Abstract

Nonlinear optical absorption of ZnO thin film grown by the laser molecular beam epitaxy was investigated by the Z-scan method using a frequency-doubled femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. Due to near-exciton resonance, an enormous enhancement of two photon absorption (TPA) is about 3000 cm/GW at 390 nm which is about 6.5 times larger than the previously reported at two-photon exciton resonance in near-IR regime and 710 times larger than that of ZnO bulk measured at 532 nm. Besides, the free-carrier absorption resulting from linear absorption and TPA becomes essential when the excitation approaches the exciton resonance.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, "High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038-1040 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Wang, G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, "Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401-403 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Cao, J. Y. Wu, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, "Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3993-3995 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. J. Zhang, W. Ji, and S. H. Tang, "Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1951-1955 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phy. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, G. J. You, X. Q. Qiu, K. J. Liu, Y. L. Yan, and S. X. Qian, "Multi-photon excitation UV emission by femtosecond pulses and nonlinearity in ZnO single crystal," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 216202 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. B. Han, J. B. Han, S. Ding, D. J. Chen, and Q. Q. Wang, "Optical nonlinearity of ZnO microcrystallite enhanced by interfacial state," Opt. Express 13, 9211-9216 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, "Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3087-3089 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, " Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot and J. P. Fillard "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants, n, k and the thickness," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Yakuphanoglu, M. Sekerci, and O. F. Ozturk, "The determination of the optical constants of Cu(II) compound having 1-chloro-2,3-o-cyclohexylidinepropane thin film," Opt. Commun. 239, 275-280 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. H. K. H. P. Li, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 6 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, "Nonlinear optical characteristics of self-assembled films of ZnO," Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. L. Yu, C. S. Zhu, F. X. Gan, X. C. Wu, G. L. Zhang, G. Q. Tang, and W. J. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mater. 8, 249-254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29 kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, "Nonlinear optical characteristics of self-assembled films of ZnO," Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, G. J. You, X. Q. Qiu, K. J. Liu, Y. L. Yan, and S. X. Qian, "Multi-photon excitation UV emission by femtosecond pulses and nonlinearity in ZnO single crystal," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 216202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

Y. B. Han, J. B. Han, S. Ding, D. J. Chen, and Q. Q. Wang, "Optical nonlinearity of ZnO microcrystallite enhanced by interfacial state," Opt. Express 13, 9211-9216 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29 kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

F. Yakuphanoglu, M. Sekerci, and O. F. Ozturk, "The determination of the optical constants of Cu(II) compound having 1-chloro-2,3-o-cyclohexylidinepropane thin film," Opt. Commun. 239, 275-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, "Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3087-3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, "Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3993-3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. Wang, G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, "Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. K. H. P. Li, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, "High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038-1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Wu, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

X. J. Zhang, W. Ji, and S. H. Tang, "Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1951-1955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Yu, C. S. Zhu, F. X. Gan, X. C. Wu, G. L. Zhang, G. Q. Tang, and W. J. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mater. 8, 249-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, " Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phy. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot and J. P. Fillard "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants, n, k and the thickness," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Adair, R.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phy. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Anija, M.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29 kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, "High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038-1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Wu, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

G. Wang, G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, "Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Wu, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phy. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chelnokov, E.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, "Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3993-3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. J.

Chen, W. J.

B. L. Yu, C. S. Zhu, F. X. Gan, X. C. Wu, G. L. Zhang, G. Q. Tang, and W. J. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mater. 8, 249-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, "High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038-1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

J. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. W.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, "Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3087-3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S. J.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cyriac, J.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29 kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Wu, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deepthy, A.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, "Nonlinear optical characteristics of self-assembled films of ZnO," Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, "Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3087-3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dharmaprakash, S. M.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dillard, A. G.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
[CrossRef]

Ding, S.

Dogan, S.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Z. W.

Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, G. J. You, X. Q. Qiu, K. J. Liu, Y. L. Yan, and S. X. Qian, "Multi-photon excitation UV emission by femtosecond pulses and nonlinearity in ZnO single crystal," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 216202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feick, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot and J. P. Fillard "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants, n, k and the thickness," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F. X.

B. L. Yu, C. S. Zhu, F. X. Gan, X. C. Wu, G. L. Zhang, G. Q. Tang, and W. J. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mater. 8, 249-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot and J. P. Fillard "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants, n, k and the thickness," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, "High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038-1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, " Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Han, J. B.

Han, Y. B.

Hsieh, W. F.

J. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Y. C.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, "Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3087-3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Irimpan, L.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, "Nonlinear optical characteristics of self-assembled films of ZnO," Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. K. H. P. Li, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zhang, W. Ji, and S. H. Tang, "Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1951-1955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawasaki, M.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, "Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3087-3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ketterson, J. B.

G. Wang, G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, "Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kiehne, G. T.

G. Wang, G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, "Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kind, H.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koinuma, H.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, B.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, "Nonlinear optical characteristics of self-assembled films of ZnO," Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

C. H. K. H. P. Li, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. H. K. H. P.

C. H. K. H. P. Li, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. Y.

J. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. H.

J. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, K. H.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, "Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3087-3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, K. J.

Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, G. J. You, X. Q. Qiu, K. J. Liu, Y. L. Yan, and S. X. Qian, "Multi-photon excitation UV emission by femtosecond pulses and nonlinearity in ZnO single crystal," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 216202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

G. Wang, G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, "Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot and J. P. Fillard "A simple method for the determination of the optical constants, n, k and the thickness," J. Phys. E 9, 1002-1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marine, W.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, "Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3993-3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morkoc, H.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P. N.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, "Nonlinear optical characteristics of self-assembled films of ZnO," Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohtomo, A.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ong, H. C.

H. Cao, J. Y. Wu, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ozerov, I.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, "Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3993-3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozgur, U.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozturk, O. F.

F. Yakuphanoglu, M. Sekerci, and O. F. Ozturk, "The determination of the optical constants of Cu(II) compound having 1-chloro-2,3-o-cyclohexylidinepropane thin film," Opt. Commun. 239, 275-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patil, P. S.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

R. Adair, L. L. Chase, S. A. Payne, "Nonlinear refractive index of optical crystals," Phy. Rev. B 39, 3337-3350 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, G. I.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, "Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3993-3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29 kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pradeep, T.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29 kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S. X.

Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, G. J. You, X. Q. Qiu, K. J. Liu, Y. L. Yan, and S. X. Qian, "Multi-photon excitation UV emission by femtosecond pulses and nonlinearity in ZnO single crystal," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 216202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, X. Q.

Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, G. J. You, X. Q. Qiu, K. J. Liu, Y. L. Yan, and S. X. Qian, "Multi-photon excitation UV emission by femtosecond pulses and nonlinearity in ZnO single crystal," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 216202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Radhakrishnan, P.

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, "Nonlinear optical characteristics of self-assembled films of ZnO," Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Roderer, P.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
[CrossRef]

Russo, R.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, " Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Segawa, Y.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sekerci, M.

F. Yakuphanoglu, M. Sekerci, and O. F. Ozturk, "The determination of the optical constants of Cu(II) compound having 1-chloro-2,3-o-cyclohexylidinepropane thin film," Opt. Commun. 239, 275-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shcheslavskiy, V.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, "Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3993-3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, " Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, "High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038-1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. K.

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, "Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3087-3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G. Q.

B. L. Yu, C. S. Zhu, F. X. Gan, X. C. Wu, G. L. Zhang, G. Q. Tang, and W. J. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mater. 8, 249-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. H.

Tang, Z. K.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Teke, A.

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29 kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, " Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wamsley, C.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, "Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, Q. Q.

Weber, E.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405-414 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, " Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

G. Wang, G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, "Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J. Y.

H. Cao, J. Y. Wu, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. C.

B. L. Yu, C. S. Zhu, F. X. Gan, X. C. Wu, G. L. Zhang, G. Q. Tang, and W. J. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mater. 8, 249-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Y.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. V.

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, "Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3993-3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yakuphanoglu, F.

F. Yakuphanoglu, M. Sekerci, and O. F. Ozturk, "The determination of the optical constants of Cu(II) compound having 1-chloro-2,3-o-cyclohexylidinepropane thin film," Opt. Commun. 239, 275-280 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yan, H. Q.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, Y. L.

Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, G. J. You, X. Q. Qiu, K. J. Liu, Y. L. Yan, and S. X. Qian, "Multi-photon excitation UV emission by femtosecond pulses and nonlinearity in ZnO single crystal," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 216202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. D.

M. H. Huang, S. Mao, H. Feick, H. Q. Yan, Y. Y. Wu, H. Kind, E. Weber, R. Russo, and P. D. Yang, "Room-temperature ultraviolet nanowire nanolasers," Science 292, 1897-1899 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, T.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, "High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038-1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

You, G. J.

Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, G. J. You, X. Q. Qiu, K. J. Liu, Y. L. Yan, and S. X. Qian, "Multi-photon excitation UV emission by femtosecond pulses and nonlinearity in ZnO single crystal," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 216202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Yu, B. L.

B. L. Yu, C. S. Zhu, F. X. Gan, X. C. Wu, G. L. Zhang, G. Q. Tang, and W. J. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mater. 8, 249-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. F.

Z. W. Dong, C. F. Zhang, G. J. You, X. Q. Qiu, K. J. Liu, Y. L. Yan, and S. X. Qian, "Multi-photon excitation UV emission by femtosecond pulses and nonlinearity in ZnO single crystal," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19, 216202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. L.

B. L. Yu, C. S. Zhu, F. X. Gan, X. C. Wu, G. L. Zhang, G. Q. Tang, and W. J. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mater. 8, 249-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. J.

Zhu, C. S.

B. L. Yu, C. S. Zhu, F. X. Gan, X. C. Wu, G. L. Zhang, G. Q. Tang, and W. J. Chen, "Optical nonlinearities of Fe2O3 nanoparticles investigated by Z-scan technique," Opt. Mater. 8, 249-254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, "High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038-1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

L. Irimpan, A. Deepthy, B. Krishnan, V. P. N. Nampoori, and P. Radhakrishnan, "Nonlinear optical characteristics of self-assembled films of ZnO," Appl. Phys. B 90, 547-556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Lin, G. W. Chern, Y. C. Huang, S. Keller, S. P. DenBaars, and C. K. Sun, "Observation of huge nonlinear absorption enhancement near exciton resonance in GaN," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3087-3089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, G. T. Kiehne, G. K. L. Wong, J. B. Ketterson, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, "Large second harmonic response in ZnO thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 401-403 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, J. Y. Wu, H. C. Ong, J. Y. Dai, and R. P. H. Chang, "Second harmonic generation in laser ablated zinc oxide thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 572-574 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Petrov, V. Shcheslavskiy, V. V. Yakovlev, I. Ozerov, E. Chelnokov, and W. Marine, "Efficient third-harmonic generation in a thin nanocrystalline film of ZnO," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3993-3995 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Bagnall, Y. F. Chen, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, M. Y. Shen, and T. Goto, "High temperature excitonic stimulated emission from ZnO epitaxial layers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1038-1040 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. K. Tang, G. K. L. Wong, P. Yu, M. Kawasaki, A. Ohtomo, H. Koinuma, and Y. Segawa, "Room-temperature ultraviolet laser emission from self-assembled ZnO microcrystallite thin films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 3270-3272 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, A. G. Dillard, "3rd-order and 5th-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, (1994) 646-650.
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29 kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, " Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

U. Ozgur, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Dogan, V. Avrutin, S. J. Cho, and H. Morkoc, "A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices," J. Appl. Phys. 98, 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lin, Y. J. Chen, H. Y. Lin, and W. F. Hsieh, "Two-photon resonance assisted huge nonlinear refraction and absorption in ZnO thin films," J. Appl. Phys. 97, 033526 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. E (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

The Z-scan apparatus with reference detector and lock-in amplifier to minimize background and maximize the signal-to-noise ratio respectively.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). The optical transmittance spectrum of the ZnO thin film. The inset is the reflectance spectrum. (b) Plot of (α0)2 versus energy.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Open aperture Z-scan traces of ZnO thin film at 390 nm. The symbols are experimental data and the solid lines are theoretically fitting curves by modified theory. (b). Open aperture z-scan traces of ZnO thin film under different input intensity at 420 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Variation of effective two photon absorption coefficient with input intensity at different wavelengths. (a) 390 nm-400 nm and SB model (b) 405 nm–420 nm

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The nonlinear transmission measurement at focal point (Z=0) for the pump wavelength 420 nm.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Variation of two photon absorption coefficient of ZnO thin film with pump wavelength extending from near-UV (our results represented by solid squares) to near-IR region (previous results represented by open squares). The red dash line is one-half exciton wavelength, and the blue dash line is one-half band gap energy.

Tables (1)

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Table I. Fitted and calculated coefficients in nonlinear transmission measurements between 390 nm and 420 nm.

Equations (11)

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d I d z = ( α 0 + β 0 I + σ a N ) I ,
d N d t = α 0 I ω + β 0 I 2 2 ω .
N α 0 I ω τ a + β 0 I 2 2 ω τ a ,
d I d z = [ α 0 + ( β 0 + σ a α 0 τ p ω ) I + ( σ a β 0 τ p 2 ω ) I 2 ] I = [ α 0 + β eff I ] I .
β = β 0 + β 1 ,
D = σ a β 0 τ p 2 ω .
T ( z ) = ln ( 1 + q ) q ln [ ( 1 + p 2 ) 1 2 + p ] p f ( q , p ) ,
f ( q , p ) = [ n = 0 5 a n p n + q n = 0 5 b n p n ] [ 1 + q n = 0 5 c n p n ]
T ( z ) = ( a 0 + b 0 q ) ln ( 1 + q ) q ( 1 + c 0 q )
T ( 0 ) = ln ( 1 + q 0 ) q 0 ln [ ( 1 + p 0 2 ) 1 2 + p 0 ] p 0 f 0 ,
f 0 = [ n = 0 5 a n p 0 n + q 0 n = 0 5 b n p 0 n ] [ 1 + q 0 n = 0 5 c n p 0 n ] .

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