Abstract

A novel optical time-to-live (TTL) method based on the use of logic XOR gates is proposed. All-optical decrementing of a packet’s TTL field is demonstrated employing a cascade of two SOA-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers. The principle of operation is validated by means of simulations, showing a good extinction ratio (higher than 10 dB) at the output of the 1-bit subtractor.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Bendilli, C. Cavazzoni, R. Girardi, and R. Lano, "Optical performance monitoring techniques," in Proc. 26th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2000), 4, 113-116, Munich, Germany, Sept. 2000.
  2. R. Giles, "Monitoring the optical networks," in Proc. Symposium on optical fiber measurements, (Boulders, United States, 2002), pp. 19-24.
  3. W. Hung, K. Chan, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, and F. Tong, "A routing loop control scheme in optical layer for optical packet networks", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC 2002), paper ThGG111, 770-771.
  4. J. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. Willner, Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746-2751 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Yang, Z. Zhu, H. Yang, Z. Pan, and S. J. Ben Yoo, "All-optical time-to-live using error-checking labels in optical label switching networks," in Proc. 30th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2004), paper Th3.4.5, Stokholm, Sweden, Sept. 2004.
  6. J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, J. Herrera, and R. Llorente, "All-optical N-bit XOR gate with feedback for optical packet header processing," in Proc. 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), paper P4-8, Copenhagen, Denmark, Sept. 2002.
  7. J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, and J. Martí, "All-optical correlation employing single logic XOR gate with feedback," Electron. Lett. 42, 1170-1171 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Clavero, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks," Opt. Express 12, 4326-4332 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, and J. Martí, "All-optical correlation employing single logic XOR gate with feedback," Electron. Lett. 42, 1170-1171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. Willner, Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746-2751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Avramopoulos, H.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Binsma, J. J. M.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Clavero, R.

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

den Besten, J. H.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dorren, H. J. S.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gurkan, D.

J. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. Willner, Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746-2751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herrera, J.

J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, and J. Martí, "All-optical correlation employing single logic XOR gate with feedback," Electron. Lett. 42, 1170-1171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holm-Nielsen, P. V.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jeppesen, P.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kehayas, E.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khoe, G. D.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

J. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. Willner, Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746-2751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leijtens, X. J. M.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Clavero, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks," Opt. Express 12, 4326-4332 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martí, J.

J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, and J. Martí, "All-optical correlation employing single logic XOR gate with feedback," Electron. Lett. 42, 1170-1171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, J. M.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, and J. Martí, "All-optical correlation employing single logic XOR gate with feedback," Electron. Lett. 42, 1170-1171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Clavero, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks," Opt. Express 12, 4326-4332 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxwell, G.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McDougall, R.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McGeehan, J.

J. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. Willner, Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746-2751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Motaghian Nezam, S. M. R.

J. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. Willner, Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746-2751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parameswaran, A.

J. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. Willner, Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746-2751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ramos, F.

J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, and J. Martí, "All-optical correlation employing single logic XOR gate with feedback," Electron. Lett. 42, 1170-1171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Clavero, J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, and J. Marti, "All-optical packet routing scheme for optical label-swapping networks," Opt. Express 12, 4326-4332 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seoane, J.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, E.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Zantvoort, J. H. C.

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A.

J. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. Willner, Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746-2751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, F. Ramos, and J. Martí, "All-optical correlation employing single logic XOR gate with feedback," Electron. Lett. 42, 1170-1171 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. McGeehan, S. Kumar, D. Gurkan, S. M. R. Motaghian Nezam, A. Willner, Parameswaran, M. M. Fejer, J. Bannister, and J. D. Touch, "All-optical decrementing of a packet’s time-to-live (TTL) field and subsequent dropping of a zero-TTL packet," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 21, 2746-2751 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

E. Kehayas, J. Seoane, Y. Liu, J. M. Martinez, J. Herrera, P. V. Holm-Nielsen, S. Zhang, R. McDougall, G. Maxwell, F. Ramos, J. Marti, H. J. S. Dorren, P. Jeppesen, and H. Avramopoulos, "All-optical network subsystems using integrated SOA-based optical gates and flip-flops for label-swapped networks," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1750-1752 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, T. de Vries, H. J. S. Dorren, X. J. M. Leijtens, J. H. C. van Zantvoort, J. H. den Besten, E. Smalbrugge, Y. S. Oei, J. J. M. Binsma, G. D. Khoe, and M. K. Smit, "Integrated two-state AWG-based multiwavelength laser," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 956-958 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (5)

J. Yang, Z. Zhu, H. Yang, Z. Pan, and S. J. Ben Yoo, "All-optical time-to-live using error-checking labels in optical label switching networks," in Proc. 30th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2004), paper Th3.4.5, Stokholm, Sweden, Sept. 2004.

J. M. Martinez, F. Ramos, J. Martí, J. Herrera, and R. Llorente, "All-optical N-bit XOR gate with feedback for optical packet header processing," in Proc. 28th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2002), paper P4-8, Copenhagen, Denmark, Sept. 2002.

G. Bendilli, C. Cavazzoni, R. Girardi, and R. Lano, "Optical performance monitoring techniques," in Proc. 26th European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 2000), 4, 113-116, Munich, Germany, Sept. 2000.

R. Giles, "Monitoring the optical networks," in Proc. Symposium on optical fiber measurements, (Boulders, United States, 2002), pp. 19-24.

W. Hung, K. Chan, L. K. Chen, C. K. Chan, and F. Tong, "A routing loop control scheme in optical layer for optical packet networks", in Conf. Opt. Fiber Commun. (OFC 2002), paper ThGG111, 770-771.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Architecture of the all-optical 1-bit TTL subtractor. (b) Example of operation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Principle of operation of the 1-bit subtractor: Boolean logic.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulation results (LSB bit enters first in time).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Example of recursive TTL decrementing reaching zero.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Q factor of the TTL field as a function of the number of subtraction operations.

Metrics