Abstract

We investigate the effect of silicon ion irradiation on free carrier lifetime in silicon waveguides, and thus its ability to reduce the density of two-photon-absorption (TPA) generated free carriers. Our experimental results show that free carrier lifetime can be reduced significantly by silicon ion implantation. Associated excess optical absorption from the implanted ions can be reduced to an acceptable level if irradiation energy and dose are correctly chosen. Simulations of Raman scattering suggest that net gain can be achieved in certain cases without the need for an integrated diode in reverse bias to remove the photo-generated free carriers.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Dimitropoulos, D. R. Solli, R. Claps, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Noise figure of silicon Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave. Technol. 26, 847-852 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, "Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, Jr., S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 3713-3718 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 071115 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Liu and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear absorption and Raman gain in helium-ion-implanted silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1714-1716 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Silvaco International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg 1, Santa Clara, CA 94054, www.silvaco.com.
  9. P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Waldow, T. Plötzing, M. Gottheil, M. Först, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, and H. Kurz, "25ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator," Opt. Express 16, 7693-7702 (2008)
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulating raman scattiering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. OriginLab Corporation,One Roundhouse Plaza, Suite 303,Northampton, MA 01060, USA, www.originlab.com.

2008

2006

Y. Liu and H. K. Tsang, "Nonlinear absorption and Raman gain in helium-ion-implanted silicon waveguides," Opt. Lett. 31, 1714-1716 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulating raman scattiering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

Boyraz, O.

D. Dimitropoulos, D. R. Solli, R. Claps, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Noise figure of silicon Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave. Technol. 26, 847-852 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, D. R. Solli, R. Claps, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Noise figure of silicon Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave. Technol. 26, 847-852 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulating raman scattiering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, P. G.

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

Dimitropoulos, D.

D. Dimitropoulos, D. R. Solli, R. Claps, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Noise figure of silicon Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave. Technol. 26, 847-852 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, "Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doylend, J. K.

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Espinola, R. L.

Fang, A.

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fathpour, S.

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, "Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Först, M.

Foster, P. J.

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friend, C. M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Gottheil, M.

Hak, D.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulating raman scattiering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

D. Dimitropoulos, D. R. Solli, R. Claps, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Noise figure of silicon Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave. Technol. 26, 847-852 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, "Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides," Opt. Express 12, 2774-2780 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, "Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulating raman scattiering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knights, A. P.

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulating raman scattiering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Mascher, P.

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
[CrossRef]

McNab, S. J.

Osgood, R. M.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulating raman scattiering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plötzing, T.

Raghunathan, V.

Rong, H.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulating raman scattiering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, M.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Solli, D. R.

D. Dimitropoulos, D. R. Solli, R. Claps, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Noise figure of silicon Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave. Technol. 26, 847-852 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wahlbrink, T.

Waldow, M.

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Y. Shen, C. H. Crouch, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, E. Mazur, M. Sheehy, and C. M. Friend, "Formation of regular arrays of silicon microspikes by femtosecond laser irradiation through a mask," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1715-1717 (2003)
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave. Technol.

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, "Optical amplification and lasing by stimulating raman scattiering in silicon waveguides," J. Lightwave. Technol. 24, 1440-1455 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, D. R. Solli, R. Claps, O. Boyraz, and B. Jalali, "Noise figure of silicon Raman amplifiers," J. Lightwave. Technol. 26, 847-852 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, "A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser," Nature 433, 725-728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

Silvaco International, 4701 Patrick Henry Drive, Bldg 1, Santa Clara, CA 94054, www.silvaco.com.

P. J. Foster, J. K. Doylend, P. Mascher, A. P. Knights, and P. G. Coleman, "Optical attenuation in defect-engineered silicon rib waveguides," J. Appl. Phys. 99, 073101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, "Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides," Appl. Phys. Lett 86, 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, "Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

OriginLab Corporation,One Roundhouse Plaza, Suite 303,Northampton, MA 01060, USA, www.originlab.com.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental data of excess loss versus dose for different silicon implantation energies

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Free carrier lifetime measurement technique. The laser is aligned with the top of the waveguide. This excites carriers which attenuate the broadband beam. During the off-cycle of the pump the carriers recombine.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time dependence of the transmitted probe signal in a 400keV 1×1012cm-2 implanted silicon waveguide excited by a femto-second pump pulse. The probe signal decreases as the pump pulse excites carriers. During the off cycle, the probe signal recovers due to recombination of carriers. Fitting the data with an exponential curve (solid line) gives a decay time of 0.56ns

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Plot comparing excess loss and reduction in free carrier lifetime for 400keV energy with 1011, 5×1011 and 1012cm-2 doses. As the concentration (ion implantation dose) of defects increases so does the excess loss and reduction in free carrier lifetime.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Modeled optical net continuous wave Raman gain as a function of input pump power in a 4.8cm silicon waveguide for 1×1011cm-2, 5×1011cm-2 and 1×1012cm-2 400 keV silicon doses.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Ion induced excess propagation loss in dB/cm for associated energy and dose implants

Tables Icon

Table 2. Percentage reduction in free carrier lifetime for labeled silicon ion dose and energy

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d P ( z ) d z = α P ( z ) β A eff P 2 ( z ) σ N ( z ) P ( z )
N ( z ) = β λ P τ eff P 2 ( z ) 2 h c A eff 2
d P s ( z ) d z = α P s ( z ) 2 β g r A eff P ( z ) P s ( z ) σ S N ( z ) P s ( z )
G = 10 log P s ( L ) P s ( 0 )

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