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Seddon, "Chalcogenide glasses: a review of their preparation, properties, and applications," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 44 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. L. Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, and A. Villeneuve, "Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256-257, 353-360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Laniel, J. Ménard, K. Turcotte, A. Villeneuve, R. Vallée, C. Lopez, and K. Richardson, "Refractive index measurements of planar chalcogenide thin film," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 328, 183-191 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Zan, L. Huang, and C. Zhang, "New chalcogenide glasses from the Sb_{2}S_{3}-MXn system," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 184, 1-4 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka and H. Hisakuni, "Photoinduced phenomena in As2S3 glass under sub-bandgap excitation," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198-200, 714-718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Elliott, "A unified model for reversible photostructural effects in chalcogenide glasses," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81, 71-98 (1986).
[CrossRef]

P. Loeffler, T. Schwarz, H. Sautter, and D. Lezal, "Structural changes of GeGaS bulk glasses induced by UV exposure," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232-234, 526-531 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Technol. (1)

E. N. Kotlokov and G. V. Tereshchenko, "The use of chalcogenide compounds for fabricating antireflection coatings in the mid-IR region," J. Opt. Technol. 64, 264-268. (1997).

J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. (1)

J. Tasseva, K. Petkov, D. Kozhuharova, and T. Iliev, "Light-induced changes in the physico-chemical and optical properties of thin Ge-S-Se-As films," J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 7, 1287-1292 (2005).

J. Phys. E (1)

R. Swanepoel, "Determination of the thickness and optical constants of amorphous silicon," J. Phys. E 16, 1214-1222 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

C. Julien, S. Barnier, M. Massot, N. Chbani, X. Cai, A. M. Loireau-Lozac'h, and M. Guittard, "Raman and infrared spectroscopic studies of Ge---Ga---Ag sulphide glasses," Mater. Sci. Eng. B 22, 191-200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Raman spectra of as-deposited films fabricated by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption spectra of the films deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absolute (closed symbols) and relative (open symbols) photo-expansion of the investigated films when irradiated with kHz (a) and MHz (b) repetition rate pulses as a function of the irradiance. The number of pulses was fixed at 197.6 (a) and 4×106 (b).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Absolute (closed symbols) and relative (open symbols) photo-expansion of the investigated films when irradiated with kHz (a) MHz (b) repetition rate pulses in function of the number of pulses. The irradiance was fixed at 83.6 and 85.4 TW/cm2 (a) and at 33.9 and 40.7 GW/cm2 (b) for the film deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD), respectively.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a). Transmission spectrum of the TE film before and after irradiation indicating an induced bandgap shift and a modification of the interference pattern. The laser irradiance on the sample was 34.0 GW/cm2 (6.7 GW/cm2 below threshold) and the number of pulses per laser spot was 1.3·106. (b) Δn/n of the investigated films deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Absolute (closed symbols) and relative (open symbols) refractive index modification at 550 nm of the investigated films deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques as a function of laser irradiance (a) and the number of pulses per focal area (b). In (a), the number of pulses per focal area was held constant at 4·106 for both films. In (b), the laser intensity was held constant at 40.7 GW/cm2 (13.6 GW/cm2 below threshold) for the PLD film and 34.0 GW/cm2 (6.7 GW/cm2 below threshold) for the TE film.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Δn as a function of photo-expansion for the films deposited by thermal evaporation (TE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) with varying laser irradiance.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Raman spectra of the films deposited by (a) thermal evaporation (TE) and (b) pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques before and after irradiation using kHz repetition rate pulses (λexc=785nm).

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Raman spectra of the film deposited by (a) thermal evaporation (TE) and (b) pulsed laser deposition (PLD) before and after irradiation using MHz repetition rate pulses with 4×106 pulses incident on the sample per focal spot (λexc=785nm).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Ablation threshold of the TE and PLD films with 1kHz and 80MHz repetition rate pulses.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Total number of Ge-S bonds in different GeS4-based structural units within the focal volume of the laser in TE and PLD films associated with Raman modifications in Fig. 9(a). The percentage of Ge-S bonds associated with the Raman bands is shown in brackets.

Equations (3)

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Δ φ 2 π = 2 · ( n irr d irr n 0 d 0 ) λ ¯
# ( Ge S ) = 4 · Ge At % · N A ρ M · V
n 2 1 n 2 + 2 = 4 π 3 · N A ρ M α

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