Abstract

An approach for fabricating large area uniform nanostructures by direct femtosecond (fs) laser ablation is presented. By the simple scanning technique with appropriate irradiation conditions, arbitrary size of uniform, complanate nano-grating, nano-particle, and nano-square structures can be produced on wide bandgap materials as well as graphite. The feature sizes of the formed nanostructures, which can be tuned in a wide range by varying the irradiation wavelength, is about 200 nm with 800 nm fs laser irradiation. The physical properties of the nano-structured surfaces are changed greatly, especially the optical property, which is demonstrated by the extraordinary enhancement of light transmission of the treated area. This technique is efficient, universal, and environmentally friendly, which exhibits great potential for applications in photoelectron devices.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Perrière, É. Millon, and É. Fogarassy, Recent Advances in Laser Processing of Materials (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006).
  2. J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. v. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids," Appl. Phys. A 63, 109-115 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. P. McDonald, V. R. Mistry, K. E. Ray, and S. M. Yalisove, "Femtosecond pulsed laser direct write production of nano- and microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 183113 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3716-3718 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Borowiec, and H. K. Haugen, "Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462-4464 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Reif, F. Costache, and M. Henyk, "Explosive ion emission from ionic crystals induced by ultra-short laser pulses — influence on surface morphology," Proc. SPIE 4948, 380-387 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, "A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation," Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Huang, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Micro-Raman spectroscopy of subwavelength laser-induced periodic surface structure on highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite and single crystal bulk diamond."
  21. O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, "Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4702-4706 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, "Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide," Phys. Rev. 142, 570-574 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. C. Peng, and Y. C. S. Wu, "Improved luminance intensity of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, "Microstructured silicon photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 033506 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, "A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation," Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. P. McDonald, V. R. Mistry, K. E. Ray, and S. M. Yalisove, "Femtosecond pulsed laser direct write production of nano- and microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 183113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, "Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4702-4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Peng, and Y. C. S. Wu, "Improved luminance intensity of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, "Microstructured silicon photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Borowiec, and H. K. Haugen, "Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462-4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, F. Costache, and M. Henyk, "Explosive ion emission from ionic crystals induced by ultra-short laser pulses — influence on surface morphology," Proc. SPIE 4948, 380-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3716-3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. v. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids," Appl. Phys. A 63, 109-115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1983

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, "Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide," Phys. Rev. 142, 570-574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Albert, O.

J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ananthavel, S. P.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bestehorn, M.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, "Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4702-4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec, and H. K. Haugen, "Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462-4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boulmer-Leborgne, C.

J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brown, W. D.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3716-3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campbell, J. C.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, "Microstructured silicon photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carey, J. E.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, "Microstructured silicon photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, "A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation," Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chichkov, B. N.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. v. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids," Appl. Phys. A 63, 109-115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costache, F.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, "Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4702-4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, F. Costache, and M. Henyk, "Explosive ion emission from ionic crystals induced by ultra-short laser pulses — influence on surface morphology," Proc. SPIE 4948, 380-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Craciun, V.

J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cumpston, B. H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Damen, T. C.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, "Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide," Phys. Rev. 142, 570-574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Deubel, M.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyer, D. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Erskine, L. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Etchepare, J.

J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fang, R.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Freymann, G. V.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, "Microstructured silicon photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, S.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec, and H. K. Haugen, "Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 4462-4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heikal, A. A.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

J. Reif, F. Costache, and M. Henyk, "Explosive ion emission from ionic crystals induced by ultra-short laser pulses — influence on surface morphology," Proc. SPIE 4948, 380-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, "A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation," Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Z.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, "Microstructured silicon photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jia, T. Q.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, "A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation," Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kinoshita, K.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kiuchi, J.

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuebler, S. M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I. -Y. S.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, R. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, "Microstructured silicon photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loulergue, J. C.

J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malshe, A. P.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3716-3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, "Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials," Nat. Photonics 2, 219-225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Huang, J. E. Carey, M. Liu, X. Guo, E. Mazur, and J. C. Campbell, "Microstructured silicon photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 033506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McCord-Maughon, D.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. P.

J. P. McDonald, V. R. Mistry, K. E. Ray, and S. M. Yalisove, "Femtosecond pulsed laser direct write production of nano- and microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 183113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Millon, E.

J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mistry, V. R.

J. P. McDonald, V. R. Mistry, K. E. Ray, and S. M. Yalisove, "Femtosecond pulsed laser direct write production of nano- and microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 183113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, K.

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Molian, P. A.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3716-3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Momma, C.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. v. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids," Appl. Phys. A 63, 109-115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. v. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids," Appl. Phys. A 63, 109-115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ozkan, A. M.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3716-3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W. C.

W. C. Peng, and Y. C. S. Wu, "Improved luminance intensity of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, S.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrière, J.

J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Porto, S. P. S.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, "Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide," Phys. Rev. 142, 570-574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qin, J.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiu, J. R.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Railkar, T. A.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3716-3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, K. E.

J. P. McDonald, V. R. Mistry, K. E. Ray, and S. M. Yalisove, "Femtosecond pulsed laser direct write production of nano- and microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 183113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, J.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, "Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4702-4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Reif, F. Costache, and M. Henyk, "Explosive ion emission from ionic crystals induced by ultra-short laser pulses — influence on surface morphology," Proc. SPIE 4948, 380-387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Röckel, H.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, W.

J. Perrière, E. Millon, W. Seiler, C. Boulmer-Leborgne, V. Craciun, O. Albert, J. C. Loulergue, and J. Etchepare, "Comparison between ZnO films grown by femtosecond and nanosecond laser ablation," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 690-696 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, "Self-Organized Nanogratings in Glass Irradiated by Ultrashort Light Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shirk, M. D.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3716-3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, H. B.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

S. Kawata, H. B. Sun, T. Tanaka, and K. Takada, "Finer features for functional microdevices," Nature 412, 697-698 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, "Optically Produced Arrays of Planar Nanostructures inside Fused Silica," Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tell, B.

T. C. Damen, S. P. S. Porto, and B. Tell, "Raman Effect in Zinc Oxide," Phys. Rev. 142, 570-574 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, T.

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Varlamova, O.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, "Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4702-4706 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

M. Deubel, G. V. Freymann, M. Wegener, S. Pereira, K. Busch, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Direct laser writing of three-dimensional photonic-crystal templates for telecommunications," Nat. Mater. 3, 444-447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

B. H. Cumpston, S. P. Ananthavel, S. Barlow, D. L. Dyer, J. E. Ehrlich, L. L. Erskine, A. A. Heikal, S. M. Kuebler, I. -Y. S. Lee, D. McCord-Maughon, J. Qin, H. Röckel, M. Rumi, X. L. Wu, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, "Two-photon polymerization initiators for three-dimensional optical data storage and microfabrication," Nature 398, 51-54 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. C. S.

W. C. Peng, and Y. C. S. Wu, "Improved luminance intensity of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode by roughening both the p-GaN surface and the undoped-GaN surface," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 041116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, N. S.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, "A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation," Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z. Z.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, "A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation," Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yalisove, S. M.

J. P. McDonald, V. R. Mistry, K. E. Ray, and S. M. Yalisove, "Femtosecond pulsed laser direct write production of nano- and microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 183113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasumaru, N.

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, "Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass," Phys. Rev. B 27, 1155-1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Q.

Q. Wu, Y. Ma, R. Fang, Y. Liao, Q. Yu, X. Chen, and K. Wang, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on diamond film," Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1703-1705 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. L.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, "A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation," Nanotechnology 18, 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, J. Zhang, and H. Kuroda, "Formation of nanogratings on the surface of a ZnSe crystal irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. B 72, 125429 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A

B. N. Chichkov, C. Momma, S. Nolte, F. v. Alvensleben, and A. Tünnermann, "Femtosecond, picosecond and nanosecond laser ablation of solids," Appl. Phys. A 63, 109-115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, "Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin films of TiN and DLC," Appl. Phys. A 76, 983-985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. P. McDonald, V. R. Mistry, K. E. Ray, and S. M. Yalisove, "Femtosecond pulsed laser direct write production of nano- and microfluidic channels," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 183113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tomita, K. Kinoshita, S. Matsuo, and S. Hashimoto, "Effect of surface roughening on femtosecond laser-induced ripple structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 153115 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, "Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3716-3718 (1999).
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[CrossRef]

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Appl. Surf. Sci.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, J. Reif, and M. Bestehorn, "Self-organized pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation by circular polarized light," Appl. Surf. Sci. 252, 4702-4706 (2006).
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Nanotechnology

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[CrossRef]

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J. Perrière, É. Millon, and É. Fogarassy, Recent Advances in Laser Processing of Materials (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006).

M. Huang, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, are preparing a manuscript to be called "Micro-Raman spectroscopy of subwavelength laser-induced periodic surface structure on highly-oriented pyrolytic graphite and single crystal bulk diamond."

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Illustration of the techniques employed in the experiments. (a). A schematic view of the experiment setup. (b). A sketch map of the technique for obtaining a complanate ablation crater. The SEM image I and II show the surface morphologies of the craters irradiated at fuences of 2.9 and 2.4 J/cm2 with the same pulse number 300. (c). Schematic of the technique for obtaining of a complanate large area nanostructure.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

SEM images of the large area nanostructures produced by 800 nm fs laser with scanning interval 8 µm under different conditions: nano-gratings on (a) ZnO and (b) ZnSe by linearly polarized irradiation with the fluences of 2.6 and 1.4 J/cm2 respectively (upper-right corner images: the whole 200×200 µm2 treated areas); (c) nano-grating on ZnO by elliptically polarized irradiation with the fluence of 3.3 J/cm2; nano-particles on (d) ZnO and (e) ZnSe by circularly polarized irradiation with the fluences of 3.3 and 1.4 J/cm2 respectively; (f) nano-grating (I and II) and nano-particle (III) on graphite with the fluence of 0.25 J/cm2. The laser polarization directions in the cases of linear, elliptical, and circular polarization are indicated in the lower left quarter of (a), (c) and (d) respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

SEM images of the large area nano-squares on ZnO produced by 800 nm fs laser with different techniques: (a) two beam alternate ablation technique and (b) perpendicular overlapped processing technique with the fluences of 3.0 and 2.8 J/cm2 respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The influence of laser fluence as well as scanning interval on the morphologies of the nano-gratings formed by the irradiation of (a) linearly polarized laser with the fluences of 2.6 (I), 2.8 (II), and 3.2 (II) J/cm2, and the interval of 8 (I, II, and III) and 4 (IV) µm, and (b) elliptically polarized laser with the fluences of 2.9 (I) and 3.8 (II) J/cm2.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The relationship between the laser wavelength and the periodicity of nano-grating on ZnO. The insets show the SEM images of the nano-gratings induced by 532 (I) and 1064 (II) nm ps laser respectively.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

MRS of different regions: (a) ZnO surface without laser treatment; ZnO nano-grating 1 (b) and 2 (c) produced by 800 nm fs laser of elliptically polarized with the fluences of 3.3 and 3.8 J/cm2 respectively.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Optical microscope images of the 200×200 µm2 nanostructures fabricated by 800 nm fs laser with different irradiation conditions: linear polarization with fluences of 2.4 (a), 2.6 (b), 2.8 (c) and 3.2 (d) J/cm2; circular polarization with fluences of 3.1 (e) and 3.3 (f) J/cm2. The untreated areas of the upper parts of the square processing areas in (a) and (e) are due to the “incubate” effect at low laser fluence: in the initial area, it lacks the seeds for further ablation, so longer incubate time is required for the nanostructure formation.

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