Abstract

We report the realization of a mechanically flexible microcavity laser emitting at 657 nm using spin coating. These optically pumped vertical cavity surface emitting lasers use InGaP colloidal quantum dots as the active medium and alternating polymer layers of different refractive indices as the Bragg mirrors. Results of photoluminescence measurements indicating enhancement in spontaneous emission are presented. We also demonstrate the possibility of peeling the device off the substrate yielding a flexible structure that can conform to any shape and whose emission spectra can be mechanically tuned. This new class of hybrid lasers combines advantages of organic and inorganic materials.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  29. G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Blue surface emitting distributed feedback polyfluorene lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2118-2120 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
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2007 (5)

R. Bose, X. Yang, R. Chatterjee, J. Gao, and C. Wong, "Weak coupling interactions of colloidal lead sulphide nanocrystals with silicon photonic crystal nanocavities near 1.55 µm at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, Z. Mi, P. Bhattacharya, T. Zhu, and J. Xu, "Enhanced spontaneous emission at 1.55 µm from colloidal PbSe quantum dots in a Si photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Kahl, T. Thomay, V. Kohnle, K. Beha, J. Merlein, M. Hagner, A. Halm, J. Ziegler, T. Nann, Y. Fedutik, U. Woggon, M. Artemyev, F. P-Willard, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, "Colloidal quantum dots in all-dielectric high-Q pillar microcavities," Nano. Lett. 7, 2897-2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. V. Valappil, M. Luberto, V. M. Menon, I. Zeylikovich, T. K. Gayen, J. Franco, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, "Solution processed microcavity structures with embedded quantum dots," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 184-188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Furumi, H. Fudouzi, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Sakka, "Flexible polymer colloidal -crystal lasers with a light-emitting planar defect," Adv. Mater. 19, 2067-2072 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

J. Lawrence, Y. Ying, P. Jiang, and S. Foulger, "Dynamic tuning of organic lasers with colloidal crystals," Adv. Mater. 18, 300-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Hoogland, V. Sukhovatkin, I. Howard, S. Cauchi, L. Levina, and E. H. Sargent, "A solution-processed 1.53 μm quantum dot laser with temperature-invariant emission wavelength," Opt. Express 14, 3273-3281 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Li, B. Jia, G. Zhou, and M. Gu, "Fabrication of three-dimensional woodpile photonic crystals in a PbSe quantum dot composite material," Opt. Express 14, 10740-10745 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sakata, H. Takeuchi, K. Natsume, and S. Suzuki, "Vertical-cavity organic lasers with distributed-feedback structures based on active Bragg reflectors," Opt. Express 14, 11681-11686 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Persano, P. D. Carro, E. Mele, R. Cingolani, D. Pisignano, M. Z-Rossi, S. Longhi, G. Lanzani, "Monolithic polymer microcavity lasers with on-top evaporated dielectric mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Komikado, S. Yoshida, and S. Umegaki, "Surface-emitting distributed-feedback dye laser of a polymeric multilayer fabricated by spin coating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Martidadonna, L. Carbone, M. De Giorgi, L. Manna, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, "High Q factor colloidal nanocrystal based vertical microcavity by hot embossing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

I. Fushman, D. Englund, and J. Vučković, "Coupling of PbS quantum dots to photonic crystal cavities at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Snee, Y. Chan, D. Nocera, and M. Bawendi, "Whispering-gallery-mode lasing from a semiconductor nanocrystal/microsphere resonator composite," Adv. Mater. 17, 1131-1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Katouf, T. Komikado, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, "Ultra-fast optical switches using 1D polymeric photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. 3, 116-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Polyfluorene distributed feedback lasers operating in the green-yellow spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

M. Reufer, S. Reichel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "Low threshold distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3262-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sandrok, M. Wiggins, J. S. Shirk, H. Tai, A. Ranade, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, "A widely tunable refractive index in a nanolayered photonic material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3621-3623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Sundar, H.-J. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, "Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers," Adv. Mater. 16, 2137-2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chan, J. M. Caruge, P. T. Snee, and M. G. Bawendi, "Multiexcitonic two-state lasing in a CdSe nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2460-2462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Lodahl, A. Floris van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, "Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals," Nature 430, 654-657 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

C. Poitras, M. Lipson, H. Du, M. Hahn, and T. Krauss, "Photoluminescence enhancement of colloidal quantum dots embedded in a monolithic microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4032-4034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Blue surface emitting distributed feedback polyfluorene lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

P. Andrew, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, "Photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a metal-backed polymeric distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 954-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, "Color selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, and F. Kajzar, "Fabrication of flexible distributed feedback laser using photoinduced surface relief grating on azo-polymer films as a template," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1386-L1388 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, and V. I. Klimov, "From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303-1305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Jounnopoulos, Y. Fink, and E. L. Thomas, "Polymer based photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 421-425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

C. Finlayson, D. Ginger, and N. Greenham, "Optical microcavities using highly luminescent films of semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2500-2502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1979 (2)

M. Kimura, K. Okahara, and T. Miyamoto, "Tunable multilayer-film distributed Bragg reflector filter," J. Appl. Phys. 50, 1222- 1225 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, "GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329-2330 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

N. V. Valappil, M. Luberto, V. M. Menon, I. Zeylikovich, T. K. Gayen, J. Franco, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, "Solution processed microcavity structures with embedded quantum dots," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 184-188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Andrew, P.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Blue surface emitting distributed feedback polyfluorene lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Andrew, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, "Photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a metal-backed polymeric distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 954-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Artemyev, M.

M. Kahl, T. Thomay, V. Kohnle, K. Beha, J. Merlein, M. Hagner, A. Halm, J. Ziegler, T. Nann, Y. Fedutik, U. Woggon, M. Artemyev, F. P-Willard, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, "Colloidal quantum dots in all-dielectric high-Q pillar microcavities," Nano. Lett. 7, 2897-2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baer, E.

M. Sandrok, M. Wiggins, J. S. Shirk, H. Tai, A. Ranade, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, "A widely tunable refractive index in a nanolayered photonic material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3621-3623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Blue surface emitting distributed feedback polyfluorene lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Andrew, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, "Photonic band structure and emission characteristics of a metal-backed polymeric distributed feedback laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 954-956 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M.

P. Snee, Y. Chan, D. Nocera, and M. Bawendi, "Whispering-gallery-mode lasing from a semiconductor nanocrystal/microsphere resonator composite," Adv. Mater. 17, 1131-1136 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bawendi, M. G.

Y. Chan, J. M. Caruge, P. T. Snee, and M. G. Bawendi, "Multiexcitonic two-state lasing in a CdSe nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2460-2462 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. C. Sundar, H.-J. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, "Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers," Adv. Mater. 16, 2137-2141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, "Color selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, and V. I. Klimov, "From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303-1305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beha, K.

M. Kahl, T. Thomay, V. Kohnle, K. Beha, J. Merlein, M. Hagner, A. Halm, J. Ziegler, T. Nann, Y. Fedutik, U. Woggon, M. Artemyev, F. P-Willard, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, "Colloidal quantum dots in all-dielectric high-Q pillar microcavities," Nano. Lett. 7, 2897-2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benstem, T.

M. Reufer, S. Reichel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "Low threshold distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3262-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

Z. Wu, Z. Mi, P. Bhattacharya, T. Zhu, and J. Xu, "Enhanced spontaneous emission at 1.55 µm from colloidal PbSe quantum dots in a Si photonic crystal microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 171105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bose, R.

R. Bose, X. Yang, R. Chatterjee, J. Gao, and C. Wong, "Weak coupling interactions of colloidal lead sulphide nanocrystals with silicon photonic crystal nanocavities near 1.55 µm at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

R. Xia, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Polyfluorene distributed feedback lasers operating in the green-yellow spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Blue surface emitting distributed feedback polyfluorene lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2118-2120 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carbone, L.

L. Martidadonna, L. Carbone, M. De Giorgi, L. Manna, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, "High Q factor colloidal nanocrystal based vertical microcavity by hot embossing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carro, P. D.

L. Persano, P. D. Carro, E. Mele, R. Cingolani, D. Pisignano, M. Z-Rossi, S. Longhi, G. Lanzani, "Monolithic polymer microcavity lasers with on-top evaporated dielectric mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 121110 (2006).
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Y. Chan, J. M. Caruge, P. T. Snee, and M. G. Bawendi, "Multiexcitonic two-state lasing in a CdSe nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 2460-2462 (2004).
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R. Bose, X. Yang, R. Chatterjee, J. Gao, and C. Wong, "Weak coupling interactions of colloidal lead sulphide nanocrystals with silicon photonic crystal nanocavities near 1.55 µm at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111117 (2007).
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A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Jounnopoulos, Y. Fink, and E. L. Thomas, "Polymer based photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 421-425 (2001).
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L. Martidadonna, L. Carbone, M. De Giorgi, L. Manna, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, "High Q factor colloidal nanocrystal based vertical microcavity by hot embossing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181108 (2006).
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N. V. Valappil, M. Luberto, V. M. Menon, I. Zeylikovich, T. K. Gayen, J. Franco, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, "Solution processed microcavity structures with embedded quantum dots," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 184-188 (2007).
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L. Martidadonna, L. Carbone, M. De Giorgi, L. Manna, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, "High Q factor colloidal nanocrystal based vertical microcavity by hot embossing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181108 (2006).
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L. Martidadonna, L. Carbone, M. De Giorgi, L. Manna, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, "High Q factor colloidal nanocrystal based vertical microcavity by hot embossing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181108 (2006).
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V. C. Sundar, H.-J. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, "Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers," Adv. Mater. 16, 2137-2141 (2004).
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N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).
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A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Jounnopoulos, Y. Fink, and E. L. Thomas, "Polymer based photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 421-425 (2001).
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M. Reufer, S. Reichel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "Low threshold distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3262-3264 (2004).
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M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
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M. Kuwata-Gonokami, R. H. Jordan, A. Dodabalapur, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, R. E. Slusher, and S. Ozawa, "Polymer microdisk and microring lasers," Opt. Lett. 20, 2093-2095 (1995).
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C. Poitras, M. Lipson, H. Du, M. Hahn, and T. Krauss, "Photoluminescence enhancement of colloidal quantum dots embedded in a monolithic microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4032-4034 (2003).
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Edrington, A. C.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Jounnopoulos, Y. Fink, and E. L. Thomas, "Polymer based photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 421-425 (2001).
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Eisler, H.

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, "Color selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
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Eisler, H.-J.

V. C. Sundar, H.-J. Eisler, T. Deng, Y. Chan, E. L. Thomas, and M. G. Bawendi, "Soft-lithographically embossed, multilayered distributed-feedback nanocrystal lasers," Adv. Mater. 16, 2137-2141 (2004).
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I. Fushman, D. Englund, and J. Vučković, "Coupling of PbS quantum dots to photonic crystal cavities at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241102 (2005).
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Fedutik, Y.

M. Kahl, T. Thomay, V. Kohnle, K. Beha, J. Merlein, M. Hagner, A. Halm, J. Ziegler, T. Nann, Y. Fedutik, U. Woggon, M. Artemyev, F. P-Willard, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, "Colloidal quantum dots in all-dielectric high-Q pillar microcavities," Nano. Lett. 7, 2897-2900 (2007).
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Feldmann, J.

M. Reufer, S. Reichel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "Low threshold distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3262-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fetters, L. J.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Jounnopoulos, Y. Fink, and E. L. Thomas, "Polymer based photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 421-425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fink, Y.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Jounnopoulos, Y. Fink, and E. L. Thomas, "Polymer based photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 421-425 (2001).
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C. Finlayson, D. Ginger, and N. Greenham, "Optical microcavities using highly luminescent films of semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2500-2502 (2000).
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Floris van Driel, A.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, "Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals," Nature 430, 654-657 (2004)
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M. Reufer, S. Reichel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "Low threshold distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3262-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J. Lawrence, Y. Ying, P. Jiang, and S. Foulger, "Dynamic tuning of organic lasers with colloidal crystals," Adv. Mater. 18, 300-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franco, J.

N. V. Valappil, M. Luberto, V. M. Menon, I. Zeylikovich, T. K. Gayen, J. Franco, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, "Solution processed microcavity structures with embedded quantum dots," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 184-188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

N. Tessler, G. J. Denton, and R. H. Friend, "Lasing from conjugated polymer microcavities," Nature 382, 695-697 (1996).
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S. Furumi, H. Fudouzi, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Sakka, "Flexible polymer colloidal -crystal lasers with a light-emitting planar defect," Adv. Mater. 19, 2067-2072 (2007).
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S. Furumi, H. Fudouzi, H. Miyazaki, and Y. Sakka, "Flexible polymer colloidal -crystal lasers with a light-emitting planar defect," Adv. Mater. 19, 2067-2072 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fushman, I.

I. Fushman, D. Englund, and J. Vučković, "Coupling of PbS quantum dots to photonic crystal cavities at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 241102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

R. Bose, X. Yang, R. Chatterjee, J. Gao, and C. Wong, "Weak coupling interactions of colloidal lead sulphide nanocrystals with silicon photonic crystal nanocavities near 1.55 µm at room temperature," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 111117 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gayen, T. K.

N. V. Valappil, M. Luberto, V. M. Menon, I. Zeylikovich, T. K. Gayen, J. Franco, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, "Solution processed microcavity structures with embedded quantum dots," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 184-188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

L. Martidadonna, L. Carbone, M. De Giorgi, L. Manna, G. Gigli, R. Cingolani, and M. De Vittorio, "High Q factor colloidal nanocrystal based vertical microcavity by hot embossing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 181108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ginger, D.

C. Finlayson, D. Ginger, and N. Greenham, "Optical microcavities using highly luminescent films of semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2500-2502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

M. Reufer, S. Reichel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "Low threshold distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3262-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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C. Finlayson, D. Ginger, and N. Greenham, "Optical microcavities using highly luminescent films of semiconductor nanocrystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2500-2502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Hadjichristidis, N.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Jounnopoulos, Y. Fink, and E. L. Thomas, "Polymer based photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 421-425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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M. Kahl, T. Thomay, V. Kohnle, K. Beha, J. Merlein, M. Hagner, A. Halm, J. Ziegler, T. Nann, Y. Fedutik, U. Woggon, M. Artemyev, F. P-Willard, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, "Colloidal quantum dots in all-dielectric high-Q pillar microcavities," Nano. Lett. 7, 2897-2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, M.

C. Poitras, M. Lipson, H. Du, M. Hahn, and T. Krauss, "Photoluminescence enhancement of colloidal quantum dots embedded in a monolithic microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4032-4034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Halm, A.

M. Kahl, T. Thomay, V. Kohnle, K. Beha, J. Merlein, M. Hagner, A. Halm, J. Ziegler, T. Nann, Y. Fedutik, U. Woggon, M. Artemyev, F. P-Willard, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, "Colloidal quantum dots in all-dielectric high-Q pillar microcavities," Nano. Lett. 7, 2897-2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Xia, G. Heliotis, P. N. Stavrinou, and D. D. C. Bradley, "Polyfluorene distributed feedback lasers operating in the green-yellow spectral region," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 031104 (2005).
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G. Heliotis, R. Xia, D. D. C. Bradley, G. A. Turnbull, I. D. W. Samuel, P. Andrew, and W. L. Barnes, "Blue surface emitting distributed feedback polyfluorene lasers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 2118-2120 (2003).
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M. Sandrok, M. Wiggins, J. S. Shirk, H. Tai, A. Ranade, E. Baer, and A. Hiltner, "A widely tunable refractive index in a nanolayered photonic material," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3621-3623 (2004).
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A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, and V. I. Klimov, "From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303-1305 (2002).
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Hoogland, S.

Howard, I.

Htoon, H.

A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, and V. I. Klimov, "From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303-1305 (2002).
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Iga, K.

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, "GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329-2330 (1979).
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P. Lodahl, A. Floris van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, "Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals," Nature 430, 654-657 (2004)
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Itoh, M.

R. Katouf, T. Komikado, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, "Ultra-fast optical switches using 1D polymeric photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. 3, 116-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jia, B.

Jiang, P.

J. Lawrence, Y. Ying, P. Jiang, and S. Foulger, "Dynamic tuning of organic lasers with colloidal crystals," Adv. Mater. 18, 300-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

M. Meier, A. Mekis, A. Dodabalapur, A. Timko, R. E. Slusher, J. D. Joannopoulos, and O. Nalamasu, "Laser action from two-dimensional distributed feedback in photonic crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 7-9 (1999)
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

Jounnopoulos, J. D.

A. C. Edrington, A. M. Urbas, P. DeRege, C. X. Chen, T. M. Swager, N. Hadjichristidis, M. Xenidou, L. J. Fetters, J. D. Jounnopoulos, Y. Fink, and E. L. Thomas, "Polymer based photonic crystals," Adv. Mater. 13, 421-425 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kahl, M.

M. Kahl, T. Thomay, V. Kohnle, K. Beha, J. Merlein, M. Hagner, A. Halm, J. Ziegler, T. Nann, Y. Fedutik, U. Woggon, M. Artemyev, F. P-Willard, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, "Colloidal quantum dots in all-dielectric high-Q pillar microcavities," Nano. Lett. 7, 2897-2900 (2007).
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T. Matsui, M. Ozaki, K. Yoshino, and F. Kajzar, "Fabrication of flexible distributed feedback laser using photoinduced surface relief grating on azo-polymer films as a template," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 41, L1386-L1388 (2002).
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Kallinger, C.

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Katouf, R.

R. Katouf, T. Komikado, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, "Ultra-fast optical switches using 1D polymeric photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. 3, 116-119 (2005).
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Katz, H. E.

Kimura, M.

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Kitahara, C.

H. Soda, K. Iga, C. Kitahara, and Y. Suematsu, "GaInAsP/InP surface emitting injection lasers," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 2329-2330 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V.

H. Eisler, V. C. Sundar, M. G. Bawendi, M. Walsh, H. I. Smith, and V. Klimov, "Color selective semiconductor nanocrystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 4614-4616 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, and V. I. Klimov, "From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303-1305 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kohnle, V.

M. Kahl, T. Thomay, V. Kohnle, K. Beha, J. Merlein, M. Hagner, A. Halm, J. Ziegler, T. Nann, Y. Fedutik, U. Woggon, M. Artemyev, F. P-Willard, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, "Colloidal quantum dots in all-dielectric high-Q pillar microcavities," Nano. Lett. 7, 2897-2900 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komikado, T.

T. Komikado, S. Yoshida, and S. Umegaki, "Surface-emitting distributed-feedback dye laser of a polymeric multilayer fabricated by spin coating," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 061123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Katouf, T. Komikado, M. Itoh, T. Yatagai, and S. Umegaki, "Ultra-fast optical switches using 1D polymeric photonic crystals," Photon. Nanostruct. 3, 116-119 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kowalsky, W.

M. Reufer, S. Reichel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "Low threshold distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3262-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T.

C. Poitras, M. Lipson, H. Du, M. Hahn, and T. Krauss, "Photoluminescence enhancement of colloidal quantum dots embedded in a monolithic microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4032-4034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

Lawrence, J.

J. Lawrence, Y. Ying, P. Jiang, and S. Foulger, "Dynamic tuning of organic lasers with colloidal crystals," Adv. Mater. 18, 300-303 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

M. Reufer, S. Reichel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "Low threshold distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3262-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Riechel, C. Kallinger, U. Lemmer, J. Feldmann, A. Gombert, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "A nearly diffraction limited surface emitting conjugated polymer laser utilizing a two-dimensional photonic band structure," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2310-2312 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levina, L.

Li, J.

Lipson, M.

C. Poitras, M. Lipson, H. Du, M. Hahn, and T. Krauss, "Photoluminescence enhancement of colloidal quantum dots embedded in a monolithic microcavity," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4032-4034 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lodahl, P.

P. Lodahl, A. Floris van Driel, I. S. Nikolaev, A. Irman, K. Overgaag, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and W. L. Vos, "Controlling the dynamics of spontaneous emission from quantum dots by photonic crystals," Nature 430, 654-657 (2004)
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luberto, M.

N. V. Valappil, M. Luberto, V. M. Menon, I. Zeylikovich, T. K. Gayen, J. Franco, B. B. Das, and R. R. Alfano, "Solution processed microcavity structures with embedded quantum dots," Photon. Nanostruct. 5, 184-188 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lupton, J. M.

M. Reufer, S. Reichel, J. M. Lupton, J. Feldmann, U. Lemmer, D. Schneider, T. Benstem, T. Dobbertin, W. Kowalsky, A. Gombert, K. Forberich, V. Wittwer, and U. Scherf, "Low threshold distributed feedback lasers with metallic contacts," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3262-3264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Malko, A. V.

A. V. Malko, A. A. Mikhailovsky, M. A. Petruska, J. A. Hollingsworth, H. Htoon, M. G. Bawendi, and V. I. Klimov, "From amplified spontaneous emission to microring lasing using nanocrystal quantum dot solids," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1303-1305 (2002).
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Adv. Mater. (5)

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a). Schematic drawing of the solution processed all-polymer microcavity. (b) Photograph of free-standing microcavity with embedded quantum dots. The scale bar corresponds to 2.54 cm. As seen in the bottom picture of (b), the microcavity device can easily conform to any shape. (c) Reflectivity of the microcavity at normal incidence. The inset shows the reflectivity of the bottom Bragg mirror consisting of 20 periods at five different locations on the sample indicating over 95% reflectivity and good uniformity.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Steady state photoluminescence spectrum of the InGaP quantum dots in the microcavity (red). Luminescence maxima corresponding to the cavity mode and the band edge modes are indicated. The luminescence spectrum of the bare quantum dots in toluene is also shown for comparison (black). (b) Angle dependent photoluminescence spectrum of the microcavity device on a flat substrate. The emission spectrum follows the cavity mode till 40°. Beyond this point, the emission maximum of the quantum dots lie outside the stop band and hence does not show any angle dependence. (c) Photoluminescence observed at 20° collection angle from the microcavity wrapped around cylinders of different radii. The emission wavelength is found to blue shift and intensity of emission decreases upon bending the microcavity to smaller radii.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Output power of the flexible microcavity surface emitting laser as a function of input optical pump power. A clear threshold for lasing can be observed at 27 mW at wavelength of 657 nm. The insets show the emission spectra above threshold and the full width at half maximum of the lasing spectra as a function of pump power clearly indicating a threshold behavior.

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