Abstract

Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy was applied to image myelinated fibers in different regions of a mouse brain. The CARS signal from the CH2 symmetric stretching vibration allows label-free imaging of myelin sheath with 3D sub-micron resolution. Compared with two-photon excited fluorescence imaging with lipophilic dye labeling, CARS microscopy provides sharper contrast and avoids photobleaching. The CARS signal exhibits excitation polarization dependence which can be eliminated by reconstruction of two complementary images with perpendicular excitation polarizations. The capability of imaging myelinated fibers without exogenous labeling was used to map the whole brain white matter in brain slices and to analyze the microstructural anatomy of brain axons. Quantitative information about fiber volume%, myelin density, and fiber orientations was derived. Combining CARS with two-photon excited fluorescence allowed multimodal imaging of myelinated axons and other cells. Furthermore, in vivo CARS imaging on an upright microscope clearly identified fiber bundles in brain subcortex white matter. These advances open up new opportunities for the study of brain connectivity and neurological disorders.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. K. Stys, "White matter injury mechanisms," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 113-130 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. T. Regenold, P. Phatak, C. M. Marano, L. Gearhart, C. H. Viens, and K. C. Hisley, "Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression," Psychiatry Res. 151, 179-188 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. J. Wright, V. E. Centonze, S. A. Stricker, P. J. De Vries, S. W. Paddock, and G. Schatten, "Introduction to confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction," Methods Cell Biol. 38, 1-45 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Sherbondy, D. Akers, R. Mackenzie, R. Dougherty, and B. Wandell, "Exploring connectivity of the brain's white matter with dynamic queries," IEEE Trans. Visualization Computer Graphics, 1-12 (2004).
  6. S. Wakana, H. Jiang, L. M. Nagae-Poetscher, P. C. M. van Zijl, and S. Mori, "Fiber tract-based atlas of human white matter anatomy," Radiology 230, 77-87 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 197A-206A (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2156-2170 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1984).
  11. H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. H. Wang, T. T. Le, and J. X. Cheng, "Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope," Opt. Comm. 281, 1813-1822 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. T. Le, C. W. Rehrer, T. B. Huff, M. B. Nichols, I. G. Camarillo, and J.-X. Cheng, "Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma," Molecular Imaging 6, 205-211 (2007).
    [PubMed]
  15. C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, "In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue," J. Microsc. 225, 175-182 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. T. Hellerer, C. Axâng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, "Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658-14663 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. Morell and R. H. Quarles, "Myelin formation, structure, and biochemistry," in Basic neurochemistry: molecular, cellular, and medical aspects, 5th ed., G. J. Siegel, B. W. Agranoff, R. W. Alberts, and P. B. Molinoff, eds. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999).
  19. Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho induced demyelination," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 2870-2881 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, "Chemically-selectivity imaging of brain structure with CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 12076-12087 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, "Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo," Appl. Opt. 38, 2105-2115 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology " Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. X. L. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Biophys. J. 91, 728-735 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. Axer and D. G. V. Keyserlingk, "Mapping of fiber orientation in human internal capsule by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," J. Neurosci. Methods 94, 165-175 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nat. Methods 2, 932-940 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. T. Misgeld and M. Kerschensteiner, "In vivo imaging of the diseased nervous system," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 449-463 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137-17142 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. H. Wang, T. B. Huff, Y. Fu, Y. K. Jia, and J. X. Cheng, "Increasing the imaging depth of coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a miniature microscope objective," Opt. Lett. 32, 2212-2214 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. K. Deisseroth, G. Feng, A. K. Majewska, G. Miesenböck, A. Ting, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Next-generation optical technolgies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits," J. Neurosci. 41, 10380-10386 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  38. D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7081-7086 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. Q1. T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Wang, T. T. Le, and J. X. Cheng, "Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope," Opt. Comm. 281, 1813-1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q1. T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (12)

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, Y. Fu, Y. K. Jia, and J. X. Cheng, "Increasing the imaging depth of coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a miniature microscope objective," Opt. Lett. 32, 2212-2214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 197A-206A (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, "Chemically-selectivity imaging of brain structure with CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 12076-12087 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Regenold, P. Phatak, C. M. Marano, L. Gearhart, C. H. Viens, and K. C. Hisley, "Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression," Psychiatry Res. 151, 179-188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Le, C. W. Rehrer, T. B. Huff, M. B. Nichols, I. G. Camarillo, and J.-X. Cheng, "Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma," Molecular Imaging 6, 205-211 (2007).
[PubMed]

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, "In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue," J. Microsc. 225, 175-182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hellerer, C. Axâng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, "Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658-14663 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho induced demyelination," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 2870-2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2156-2170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (7)

X. L. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Biophys. J. 91, 728-735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Misgeld and M. Kerschensteiner, "In vivo imaging of the diseased nervous system," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 449-463 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137-17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Deisseroth, G. Feng, A. K. Majewska, G. Miesenböck, A. Ting, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Next-generation optical technolgies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits," J. Neurosci. 41, 10380-10386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nat. Methods 2, 932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

P. K. Stys, "White matter injury mechanisms," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 113-130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Wakana, H. Jiang, L. M. Nagae-Poetscher, P. C. M. van Zijl, and S. Mori, "Fiber tract-based atlas of human white matter anatomy," Radiology 230, 77-87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Marsh, D. Burns, and J. Girkin, "Practical implementation of adaptive optics in multiphoton microscopy," Opt. Express 11, 1123-1130 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology " Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. Axer and D. G. V. Keyserlingk, "Mapping of fiber orientation in human internal capsule by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," J. Neurosci. Methods 94, 165-175 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1993 (1)

S. J. Wright, V. E. Centonze, S. A. Stricker, P. J. De Vries, S. W. Paddock, and G. Schatten, "Introduction to confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction," Methods Cell Biol. 38, 1-45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aigrot, M.-S.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, R. R.

Andrews, S. B.

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Axâng, C.

T. Hellerer, C. Axâng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, "Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658-14663 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Axer, H.

H. Axer and D. G. V. Keyserlingk, "Mapping of fiber orientation in human internal capsule by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," J. Neurosci. Methods 94, 165-175 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bansal, R.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottlaender, M.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brackmann, C.

T. Hellerer, C. Axâng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, "Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658-14663 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brantner, C. A.

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burns, D.

Camarillo, I. G.

T. T. Le, C. W. Rehrer, T. B. Huff, M. B. Nichols, I. G. Camarillo, and J.-X. Cheng, "Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma," Molecular Imaging 6, 205-211 (2007).
[PubMed]

Capdevila, A.

J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardoner, N.

J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Centonze, V. E.

S. J. Wright, V. E. Centonze, S. A. Stricker, P. J. De Vries, S. W. Paddock, and G. Schatten, "Introduction to confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction," Methods Cell Biol. 38, 1-45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

Q1. T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. T. Le, and J. X. Cheng, "Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope," Opt. Comm. 281, 1813-1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, "In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue," J. Microsc. 225, 175-182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Appl. Spectrosc. 61, 197A-206A (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho induced demyelination," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 2870-2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, Y. Fu, Y. K. Jia, and J. X. Cheng, "Increasing the imaging depth of coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a miniature microscope objective," Opt. Lett. 32, 2212-2214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology " Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J.-X.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Le, C. W. Rehrer, T. B. Huff, M. B. Nichols, I. G. Camarillo, and J.-X. Cheng, "Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma," Molecular Imaging 6, 205-211 (2007).
[PubMed]

Conesa, G.

J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vries, P. J.

S. J. Wright, V. E. Centonze, S. A. Stricker, P. J. De Vries, S. W. Paddock, and G. Schatten, "Introduction to confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction," Methods Cell Biol. 38, 1-45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deisseroth, K.

K. Deisseroth, G. Feng, A. K. Majewska, G. Miesenböck, A. Ting, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Next-generation optical technolgies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits," J. Neurosci. 41, 10380-10386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Denk, W.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137-17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nat. Methods 2, 932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deus, J.

J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolle, F.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dombeck, D. A.

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enejder, A.

T. Hellerer, C. Axâng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, "Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658-14663 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, "Chemically-selectivity imaging of brain structure with CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 12076-12087 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feinstein, D.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, G.

K. Deisseroth, G. Feng, A. K. Majewska, G. Miesenböck, A. Ting, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Next-generation optical technolgies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits," J. Neurosci. 41, 10380-10386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y.

Q1. T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, Y. Fu, Y. K. Jia, and J. X. Cheng, "Increasing the imaging depth of coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a miniature microscope objective," Opt. Lett. 32, 2212-2214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho induced demyelination," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 2870-2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gass, A.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gearhart, L.

W. T. Regenold, P. Phatak, C. M. Marano, L. Gearhart, C. H. Viens, and K. C. Hisley, "Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression," Psychiatry Res. 151, 179-188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girkin, J.

Gould, R. M.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grüner, R.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hammar, A.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellerer, T.

T. Hellerer, C. Axâng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, "Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658-14663 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmchen, F.

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nat. Methods 2, 932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillertz, P.

T. Hellerer, C. Axâng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, "Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658-14663 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, J. G.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hisley, K. C.

W. T. Regenold, P. Phatak, C. M. Marano, L. Gearhart, C. H. Viens, and K. C. Hisley, "Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression," Psychiatry Res. 151, 179-188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, G.-F.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huff, T. B.

Q1. T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, Y. Fu, Y. K. Jia, and J. X. Cheng, "Increasing the imaging depth of coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a miniature microscope objective," Opt. Lett. 32, 2212-2214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho induced demyelination," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 2870-2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, "In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue," J. Microsc. 225, 175-182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Le, C. W. Rehrer, T. B. Huff, M. B. Nichols, I. G. Camarillo, and J.-X. Cheng, "Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma," Molecular Imaging 6, 205-211 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hugdahl, K.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hyman, B. T.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ingelsson, M.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, Y. K.

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, Y. Fu, Y. K. Jia, and J. X. Cheng, "Increasing the imaging depth of coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a miniature microscope objective," Opt. Lett. 32, 2212-2214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology " Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

S. Wakana, H. Jiang, L. M. Nagae-Poetscher, P. C. M. van Zijl, and S. Mori, "Fiber tract-based atlas of human white matter anatomy," Radiology 230, 77-87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kasischke, K. A.

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerschensteiner, M.

T. Misgeld and M. Kerschensteiner, "In vivo imaging of the diseased nervous system," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 449-463 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kesari, S.

Keyserlingk, D. G. V.

H. Axer and D. G. V. Keyserlingk, "Mapping of fiber orientation in human internal capsule by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," J. Neurosci. Methods 94, 165-175 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klunk, W.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langohr, I. M.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laule, C.

C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le, T. T.

H. Wang, T. T. Le, and J. X. Cheng, "Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope," Opt. Comm. 281, 1813-1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Le, C. W. Rehrer, T. B. Huff, M. B. Nichols, I. G. Camarillo, and J.-X. Cheng, "Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma," Molecular Imaging 6, 205-211 (2007).
[PubMed]

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, E.

C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levene, M. J.

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, D. K. B.

C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lie, S. A.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Locker, M. J.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

López-Sala, A.

J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubetzki, C.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundervold, A.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundervold, A. J.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mackay, A. L.

C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137-17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Majewska, A. K.

K. Deisseroth, G. Feng, A. K. Majewska, G. Miesenböck, A. Ting, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Next-generation optical technolgies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits," J. Neurosci. 41, 10380-10386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marano, C. M.

W. T. Regenold, P. Phatak, C. M. Marano, L. Gearhart, C. H. Viens, and K. C. Hisley, "Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression," Psychiatry Res. 151, 179-188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marsh, P.

Mathis, C. A.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McClintock, J.

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Micu, I.

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miesenböck, G.

K. Deisseroth, G. Feng, A. K. Majewska, G. Miesenböck, A. Ting, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Next-generation optical technolgies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits," J. Neurosci. 41, 10380-10386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Misgeld, T.

T. Misgeld and M. Kerschensteiner, "In vivo imaging of the diseased nervous system," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 449-463 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molloy, R. P.

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G. R. W.

C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mori, S.

S. Wakana, H. Jiang, L. M. Nagae-Poetscher, P. C. M. van Zijl, and S. Mori, "Fiber tract-based atlas of human white matter anatomy," Radiology 230, 77-87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2156-2170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagae-Poetscher, L. M.

S. Wakana, H. Jiang, L. M. Nagae-Poetscher, P. C. M. van Zijl, and S. Mori, "Fiber tract-based atlas of human white matter anatomy," Radiology 230, 77-87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nan, X. L.

X. L. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Biophys. J. 91, 728-735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nichols, M. B.

T. T. Le, C. W. Rehrer, T. B. Huff, M. B. Nichols, I. G. Camarillo, and J.-X. Cheng, "Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma," Molecular Imaging 6, 205-211 (2007).
[PubMed]

Paddock, S. W.

S. J. Wright, V. E. Centonze, S. A. Stricker, P. J. De Vries, S. W. Paddock, and G. Schatten, "Introduction to confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction," Methods Cell Biol. 38, 1-45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paty, D. W.

C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pautot, S.

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, B. S.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phatak, P.

W. T. Regenold, P. Phatak, C. M. Marano, L. Gearhart, C. H. Viens, and K. C. Hisley, "Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression," Psychiatry Res. 151, 179-188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pilon, M.

T. Hellerer, C. Axâng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, "Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658-14663 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plessen, K. J.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

X. L. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Biophys. J. 91, 728-735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pujol, J.

J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puoris'haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajadhyaksha, M.

Regenold, W. T.

W. T. Regenold, P. Phatak, C. M. Marano, L. Gearhart, C. H. Viens, and K. C. Hisley, "Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression," Psychiatry Res. 151, 179-188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rehrer, C. W.

T. T. Le, C. W. Rehrer, T. B. Huff, M. B. Nichols, I. G. Camarillo, and J.-X. Cheng, "Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma," Molecular Imaging 6, 205-211 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ridsdale, A.

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rueckel, M.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137-17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatten, G.

S. J. Wright, V. E. Centonze, S. A. Stricker, P. J. De Vries, S. W. Paddock, and G. Schatten, "Introduction to confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction," Methods Cell Biol. 38, 1-45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnitzer, M. J.

K. Deisseroth, G. Feng, A. K. Majewska, G. Miesenböck, A. Ting, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Next-generation optical technolgies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits," J. Neurosci. 41, 10380-10386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sebastian-Galles, N.

J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semah, F.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, R.

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho induced demyelination," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 2870-2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

Q1. T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stankoff, B.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stricker, S. A.

S. J. Wright, V. E. Centonze, S. A. Stricker, P. J. De Vries, S. W. Paddock, and G. Schatten, "Introduction to confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction," Methods Cell Biol. 38, 1-45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturek, M.

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stys, P. K.

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. K. Stys, "White matter injury mechanisms," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 113-130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ting, A.

K. Deisseroth, G. Feng, A. K. Majewska, G. Miesenböck, A. Ting, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Next-generation optical technolgies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits," J. Neurosci. 41, 10380-10386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Traboulsee, A. L.

C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Zijl, P. C. M.

S. Wakana, H. Jiang, L. M. Nagae-Poetscher, P. C. M. van Zijl, and S. Mori, "Fiber tract-based atlas of human white matter anatomy," Radiology 230, 77-87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Viens, C. H.

W. T. Regenold, P. Phatak, C. M. Marano, L. Gearhart, C. H. Viens, and K. C. Hisley, "Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression," Psychiatry Res. 151, 179-188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vishwasrao, H. D.

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wakana, S.

S. Wakana, H. Jiang, L. M. Nagae-Poetscher, P. C. M. van Zijl, and S. Mori, "Fiber tract-based atlas of human white matter anatomy," Radiology 230, 77-87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Q1. T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, T. T. Le, and J. X. Cheng, "Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope," Opt. Comm. 281, 1813-1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho induced demyelination," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 2870-2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, T. B. Huff, Y. Fu, Y. K. Jia, and J. X. Cheng, "Increasing the imaging depth of coherent anti- Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a miniature microscope objective," Opt. Lett. 32, 2212-2214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Webb, W. W.

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, D. A.

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wentzel-Larsen, T.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, S. T. C.

Woulfe, J.

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S. J.

S. J. Wright, V. E. Centonze, S. A. Stricker, P. J. De Vries, S. W. Paddock, and G. Schatten, "Introduction to confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction," Methods Cell Biol. 38, 1-45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

C. L. Evans, X. Xu, S. Kesari, X. S. Xie, S. T. C. Wong, and G. S. Young, "Chemically-selectivity imaging of brain structure with CARS microscopy," Opt. Express 15, 12076-12087 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. L. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Biophys. J. 91, 728-735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology " Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D.

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Young, G. S.

Zalc, B.

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, G.

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology " Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zickmund, P.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumbusch, A.

M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2156-2170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biophys. J. (4)

X. L. Nan, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, "Nonperturbative chemical imaging of organelle transport in living cells with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Biophys. J. 91, 728-735 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Second harmonic and sum frequency generation imaging of fibrous astroglial filaments in ex vivo spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 92, 3251-3259 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of live spinal tissues," Biophys. J. 89, 581-591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, Y. K. Jia, G. Zheng, and X. S. Xie, "Laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy and applications to cell biology " Biophys. J. 83, 502-509 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Chem. (1)

M. Müller and A. Zumbusch, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Chem. Phys. Chem. 8, 2156-2170 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curr. Mol. Med. (1)

P. K. Stys, "White matter injury mechanisms," Curr. Mol. Med. 4, 113-130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. (1)

Q1. T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, Y. Fu, H. Wang, and J. X. Cheng, "Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy and applications to central nervous system imaging," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. Electron. 14, 4-9 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

T. T. Le, I. M. Langohr, M. J. Locker, M. Sturek, and J.-X. Cheng, "Label-free molecular imaging of atherosclerotic lesions using multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 054007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry (1)

K. J. Plessen, R. Grüner, A. Lundervold, J. G. Hirsch, D. Xu, R. Bansal, A. Hammar, A. J. Lundervold, T. Wentzel-Larsen, S. A. Lie, A. Gass, B. S. Peterson, and K. Hugdahl, "Reduced white matter connectivity in corpus callosum of children with Tourette syndrome," J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 1013-1022 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Microsc. (1)

T. B. Huff and J. X. Cheng, "In vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of sciatic nerve tissue," J. Microsc. 225, 175-182 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

M. J. Levene, D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, R. P. Molloy, and W. W. Webb, "In vivo multiphoton microscopy of deep brain tissue," J. Neurophysiol. 91, 1908-1912 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. (1)

K. Deisseroth, G. Feng, A. K. Majewska, G. Miesenböck, A. Ting, and M. J. Schnitzer, "Next-generation optical technolgies for illuminating genetically targeted brain circuits," J. Neurosci. 41, 10380-10386 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Neurosci. Methods (1)

H. Axer and D. G. V. Keyserlingk, "Mapping of fiber orientation in human internal capsule by means of polarized light and confocal scanning laser microscopy," J. Neurosci. Methods 94, 165-175 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurosci. Res. (1)

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, and J. X. Cheng, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho induced demyelination," J. Neurosci. Res. 85, 2870-2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. X. Cheng and X. S. Xie, "Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: instrumentation, theory, and applications," J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 827-840 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Methods Cell Biol. (1)

S. J. Wright, V. E. Centonze, S. A. Stricker, P. J. De Vries, S. W. Paddock, and G. Schatten, "Introduction to confocal microscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction," Methods Cell Biol. 38, 1-45 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molecular Imaging (1)

T. T. Le, C. W. Rehrer, T. B. Huff, M. B. Nichols, I. G. Camarillo, and J.-X. Cheng, "Nonlinear optical imaging to evaluate the impact of obesity on mammary gland and tumor stroma," Molecular Imaging 6, 205-211 (2007).
[PubMed]

Multiple Sclerosis (1)

C. Laule, E. Leung, D. K. B. Li, A. L. Traboulsee, D. W. Paty, A. L. Mackay, and G. R. W. Moore, "Myelin water imaging in multiple slcerosis: quantitative correlations with histopathology," Multiple Sclerosis 12, 747-753 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

I. Micu, A. Ridsdale, L. Zhang, J. Woulfe, J. McClintock, C. A. Brantner, S. B. Andrews, and P. K. Stys, "Real-time measurement of free Ca2+ changes in CNS myelin by two-photon microscopy," Nat. Med. 7, 874-879 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

F. Helmchen and W. Denk, "Deep tissue two-photon microscopy," Nat. Methods 2, 932-940 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Rev. Neurosci. (1)

T. Misgeld and M. Kerschensteiner, "In vivo imaging of the diseased nervous system," Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 7, 449-463 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

NeuroImage (1)

J. Pujol, A. López-Sala, J. Deus, N. Cardoner, N. Sebastian-Galles, G. Conesa, and A. Capdevila, "The lateral asymmetry of the human brain studied by volumetric MRI," NeuroImage 17, 670-679 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Comm. (1)

H. Wang, T. T. Le, and J. X. Cheng, "Label-free imaging of arterial cells and extracellular matrix using a multimodal CARS microscope," Opt. Comm. 281, 1813-1822 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (6)

D. A. Dombeck, K. A. Kasischke, H. D. Vishwasrao, M. Ingelsson, B. T. Hyman, and W. W. Webb, "Uniform polarity microtubule assemblies imaged in native brain tissue by second-harmonic generation microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 7081-7086 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. X. Cheng, S. Pautot, D. A. Weitz, and X. S. Xie, "Ordering of water molecules between phospholipid bilayers visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100, 9826-9830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, "Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137-17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris'haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, "Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102, 16807-16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hellerer, C. Axâng, C. Brackmann, P. Hillertz, M. Pilon, and A. Enejder, "Monitoring of lipid storage in Caenorhabditis elegans using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14658-14663 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Stankoff, Y. Wang, M. Bottlaender, M.-S. Aigrot, F. Dolle, C. Wu, D. Feinstein, G.-F. Huang, F. Semah, C. A. Mathis, W. Klunk, R. M. Gould, C. Lubetzki, and B. Zalc, "Imaging of CNS myelin by positronemission tomography," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 9304-9309 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Psychiatry Res. (1)

W. T. Regenold, P. Phatak, C. M. Marano, L. Gearhart, C. H. Viens, and K. C. Hisley, "Myelin staining of deep white matter in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and unipolar major depression," Psychiatry Res. 151, 179-188 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiology (1)

S. Wakana, H. Jiang, L. M. Nagae-Poetscher, P. C. M. van Zijl, and S. Mori, "Fiber tract-based atlas of human white matter anatomy," Radiology 230, 77-87 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1984).

A. Sherbondy, D. Akers, R. Mackenzie, R. Dougherty, and B. Wandell, "Exploring connectivity of the brain's white matter with dynamic queries," IEEE Trans. Visualization Computer Graphics, 1-12 (2004).

P. Morell and R. H. Quarles, "Myelin formation, structure, and biochemistry," in Basic neurochemistry: molecular, cellular, and medical aspects, 5th ed., G. J. Siegel, B. W. Agranoff, R. W. Alberts, and P. B. Molinoff, eds. (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Comparison of CARS imaging with TPEF imaging of myelin labeled by DiOC6(3). (a) and (b) are raw and normalized CARS images of brain white matter. (d) is TPEF image of the same brain white matter labeled with DiOC6(3). (c) and (e) are magnified CARS and TPEF images at the center of (a) and (d), respectively. After magnified imaging, photobleaching of fluorescent probes was clearly observed (f), while the CARS image did not show any photobleaching effect.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Reconstruction of CARS images to eliminate the dependence of CARS intensity on excitation polarization. (a), (d), and (g) are CARS images with vertically polarized excitations showing stronger CARS signal from vertically oriented membranes and fibers. (b), (e), and (h) are CARS images with horizontally polarized excitations showing stronger CARS signal from horizontally oriented membranes and fibers. (c), (f), and (i) are reconstructed CARS images showing independence of CARS signal on excitation polarization.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Mosaic CARS image of a horizontal mouse brain slice. The whole image contains about 9579 partially overlapped images acquired with a 20X objective. The magnified images at the positions indicated by yellow and black letters are shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. gcc: genu of corpus callosum; CPu: caudate putamen; ec: external capsule; dfi: dorsal fornix; fi: fimbria hippocampus; LV: lateral ventricle.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Quantitation of fiber volume% and myelin density using the magnified CARS images at different depths. (a) At the genu of corpus callosum (‘gcc’) with a thickness of 31 µm and an imaging depth step of 0.5 µm. (b) At the cortex with a thickness of 30 µm and an imaging depth step of 0.5 µm. These images were taken by a 60X water objective. (c) Analysis of fiber area% (percentage of fiber area in the whole image area) at each depth. (d) Distribution of CARS intensity at each depth. (e) Comparison of fiber volume% (percentage of fiber volume in the whole image volume) and myelin density (the number of lipids in a unit fiber volume) in ‘gcc’ and cortex.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Magnified CARS images showing the fiber orientation with respect to the image plane. (a-a’) Magnified fiber bundles at ‘CPu’ position in the Fig. 3 where fiber bundles orient along the image plane. (b-b’) Magnified fiber bundles at ‘CPu*’ marked at Fig. 3 showing that fiber bundles go through the image plane perpendicularly. (c-c’) Magnified image of ‘ec’ marked at Fig. 3 showing an inclination of 48.4° of fibers through the image plane. (d-d’) Magnified image of ‘dfi’ marked at Fig. 3 showing that fiber bundles incline into the image plane with an angle of 55.2°. (e-e’) Magnified image of ‘cerebellar white matter (WM)’ marked at Fig. 3 showing the perpendicular fiber bundles.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Simultaneous CARS imaging of axons and TPEF imaging of nuclei in slices of grey matter and white matter. Red: CARS signal from myelin sheath. Green: TPEF imaging of Hoechst labeled cell nuclei. (a) 3D imaging of a 16 µm-thick layer in grey matter with a depth of 1 µm. Different layers show different cell nuclei. A Z-stack image shows irregular cell distribution in the axonal networks. (b) 3D imaging of a 12 µm-thick layer in white matter with a depth of 1 µm. A Z-stack image shows cell locating along lines between the axonal bundles. YZ and XZ images along the corresponding lines indicated by arrows show the nerve fiber orientation and other views of cell nuclei.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

In vivo CARS imaging of mouse brain using an upright microscope with a dipping mode water objective. (a) A schematic of the in vivo CARS microscope. D: dichroic mirror. (b) CARS image of the parietal cortex. (c) CARS image of bundles of myelinated fibers in the subcortex white matter.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( α ) = P as 2 = 3 χ 1111 ( 3 ) E p 2 E s * cos 3 α 2 .
I = [ I ( α ) 1 3 + I ( α + π 2 ) 1 3 ] 3 = 3 χ 1111 ( 3 ) E p 2 E s * 2 .

Metrics