Abstract

Two independent significant developments have challenged our understanding of light-matter interaction, one, involves the artificially structured materials known as metamaterials, and the other, relates to the coherent control of quantum systems via the quantum interference route. We theoretically demonstrate that one can engineer the electromagnetic response of composite metamaterials using coherent quantum interference effects. In particular, we predict that these composite materials can show a variety of effects ranging from dramatic reduction of losses to switchable ultraslow-to-superluminal pulse propagation. We propose parametric control of the metamaterials by active tuning of the capacitance of the structures, which is most efficiently engineered by embedding the metamaterial structures within a coherent atomic/molecular medium. This leads to dramatic frequency dependent features, such as significantly reduced dissipation accompanied by enhanced filling fraction. For a Split-ring resonator medium with magnetic properties, the associated splitting of the negative permeability band can be exploited for narrow band switching applications at near infrared frequencies involving just a single layer of such composite metamaterials.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 - 4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, andW. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 - 2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 - 4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 - 1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 - 79 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 - 3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, "Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in in magnetic resonance imaging," Science 291, 849 - 851 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. Q1. V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative index metamaterials," Nature Photon. 1, 41- 48 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36 - 42 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107 - 1110 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris,"Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593 - 2596 (1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, "Gain assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277 - 279 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. O. Scully, "Enhancement of the index of refraction via quantum coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1855 - 1858 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Q2. G. S. Agarwal and Harshawardhan Wanare, "Inhibition and enhancement of two photon absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1039 - 1042 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry,"Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6383 - 6394 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Vassen, "Laser cooling and trapping of metastable helium: towards Bose-Einstein condensation," Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences Series IV - Physics 2, 613-618 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  25. Q3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials," Nature Photon. 2, 295 - 298 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials," Nature Photon. 2, 295 - 298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

Q1. V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative index metamaterials," Nature Photon. 1, 41- 48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

S. A. Ramakrishna, "Physics of negative refractive index materials," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 449 - 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry,"Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6383 - 6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

W. Vassen, "Laser cooling and trapping of metastable helium: towards Bose-Einstein condensation," Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences Series IV - Physics 2, 613-618 (2001).

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 - 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, "Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in in magnetic resonance imaging," Science 291, 849 - 851 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 - 3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, "Gain assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277 - 279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 - 4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, andW. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 - 2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594 - 598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 - 4776 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q2. G. S. Agarwal and Harshawardhan Wanare, "Inhibition and enhancement of two photon absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1039 - 1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

J. B. Pendry and A. Mackinnon, "Calculation of photon dispersion relations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2772 - 2775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. O. Scully, "Enhancement of the index of refraction via quantum coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1855 - 1858 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris,"Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593 - 2596 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107 - 1110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals" Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 - 4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G. S.

Q2. G. S. Agarwal and Harshawardhan Wanare, "Inhibition and enhancement of two photon absorption," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1039 - 1042 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Q3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials," Nature Photon. 2, 295 - 298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Azad, A. K.

Q3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials," Nature Photon. 2, 295 - 298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594 - 598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bianchini, G.

Boller, K. J.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris,"Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593 - 2596 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Caplin, D.

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cataliotti, F. S.

Chen, H.-T.

Q3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials," Nature Photon. 2, 295 - 298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals" Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 - 4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, L. F.

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, "Gain assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277 - 279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594 - 598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Field, J. E.

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107 - 1110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fyson, J.

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gilderdale, D. J.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, "Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in in magnetic resonance imaging," Science 291, 849 - 851 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H¨ansch, T.W.

Hajnal, J. V.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, "Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in in magnetic resonance imaging," Science 291, 849 - 851 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594 - 598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, "Electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Today 50, 36 - 42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris,"Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593 - 2596 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107 - 1110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hau, L. V.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature 397, 594 - 598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, andW. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 - 2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 - 4776 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris,"Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593 - 2596 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoglu, "Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency," Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1107 - 1110 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical Constants of the Noble Metals" Phys. Rev. B 6, 4370 - 4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kalugin, N. G.

Kuzmich, A.

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, "Gain assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277 - 279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Larkman, D. J.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, "Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in in magnetic resonance imaging," Science 291, 849 - 851 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mackinnon, A.

J. B. Pendry and A. Mackinnon, "Calculation of photon dispersion relations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2772 - 2775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Magnus, F.

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J.

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Morrison, K.

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 - 4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, S.

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry,"Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6383 - 6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O’Hara, J. F.

Q3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials," Nature Photon. 2, 295 - 298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Padilla, W. J.

Q3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials," Nature Photon. 2, 295 - 298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 - 4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F. S.

Pendry, J. B.

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 - 1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. O’Brien and J. B. Pendry,"Magnetic activity at infrared frequencies in structured metallic photonic crystals," J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 14, 6383 - 6394 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, "Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in in magnetic resonance imaging," Science 291, 849 - 851 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3966 - 3969 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, andW. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 - 2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 - 4776 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry and A. Mackinnon, "Calculation of photon dispersion relations," Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2772 - 2775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, G.

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ramakrishna, S. A.

S. A. Ramakrishna, "Physics of negative refractive index materials," Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 449 - 521 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, andW. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075 - 2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

Schultz, S.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 - 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 - 4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 - 1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scully, M. O.

M. O. Scully, "Enhancement of the index of refraction via quantum coherence," Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1855 - 1858 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

Q1. V. M. Shalaev, "Optical negative index metamaterials," Nature Photon. 1, 41- 48 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. A.

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 - 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shrekenhamer, D. B.

Q3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials," Nature Photon. 2, 295 - 298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, "Controlling electromagnetic fields," Science 312, 1780 - 1782 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77 - 79 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 - 4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, "Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773 - 4776 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

Q3. H.-T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. K. Azad, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, D. B. Shrekenhamer, and W. J. Padilla, "Experimental demonstration of frequency-agile terahertz metamaterials," Nature Photon. 2, 295 - 298 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

W. Vassen, "Laser cooling and trapping of metastable helium: towards Bose-Einstein condensation," Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences Series IV - Physics 2, 613-618 (2001).

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184 - 4187 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, "Gain assisted superluminal light propagation," Nature 406, 277 - 279 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

F. Magnus, B. Wood, J. Moore, K. Morrison, G. Perkins, J. Fyson, M. C. K. Wiltshire, D. Caplin, L. F. Cohen, and J. B. Pendry, "A d.c magnetic metamaterial," Nature Materials 7, 295 - 297 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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