Abstract

In this paper, as to our best knowledge, we propose and demonstrate the first precise phosphor modeling scheme to simulate the chromatic performance of white LEDs with silicate phosphors. The phosphor model is useful to accurately simulate the power ratio of the blue and yellow lights emitted by the white LEDs and is important in white LED package.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Caska, Introduction to Solid-state Lighting (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2002).
  2. D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA), Light emitting diodes (LEDs) for general illumination: An OIDA technology roadmap update 2002. Optoelectronics Industry Development Assn., Washington, DC (2002).
  4. S. J. Duclos, J. Jansma, J. C. Bortscheller, and R. J. Wojnarowski, "Phosphor Coating with Self-adjusting Distance from LED Chip," US Patent, US 6635363 B1 (2003).
  5. M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. C. Chang, R. Chern, C. C. Chang, C. Chu, J. Y. Chi, J. Su, I-Min Chan, and J. T. Wang, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Phosphor-Screened Ultraviolet Light in a White Light-Emitting Device," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6056-6061 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. J. Lee, "Analysis of light-emitting diodes by Monte-Carlo photon simulation," Appl. Opt. 40, 1427-1437 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Z.-Y. Ting and C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of light-emitting diode light-extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Á. Borbély and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Doicu and T. Wriedt, "Equivalent refractive index of a sphere with multiple spherical inclusions," Appl. Opt. 3, 204-209 (2001).
  12. D. Toublanc, "Henyey-Greenstein and Mie phase functions in Monte Carlo radiative transfer computations," Appl. Opt. 35, 3270-3274 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. F. Boren and D. R. Huffmarn, Absorption and scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  14. A. A. Stelur, A. M. Srivastava, H. A. Comanzo, and D. D. Doxsee, "Phosphor Blends for Generating White Light from Near-UV/Blue Light-Emitting Devices," United States Patent, US 6685852 B2 (2004).
  15. IntematixSY 450-B, http://www.intematix.com/images/Catalog-2008_V2.pdf.
  16. I. Moreno, "Spatial distribution of LED radiation," Proc. SPIE 6342, 634216 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. C. Sun, T. -X. Lee, S. -H. Ma, Y. -L. Lee, and S. -M. Huang, "Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region," Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. T. Chien, C. C. Sun, and I. Moreno, "Precise optical model of multi-chip white LEDs," Opt. Express 15, 7572-7577 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Kang, E. Wu, and D. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, "Extracting Phosphor-Scattered Photons to Improve White LED Efficiency," Phys. Status Solidi A  202, R60-R62 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, "Optical Simulation of Light Source Devices Composed of Blue LEDs and YAG Phosphor," J. Light Vis. Env. 27, 70-74 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2007

2006

D. Kang, E. Wu, and D. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Moreno, "Spatial distribution of LED radiation," Proc. SPIE 6342, 634216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, T. -X. Lee, S. -H. Ma, Y. -L. Lee, and S. -M. Huang, "Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region," Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, "Extracting Phosphor-Scattered Photons to Improve White LED Efficiency," Phys. Status Solidi A  202, R60-R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chang, R. Chern, C. C. Chang, C. Chu, J. Y. Chi, J. Su, I-Min Chan, and J. T. Wang, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Phosphor-Screened Ultraviolet Light in a White Light-Emitting Device," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6056-6061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Á. Borbély and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. A. Stelur, A. M. Srivastava, H. A. Comanzo, and D. D. Doxsee, "Phosphor Blends for Generating White Light from Near-UV/Blue Light-Emitting Devices," United States Patent, US 6685852 B2 (2004).

2003

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, "Optical Simulation of Light Source Devices Composed of Blue LEDs and YAG Phosphor," J. Light Vis. Env. 27, 70-74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. J. Lee, "Analysis of light-emitting diodes by Monte-Carlo photon simulation," Appl. Opt. 40, 1427-1437 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Doicu and T. Wriedt, "Equivalent refractive index of a sphere with multiple spherical inclusions," Appl. Opt. 3, 204-209 (2001).

1996

1995

Z.-Y. Ting and C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of light-emitting diode light-extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1979

M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Borbély, Á.

Á. Borbély and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. C.

C. C. Chang, R. Chern, C. C. Chang, C. Chu, J. Y. Chi, J. Su, I-Min Chan, and J. T. Wang, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Phosphor-Screened Ultraviolet Light in a White Light-Emitting Device," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6056-6061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Chang, R. Chern, C. C. Chang, C. Chu, J. Y. Chi, J. Su, I-Min Chan, and J. T. Wang, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Phosphor-Screened Ultraviolet Light in a White Light-Emitting Device," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6056-6061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chern, R.

C. C. Chang, R. Chern, C. C. Chang, C. Chu, J. Y. Chi, J. Su, I-Min Chan, and J. T. Wang, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Phosphor-Screened Ultraviolet Light in a White Light-Emitting Device," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6056-6061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chew, H.

M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, J. Y.

C. C. Chang, R. Chern, C. C. Chang, C. Chu, J. Y. Chi, J. Su, I-Min Chan, and J. T. Wang, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Phosphor-Screened Ultraviolet Light in a White Light-Emitting Device," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6056-6061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chien, W. T.

Chu, C.

C. C. Chang, R. Chern, C. C. Chang, C. Chu, J. Y. Chi, J. Su, I-Min Chan, and J. T. Wang, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Phosphor-Screened Ultraviolet Light in a White Light-Emitting Device," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6056-6061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Comanzo, H. A.

A. A. Stelur, A. M. Srivastava, H. A. Comanzo, and D. D. Doxsee, "Phosphor Blends for Generating White Light from Near-UV/Blue Light-Emitting Devices," United States Patent, US 6685852 B2 (2004).

Cooke, D. D.

M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doicu, A.

A. Doicu and T. Wriedt, "Equivalent refractive index of a sphere with multiple spherical inclusions," Appl. Opt. 3, 204-209 (2001).

Doxsee, D. D.

A. A. Stelur, A. M. Srivastava, H. A. Comanzo, and D. D. Doxsee, "Phosphor Blends for Generating White Light from Near-UV/Blue Light-Emitting Devices," United States Patent, US 6685852 B2 (2004).

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Frate, M.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, "Extracting Phosphor-Scattered Photons to Improve White LED Efficiency," Phys. Status Solidi A  202, R60-R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, K. J.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, "Extracting Phosphor-Scattered Photons to Improve White LED Efficiency," Phys. Status Solidi A  202, R60-R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. -M.

Imai, Y.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, "Optical Simulation of Light Source Devices Composed of Blue LEDs and YAG Phosphor," J. Light Vis. Env. 27, 70-74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishii, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, "Optical Simulation of Light Source Devices Composed of Blue LEDs and YAG Phosphor," J. Light Vis. Env. 27, 70-74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

Á. Borbély and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, M. S.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D.

D. Kang, E. Wu, and D. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koshel, R. J.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kratohvil, J. P.

M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M. P.

M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

Lee, T. -X.

Lee, Y. -L.

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. -H.

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

McGill, C.

Z.-Y. Ting and C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of light-emitting diode light-extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, P. J.

M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, I.

Narendran, N.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, "Extracting Phosphor-Scattered Photons to Improve White LED Efficiency," Phys. Status Solidi A  202, R60-R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sculley, M.

M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srivastava, A. M.

A. A. Stelur, A. M. Srivastava, H. A. Comanzo, and D. D. Doxsee, "Phosphor Blends for Generating White Light from Near-UV/Blue Light-Emitting Devices," United States Patent, US 6685852 B2 (2004).

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stelur, A. A.

A. A. Stelur, A. M. Srivastava, H. A. Comanzo, and D. D. Doxsee, "Phosphor Blends for Generating White Light from Near-UV/Blue Light-Emitting Devices," United States Patent, US 6685852 B2 (2004).

Stevenson, M. A.

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Su, J.

C. C. Chang, R. Chern, C. C. Chang, C. Chu, J. Y. Chi, J. Su, I-Min Chan, and J. T. Wang, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Phosphor-Screened Ultraviolet Light in a White Light-Emitting Device," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6056-6061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Ting, Z.-Y.

Z.-Y. Ting and C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of light-emitting diode light-extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toublanc, D.

Wang, D.

D. Kang, E. Wu, and D. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wriedt, T.

A. Doicu and T. Wriedt, "Equivalent refractive index of a sphere with multiple spherical inclusions," Appl. Opt. 3, 204-209 (2001).

Wu, E.

D. Kang, E. Wu, and D. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, "Optical Simulation of Light Source Devices Composed of Blue LEDs and YAG Phosphor," J. Light Vis. Env. 27, 70-74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, "Extracting Phosphor-Scattered Photons to Improve White LED Efficiency," Phys. Status Solidi A  202, R60-R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Kang, E. Wu, and D. Wang, "Modeling white light-emitting diodes with phosphor layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 231102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, "Illumination with Solid State Lighting Technology," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron 8, 310-320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Histochem. Cytochem.

M. Kerker, H. Chew, P. J. McNulty, J. P. Kratohvil, D. D. Cooke, M. Sculley, and M. P. Lee, "Light scattering and fluorescence by small particles having internal structure," J. Histochem. Cytochem. 27, 250-263 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Light Vis. Env.

K. Yamada, Y. Imai, and K. Ishii, "Optical Simulation of Light Source Devices Composed of Blue LEDs and YAG Phosphor," J. Light Vis. Env. 27, 70-74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

C. C. Chang, R. Chern, C. C. Chang, C. Chu, J. Y. Chi, J. Su, I-Min Chan, and J. T. Wang, "Monte Carlo Simulation of Optical Properties of Phosphor-Screened Ultraviolet Light in a White Light-Emitting Device," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 6056-6061 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

Z.-Y. Ting and C. McGill, "Monte Carlo simulation of light-emitting diode light-extraction characteristics," Opt. Eng. 34, 3545-3553 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Á. Borbély and S. G. Johnson, "Performance of phosphor-coated light-emitting diode optics in ray-trace simulations," Opt. Eng. 44, 111308 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi A

N. Narendran, Y. Gu, J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, and Y. Zhu, "Extracting Phosphor-Scattered Photons to Improve White LED Efficiency," Phys. Status Solidi A  202, R60-R62 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

I. Moreno, "Spatial distribution of LED radiation," Proc. SPIE 6342, 634216 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Kaminski, K. J. Garcia, M. A. Stevenson, M. Frate, and R. J. Koshel, "Advanced Topics in Source Modeling," Proc. SPIE 4775, 46 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

Optoelectronics Industry Development Association (OIDA), Light emitting diodes (LEDs) for general illumination: An OIDA technology roadmap update 2002. Optoelectronics Industry Development Assn., Washington, DC (2002).

S. J. Duclos, J. Jansma, J. C. Bortscheller, and R. J. Wojnarowski, "Phosphor Coating with Self-adjusting Distance from LED Chip," US Patent, US 6635363 B1 (2003).

A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Caska, Introduction to Solid-state Lighting (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 2002).

C. F. Boren and D. R. Huffmarn, Absorption and scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

A. A. Stelur, A. M. Srivastava, H. A. Comanzo, and D. D. Doxsee, "Phosphor Blends for Generating White Light from Near-UV/Blue Light-Emitting Devices," United States Patent, US 6685852 B2 (2004).

IntematixSY 450-B, http://www.intematix.com/images/Catalog-2008_V2.pdf.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The diagram of the process for phosphor modeling.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The measured scattering distribution and the corresponding simulation of the phosphor plates for the phosphor concentrations of 10% and 15%, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

The phosphor plate covered a GaN die attached on a metal slug and its computer model in the simulation.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The measured blue (a) and yellow (b) lights with the structures shown in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The forward/backward blue/yellow lights of a phosphor plate of the concentration of 15% for (a) experimental measurement and (b) the corresponding simulation.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The picture and optical model of the white LEDs with (a) without (b) with encapsulation with a glass lens.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

The measured and simulated spectrum of the white LEDs with the phosphor concentrations of (a) 10% without encapsulation, (b) 10% with encapsulation with a glass lens,, (c) 15% without encapsulation, (d) 15% with encapsulation with a glass lens.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The measured and simulated chromatic performance of the white LEDs for the concentrations of 10% and 15%.

Table 1.
Table 1.

The comparison of the chromaticity coordinates for the LEDs with and without encapsulation with lens between simulation and experimental measurement.

Metrics