Abstract

Wave-guiding in the visible spectral range is investigated for a micro-structured crystal fiber filled with a dual-frequency addressable nematic liquid crystal mixture. The fiber exhibits a solid core surrounded by just 4 rings of cylindrical holes. Control of the liquid crystal alignment by anchoring agents permits relatively low attenuation. Samples with different anchoring conditions at the interface of the silica glass and the liquid crystal show different transmission properties and switching behavior. Polarization dependent and independent fiber optic switching is observed. Due to a dualfrequency addressing scheme, active switching to both states with enhanced and reduced transmission becomes possible for planar anchoring. Even a non-perfect fiber shows reasonable transmission and a variety of interesting effects.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2007 (2)

H. Matthias, A. Lorenz, and H.-S. Kitzerow, "Tuneable photonic crystals obtained by liquid crystal infiltration," Phys. Status Solidi A 11, 3754-3767 (2007).

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

2005 (2)

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 7483-7496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1993 (1)

S. Kralj and S. Žumer, "The stability diagram of a nematic liquid crystal confined to a cylindrical cavity," Liq. Cryst. 15, 521-527 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. P. Crawford, J. A. Mitcheltree, E. P. Boyko, W. Fritz, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, "K33/K11 determination in nematic liquid crystals: An optical birefringence technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3226-3228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

M. Schadt, "Low-Frequency Dielectric Relaxations in Nematics and Dual-Frequency Addressing of Field Effects," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 89, 77-92 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

H. K. Bücher, R. T. Klingbiel, and J. P. VanMeter: "Frequency-addressed liquid crystal field effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 186-188 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Argyros, A.

Bartelt, H.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barth, M.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benson, O.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

Boyko, E. P.

G. P. Crawford, J. A. Mitcheltree, E. P. Boyko, W. Fritz, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, "K33/K11 determination in nematic liquid crystals: An optical birefringence technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3226-3228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Broeng, J.

Bücher, H. K.

H. K. Bücher, R. T. Klingbiel, and J. P. VanMeter: "Frequency-addressed liquid crystal field effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 186-188 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Cox, F. M.

Crawford, G. P.

G. P. Crawford, J. A. Mitcheltree, E. P. Boyko, W. Fritz, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, "K33/K11 determination in nematic liquid crystals: An optical birefringence technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3226-3228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrea, C.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

Doane, J. W.

G. P. Crawford, J. A. Mitcheltree, E. P. Boyko, W. Fritz, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, "K33/K11 determination in nematic liquid crystals: An optical birefringence technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3226-3228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Domanski, A. W.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dunn, S. C.

Eggelton, B. J.

Eggleton, B. J.

Engan, H. E.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ertman, S.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fritz, W.

G. P. Crawford, J. A. Mitcheltree, E. P. Boyko, W. Fritz, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, "K33/K11 determination in nematic liquid crystals: An optical birefringence technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3226-3228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

Haakestad, M. W.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, D. S.

Kirchhof, J.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kitzerow, H.-S.

H. Matthias, A. Lorenz, and H.-S. Kitzerow, "Tuneable photonic crystals obtained by liquid crystal infiltration," Phys. Status Solidi A 11, 3754-3767 (2007).

Klingbiel, R. T.

H. K. Bücher, R. T. Klingbiel, and J. P. VanMeter: "Frequency-addressed liquid crystal field effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 186-188 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kobelke, J.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kralj, S.

S. Kralj and S. Žumer, "The stability diagram of a nematic liquid crystal confined to a cylindrical cavity," Liq. Cryst. 15, 521-527 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lægsgaard, J.

Large, M. C. J.

Lehmann, H.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leppert, J.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lesiak, P.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Litchinitser, N. M.

Lorenz, A.

H. Matthias, A. Lorenz, and H.-S. Kitzerow, "Tuneable photonic crystals obtained by liquid crystal infiltration," Phys. Status Solidi A 11, 3754-3767 (2007).

Matthias, H.

H. Matthias, A. Lorenz, and H.-S. Kitzerow, "Tuneable photonic crystals obtained by liquid crystal infiltration," Phys. Status Solidi A 11, 3754-3767 (2007).

McPhedran, R. C.

Mitcheltree, J. A.

G. P. Crawford, J. A. Mitcheltree, E. P. Boyko, W. Fritz, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, "K33/K11 determination in nematic liquid crystals: An optical birefringence technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3226-3228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mörl, K.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. D.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 7483-7496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Röpke, U.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, "Low-Frequency Dielectric Relaxations in Nematics and Dual-Frequency Addressing of Field Effects," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 89, 77-92 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, K.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scolari, L.

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, and A. Bjarklev, "Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 13, 7483-7496 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smolka, S.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Szaniawska, K.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, T.

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Usner, B.

VanMeter, J. P.

H. K. Bücher, R. T. Klingbiel, and J. P. VanMeter: "Frequency-addressed liquid crystal field effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 186-188 (1974).
[CrossRef]

White, T. P.

Wojcik, J.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wolinski, T. R.

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Zumer, S.

G. P. Crawford, J. A. Mitcheltree, E. P. Boyko, W. Fritz, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, "K33/K11 determination in nematic liquid crystals: An optical birefringence technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3226-3228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Žumer, S.

S. Kralj and S. Žumer, "The stability diagram of a nematic liquid crystal confined to a cylindrical cavity," Liq. Cryst. 15, 521-527 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

G. P. Crawford, J. A. Mitcheltree, E. P. Boyko, W. Fritz, S. Zumer, and J. W. Doane, "K33/K11 determination in nematic liquid crystals: An optical birefringence technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 3226-3228 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Bücher, R. T. Klingbiel, and J. P. VanMeter: "Frequency-addressed liquid crystal field effect," Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 186-188 (1974).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, "Electrically tunable photonic bandgap guidance in a liquid-crystal-filled photonic crystal fiber," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17, 819-821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Liq. Cryst. (1)

S. Kralj and S. Žumer, "The stability diagram of a nematic liquid crystal confined to a cylindrical cavity," Liq. Cryst. 15, 521-527 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

T. R. Wolinski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, "Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres," Meas. Sci. Technol. 17, 985-991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

M. Schadt, "Low-Frequency Dielectric Relaxations in Nematics and Dual-Frequency Addressing of Field Effects," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 89, 77-92 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (2)

H. Bartelt, J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, K. Schuster, A. Schwuchow, K. Mörl, U. Röpke, J. Leppert, H. Lehmann, S. Smolka, M. Barth, O. Benson, T. Taccheo, and C. D’Andrea: "Preparation and application of functionalized photonic crystal fibres," Phys. Status Solidi A 204, 3805-3821 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Matthias, A. Lorenz, and H.-S. Kitzerow, "Tuneable photonic crystals obtained by liquid crystal infiltration," Phys. Status Solidi A 11, 3754-3767 (2007).

Other (1)

A. Bjarklev, J. Broeng, and A. S. Bjarklev, Photonic Crystal Fibers (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston MA, 2003).

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