Abstract

We propose, solve, and discuss a simple model for a metamaterial incorporating optical gain: A single bosonic resonance is coupled to a fermionic (inverted) two-level-system resonance via local-field interactions. For given steady-state inversion, this model can be solved analytically, revealing a rich variety of (Fano) absorption/gain lineshapes. We also give an analytic expression for the fixed inversion resulting from gain pinning under steady-state conditions. Furthermore, the dynamic response of the “lasing SPASER”, i.e., its relaxation oscillations, can be obtained by simple numerical calculations within the same model. As a result, this toy model can be viewed as the near-field-optical counterpart of the usual LASER rate equations.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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  27. www.lumerical.com
  28. W. W. Chow, S. W. Koch, and M. Sargent III, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, New York, 1994).
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    [Crossref]

2008 (7)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photon. 1, 224–227 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Coherent metamaterials and the lasing spaser,” Nature Photon. 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nature Photon. 2, 327–329 (2008).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Chang, C.-Y.A. Ni, and S. L. Chuang, “Theory for bowtie plasmonic nanolasers,” Opt. Express 16, 10580–10595 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Gordon and R. W. Ziolkowski, “CNP optical metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16, 6692–6716 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Manolatou and F. Rana, “Subwavelength Nanopatch Cavities for Semiconductor Plasmon Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 435–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

M. I. Stockman, “Criterion for Negative Refraction with Low Optical Losses from a Fundamental Principle of Causality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 177404:1–4 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: Sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. A. Gordon and R. W. Ziolkowski, “The design and simulated performance of a coated nano-particle laser,” Opt. Express 15, 2622–2653 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature Photon. 1, 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep. 444, 101–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “A low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative-Index Metamaterials: Going Optical,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106–1115 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, J. Adegoke, C. E. Small, B. A. Ritzo, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Enhancement of surface plasmons in an Ag aggregate by optical gain in a dielectric medium,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3022–3024 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, “Stimulated Emission of Surface Plasmons at the Interface between a Silver Film and an Optically Pumped Dye Solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. W. Klein, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Lineshape of harmonic generation on metal nanoparticles and metallic Photonic Crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115113:1–12 (2005).

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

P. Nezhad, K. Tetz, and Y. Fainman, “Gain assisted propagation of surface plasmon polaritons on planar metallic waveguides,” Opt. Express 12, 4072–4079 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Avrutsky, “Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 155416:1–6 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402:1–4 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adegoke, J.

Avrutsky, I.

I. Avrutsky, “Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 155416:1–6 (2004).

Bahoura, M.

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402:1–4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Busch, K.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep. 444, 101–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photon. 1, 224–227 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, S.-W.

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photon. 1, 224–227 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow, S. W. Koch, and M. Sargent III, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, New York, 1994).

Chuang, S. L.

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dolling, G.

Drachev, V. P.

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Eng, L.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, “Stimulated Emission of Surface Plasmons at the Interface between a Silver Film and an Optically Pumped Dye Solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “A low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fainman, Y.

Fedotov, V. A.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Coherent metamaterials and the lasing spaser,” Nature Photon. 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Freymann, G. von

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep. 444, 101–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gordon, J. A.

Govyadinov, A. A.

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: Sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Grafstroem, S.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, “Stimulated Emission of Surface Plasmons at the Interface between a Silver Film and an Optically Pumped Dye Solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 1987)

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photon. 1, 224–227 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative-Index Metamaterials: Going Optical,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106–1115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Klar, T. A.

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative-Index Metamaterials: Going Optical,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106–1115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. W.

M. W. Klein, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Lineshape of harmonic generation on metal nanoparticles and metallic Photonic Crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115113:1–12 (2005).

Koch, S. W.

W. W. Chow, S. W. Koch, and M. Sargent III, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, New York, 1994).

Koschny, T.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Linden, S.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep. 444, 101–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “A low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. W. Klein, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Lineshape of harmonic generation on metal nanoparticles and metallic Photonic Crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115113:1–12 (2005).

Manolatou, C.

C. Manolatou and F. Rana, “Subwavelength Nanopatch Cavities for Semiconductor Plasmon Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 435–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mingaleev, S.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep. 444, 101–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nezhad, P.

Ni, C.-Y.A.

Noginov, M. A.

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: Sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, J. Adegoke, C. E. Small, B. A. Ritzo, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Enhancement of surface plasmons in an Ag aggregate by optical gain in a dielectric medium,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3022–3024 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Otten, F. W. M. van

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Papasimakis, N.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Coherent metamaterials and the lasing spaser,” Nature Photon. 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: Sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
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Prosvirnin, S. L.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Coherent metamaterials and the lasing spaser,” Nature Photon. 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rana, F.

C. Manolatou and F. Rana, “Subwavelength Nanopatch Cavities for Semiconductor Plasmon Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 435–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ritzo, B. A.

Sargent III, M.

W. W. Chow, S. W. Koch, and M. Sargent III, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, New York, 1994).

Schäfer, W.

W. Schäfer and M. Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, New York, 2002).

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seidel, J.

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, “Stimulated Emission of Surface Plasmons at the Interface between a Silver Film and an Optically Pumped Dye Solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photon. 1, 224–227 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature Photon. 1, 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative-Index Metamaterials: Going Optical,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106–1115 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, J. Adegoke, C. E. Small, B. A. Ritzo, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Enhancement of surface plasmons in an Ag aggregate by optical gain in a dielectric medium,” Opt. Lett. 31, 3022–3024 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Small, C. E.

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “A low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nature Photon. 2, 327–329 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, “Criterion for Negative Refraction with Low Optical Losses from a Fundamental Principle of Causality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 177404:1–4 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402:1–4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tetz, K.

Tkeshelashvili, L.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep. 444, 101–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tritschler, T.

M. W. Klein, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Lineshape of harmonic generation on metal nanoparticles and metallic Photonic Crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115113:1–12 (2005).

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Veldhoven, P. J. van

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wegener, M.

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep. 444, 101–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “A low-loss negative-index metamaterial at telecommunication wavelengths,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1800–1802 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Klein, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Lineshape of harmonic generation on metal nanoparticles and metallic Photonic Crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115113:1–12 (2005).

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Schäfer and M. Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, New York, 2002).

Zheludev, N. I.

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Coherent metamaterials and the lasing spaser,” Nature Photon. 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ziolkowski, R. W.

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Govyadinov, V. A. Podolskiy, and M. A. Noginov, “Active metamaterials: Sign of refractive index and gain-assisted dispersion management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 191103 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Manolatou and F. Rana, “Subwavelength Nanopatch Cavities for Semiconductor Plasmon Lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44, 435–447 (2008).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. A. Klar, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Negative-Index Metamaterials: Going Optical,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12, 1106–1115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature Photon. (5)

M. I. Stockman, “Spasers explained,” Nature Photon. 2, 327–329 (2008).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, “Optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature Photon. 1, 41–48 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nature Photon. 1, 224–227 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. I. Zheludev, S. L. Prosvirnin, N. Papasimakis, and V. A. Fedotov, “Coherent metamaterials and the lasing spaser,” Nature Photon. 2, 351–354 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nature Photon. 1, 589–594 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rep. (1)

K. Busch, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, S. Mingaleev, L. Tkeshelashvili, and M. Wegener, “Periodic nanostructures for photonics,” Phys. Rep. 444, 101–202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (2)

I. Avrutsky, “Surface plasmons at nanoscale relief gratings between a metal and a dielectric medium with optical gain,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 155416:1–6 (2004).

M. W. Klein, T. Tritschler, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Lineshape of harmonic generation on metal nanoparticles and metallic Photonic Crystal slabs,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115113:1–12 (2005).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. Zhou, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 203901:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, “Criterion for Negative Refraction with Low Optical Losses from a Fundamental Principle of Causality,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 177404:1–4 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Seidel, S. Grafstroem, and L. Eng, “Stimulated Emission of Surface Plasmons at the Interface between a Silver Film and an Optically Pumped Dye Solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 177401:1–4 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966–3969 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 027402:1–4 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Electromagnetic Cloak at Microwave Frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. M. Soukoulis, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Negative refractive index at optical wavelengths,” Science 315, 47–49 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

W. Schäfer and M. Wegener, Semiconductor Optics and Transport Phenomena (Springer, New York, 2002).

This software suitable for modern Windows compatible personal computers can be downloaded via www.aph.uni-karlsruhe.de/wegener/de/publikationen and then “Publications 2008”.

E. Hecht, Optics (Addison Wesley, 1987)

www.lumerical.com

W. W. Chow, S. W. Koch, and M. Sargent III, Semiconductor-Laser Physics (Springer, New York, 1994).

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