Abstract

Low energy femtosecond laser pulses locally increase the refractive index and the hydro-fluoric acid etching rate of fused silica. These phenomena form the basis of a direct-write method to fabricate integrated glass devices that are of particular interest for optofluidics and optomechanical applications. Yet the underlying physical mechanism behind these effects remains elusive, especially the role of the laser polarization. Using Scanning Thermal Microscope and Raman spectrometer we observe in laser affected zones, a localized sharp decrease of the thermal conductivity correlated with an increased presence of low-number SiO2 cycles. In addition, we find that a high correlation exists between the amount of structural changes and the decrease of thermal conductivity. Furthermore, sub-wavelength periodic patterns are detected for high peak power exposures. Finally, our findings indicate that, to date, the localized densification induced by femtosecond laser pulses remains well below the theoretical value achievable in mechanically densified silica.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Proc. 77, 109-111 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008). doi: 10.1002/lpor.200710031
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazanski, Q. Jiarong, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. D. M. Krol, "Femtosecond laser modification of glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 416-424 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Bellouard, A. Said, and P. Bado, "Integrating optics and micro-mechanics in a single substrate: a step toward monolithic integration in fused silica," Opt. Express 13, 6635-6644 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-17-6635.
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  13. Y. Bellouard, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, "Thermal conductivity contrast measurement of Fused Silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161911 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Majumbar, "Scanning Thermal Microscopy," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 29, 505-585 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media," Opt. Express 13, 3208-3217 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3208.
    [CrossRef]
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  17. X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser Ablation and Micromachining with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Tomozawa, Y. K. Lee, and Y. L. Peng, "Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 104-109 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Sugiura and T. Yamadaya, "Raman-scattering in silica glass in the permanent densification region," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 151-158 (1992).
  22. N. Kitamura, Y. Toguchi, S. Funo, H. Yamashita, and M. J. Kinoshita, "Refractive-index of densified silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 241-245 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. L. Zheng, J. C. Lambropoulos, and A. W. Schmid, "UV-laser-induced densification of fused silica: a molecular dynamics study," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 144-152 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, "Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209,166-174 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-7-775.
  27. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, "Three-Dimensional Micro- and Nano-Fabrication in Transparent Materials by Femtosecond Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4735-4748 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008). doi: 10.1002/lpor.200710031
[CrossRef]

D. M. Krol, "Femtosecond laser modification of glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 416-424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. Bellouard, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, "Thermal conductivity contrast measurement of Fused Silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard, T. Colomb, C. Depeursinge, M. Dugan, A. Said, and P. Bado, "Nanoindentation and birefringence measurements on fused silica specimen exposed to low-energy femtosecond pulses," Opt. Express 14, 8360-8366 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-18-8360.
[CrossRef]

2005

2004

2003

S. O. Kucheyev and S. G. Demos, "Optical defects produced in fused silica during laser-induced breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3230-3232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-7-775.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Proc. 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazanski, Q. Jiarong, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

1999

A. Majumbar, "Scanning Thermal Microscopy," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 29, 505-585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, "Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209,166-174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser Ablation and Micromachining with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1993

N. Kitamura, Y. Toguchi, S. Funo, H. Yamashita, and M. J. Kinoshita, "Refractive-index of densified silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 241-245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

H. Sugiura and T. Yamadaya, "Raman-scattering in silica glass in the permanent densification region," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 151-158 (1992).

1965

V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965).

Agarwal, A.

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, "Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209,166-174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bado, P.

Barthel, E.

A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellouard, Y.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-7-775.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Proc. 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Champagnon, B.

A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.W.

Colomb, T.

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Rayner, A. Naumov, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultrashort pulse non-linear optical absorption in transparent media," Opt. Express 13, 3208-3217 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-9-3208.
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-7-775.

Davis, K. M.

Demos, S. G.

S. O. Kucheyev and S. G. Demos, "Optical defects produced in fused silica during laser-induced breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3230-3232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Depeursinge, C.

Du, D.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser Ablation and Micromachining with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dugan, M.

Funo, S.

N. Kitamura, Y. Toguchi, S. Funo, H. Yamashita, and M. J. Kinoshita, "Refractive-index of densified silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 241-245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, B.

Gisin, N.

Grosvalet, L.

A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, "Three-Dimensional Micro- and Nano-Fabrication in Transparent Materials by Femtosecond Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4735-4748 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazanski, Q. Jiarong, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, "Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser," Opt. Lett. 21, 1729-1731 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008). doi: 10.1002/lpor.200710031
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-7-775.

Huser, T.

Huttner, B.

Jiarong, Q.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazanski, Q. Jiarong, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

Kazanski, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazanski, Q. Jiarong, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, "Three-Dimensional Micro- and Nano-Fabrication in Transparent Materials by Femtosecond Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4735-4748 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keldysh, V.

V. Keldysh, "Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave," Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307-1314 (1965).

Kinoshita, M. J.

N. Kitamura, Y. Toguchi, S. Funo, H. Yamashita, and M. J. Kinoshita, "Refractive-index of densified silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 241-245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, N.

N. Kitamura, Y. Toguchi, S. Funo, H. Yamashita, and M. J. Kinoshita, "Refractive-index of densified silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 241-245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krol, D. M.

Kucheyev, S. O.

S. O. Kucheyev and S. G. Demos, "Optical defects produced in fused silica during laser-induced breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3230-3232 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

L. Zheng, J. C. Lambropoulos, and A. W. Schmid, "UV-laser-induced densification of fused silica: a molecular dynamics study," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 144-152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. K.

M. Tomozawa, Y. K. Lee, and Y. L. Peng, "Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 104-109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser Ablation and Micromachining with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Majumbar, A.

A. Majumbar, "Scanning Thermal Microscopy," Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 29, 505-585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marcinkevicius, A.

Martinet, C.

A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, V.

A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

Mehandale, M.

Misawa, H.

Miura, K.

Miwa, M.

Mourou, G.

X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser Ablation and Micromachining with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A.

Nishii, J.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Proc. 77, 109-111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oberson, P.

Peng, Y. L.

M. Tomozawa, Y. K. Lee, and Y. L. Peng, "Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 104-109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perriot, A.

A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, "Three-Dimensional Micro- and Nano-Fabrication in Transparent Materials by Femtosecond Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4735-4748 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-7-775.

Rayner, D.M.

Risbudand, S.

Said, A.

Said, A. A.

Y. Bellouard, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, "Thermal conductivity contrast measurement of Fused Silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, A. W.

L. Zheng, J. C. Lambropoulos, and A. W. Schmid, "UV-laser-induced densification of fused silica: a molecular dynamics study," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 144-152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, "Three-Dimensional Micro- and Nano-Fabrication in Transparent Materials by Femtosecond Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4735-4748 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazanski, Q. Jiarong, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008). doi: 10.1002/lpor.200710031
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-7-775.

Sugimoto, N.

Sugiura, H.

H. Sugiura and T. Yamadaya, "Raman-scattering in silica glass in the permanent densification region," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 151-158 (1992).

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008). doi: 10.1002/lpor.200710031
[CrossRef]

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V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
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C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, D. M. Rayner, M. Mehandale, V. R. Bhardwaj, and P. B. Corkum, "Ultra-high resolution index of refraction profiles of femtosecond laser modified silica structures," Opt. Express 11, 775-781 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-7-775.

Toguchi, Y.

N. Kitamura, Y. Toguchi, S. Funo, H. Yamashita, and M. J. Kinoshita, "Refractive-index of densified silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 241-245 (1993).
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M. Tomozawa, Y. K. Lee, and Y. L. Peng, "Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 104-109 (1998).
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S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Proc. 77, 109-111 (2003).
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A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
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Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Proc. 77, 109-111 (2003).
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H. Sugiura and T. Yamadaya, "Raman-scattering in silica glass in the permanent densification region," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 151-158 (1992).

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N. Kitamura, Y. Toguchi, S. Funo, H. Yamashita, and M. J. Kinoshita, "Refractive-index of densified silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 241-245 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.

L. Zheng, J. C. Lambropoulos, and A. W. Schmid, "UV-laser-induced densification of fused silica: a molecular dynamics study," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 144-152 (2004).
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Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A

C. Hnatovsky, V. R. Bhardwaj, R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Fabrication of microchannels in glass using focused femtosecond laser radiation and selective chemical etching," Appl. Phys. A 84, 47-61 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Proc.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, "Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics," Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Proc. 77, 109-111 (2003).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. O. Kucheyev and S. G. Demos, "Optical defects produced in fused silica during laser-induced breakdown," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 3230-3232 (2003).
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Y. Bellouard, M. Dugan, A. A. Said, and P. Bado, "Thermal conductivity contrast measurement of Fused Silica exposed to low-energy femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 161911 (2006).
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X. Liu, D. Du, and G. Mourou, "Laser Ablation and Micromachining with Ultrashort Laser Pulses," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1706-1716 (1997).
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J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

A. Perriot, D. Vandembroucq, E. Barthel, V. Martinez, L. Grosvalet, C. Martinet, and B. Champagnon, "Raman microspectroscopic characterization of amorphous silica plastic behavior," J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 89, 596-601 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

H. Sugiura and T. Yamadaya, "Raman-scattering in silica glass in the permanent densification region," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 144, 151-158 (1992).

N. Kitamura, Y. Toguchi, S. Funo, H. Yamashita, and M. J. Kinoshita, "Refractive-index of densified silica glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 159, 241-245 (1993).
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D. M. Krol, "Femtosecond laser modification of glass," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 416-424 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zheng, J. C. Lambropoulos, and A. W. Schmid, "UV-laser-induced densification of fused silica: a molecular dynamics study," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 144-152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Agarwal and M. Tomozawa, "Correlation of silica glass properties with the infrared spectra," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 209,166-174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Tomozawa, Y. K. Lee, and Y. L. Peng, "Effect of uniaxial stresses on silica glass structure investigated by IR spectroscopy," J. Non-Cryst. Solids 242, 104-109 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, P. G. Kazansky, and J. Qiu, "Three-Dimensional Micro- and Nano-Fabrication in Transparent Materials by Femtosecond Laser," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 4735-4748 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, "Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass," Laser Photon. Rev. 2, 26-46 (2008). doi: 10.1002/lpor.200710031
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazanski, Q. Jiarong, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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