Abstract

A novel lateral force sensor based on a core-offset multi-mode fiber (MMF) interferometer is reported. High extinction ratio can be obtained by misaligning a fused cross section between the single-mode fiber (SMF) and MMF. With the variation of the lateral force applied to a short section of the MMF, the extinction ratio changes while the interference phase remains almost constant. The change of the extinction ratio is independent of temperature variations. The proposed force sensor has the advantages of temperature- and phase-independency, high extinction ratio sensitivity, good repeatability, low cost, and simple structure. Moreover, the core-offset MMF interferometer is expected to have applications in fiber filters and tunable phase-independent attenuators.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2008

2007

2006

L. Xue, Q. Hao, J. Liu, G. Huang, T. Guo, and X. Dong, "Force sensing with temperature self-compensated based on a loop thin-wall section beam," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 271-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, Z. Cai, J. H. Ng, Y. Gong, and P. Varghese, "Simultaneous temperature and lateral force measurement using simple arc-shaped FBG sensor module, " Electron Lett. 42, 1446 -1447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, "Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Takahashi, J. Z. Hao, Y. W. A. Lee, Z. Cai, T. T. Do and B. Y. R. Ng, "Effect of bending methods on FBG lateral force sensor," Electron Lett. 41, 1270-1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

W. Zhang, X. Dong, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, and S. Yuan, "FBG-type sensor for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1340 -1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

1983

S. C. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 312-331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

Cai, Z.

J. Hao, Z. Cai, J. H. Ng, Y. Gong, and P. Varghese, "Simultaneous temperature and lateral force measurement using simple arc-shaped FBG sensor module, " Electron Lett. 42, 1446 -1447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, J. Z. Hao, Y. W. A. Lee, Z. Cai, T. T. Do and B. Y. R. Ng, "Effect of bending methods on FBG lateral force sensor," Electron Lett. 41, 1270-1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Carter, A. L. G.

Chan, T. L.

Chen, C.

Chung, Y.

Do, T. T.

S. Takahashi, J. Z. Hao, Y. W. A. Lee, Z. Cai, T. T. Do and B. Y. R. Ng, "Effect of bending methods on FBG lateral force sensor," Electron Lett. 41, 1270-1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

L. Xue, Q. Hao, J. Liu, G. Huang, T. Guo, and X. Dong, "Force sensing with temperature self-compensated based on a loop thin-wall section beam," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 271-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhang, X. Dong, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, and S. Yuan, "FBG-type sensor for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1340 -1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gong,, Y.

J. Hao, Z. Cai, J. H. Ng, Y. Gong, and P. Varghese, "Simultaneous temperature and lateral force measurement using simple arc-shaped FBG sensor module, " Electron Lett. 42, 1446 -1447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

T. Guo, A. Ivanov, C. Chen, and J. Albert, "Temperature-independent tilted fiber grating vibration sensor based on cladding-core recoupling," Opt. Lett. 33, 1004-1006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xue, Q. Hao, J. Liu, G. Huang, T. Guo, and X. Dong, "Force sensing with temperature self-compensated based on a loop thin-wall section beam," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 271-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

J. Hao, Z. Cai, J. H. Ng, Y. Gong, and P. Varghese, "Simultaneous temperature and lateral force measurement using simple arc-shaped FBG sensor module, " Electron Lett. 42, 1446 -1447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J. Z.

S. Takahashi, J. Z. Hao, Y. W. A. Lee, Z. Cai, T. T. Do and B. Y. R. Ng, "Effect of bending methods on FBG lateral force sensor," Electron Lett. 41, 1270-1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Q.

L. Xue, Q. Hao, J. Liu, G. Huang, T. Guo, and X. Dong, "Force sensing with temperature self-compensated based on a loop thin-wall section beam," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 271-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, G.

L. Xue, Q. Hao, J. Liu, G. Huang, T. Guo, and X. Dong, "Force sensing with temperature self-compensated based on a loop thin-wall section beam," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 271-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, D.

Ivanov, A.

Kai, G.

W. Zhang, X. Dong, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, and S. Yuan, "FBG-type sensor for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1340 -1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. S.

Lee, Y. W. A.

S. Takahashi, J. Z. Hao, Y. W. A. Lee, Z. Cai, T. T. Do and B. Y. R. Ng, "Effect of bending methods on FBG lateral force sensor," Electron Lett. 41, 1270-1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

E. Li, "Temperature compensation of multimode-interference-based fiber devices," Opt. Lett. 32, 2064-2066 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Li, "Sensitivity-Enhanced Fiber-Optic Strain Sensor Based on Interference of Higher Order Modes in Circular Fibers," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1266-1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, "Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lit, J. W. Y.

Liu, J.

L. Xue, Q. Hao, J. Liu, G. Huang, T. Guo, and X. Dong, "Force sensing with temperature self-compensated based on a loop thin-wall section beam," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 271-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. K.

Liu, Y.

Moon, D. S.

Moon, S.

Ng, B. Y. R.

S. Takahashi, J. Z. Hao, Y. W. A. Lee, Z. Cai, T. T. Do and B. Y. R. Ng, "Effect of bending methods on FBG lateral force sensor," Electron Lett. 41, 1270-1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J. H.

J. Hao, Z. Cai, J. H. Ng, Y. Gong, and P. Varghese, "Simultaneous temperature and lateral force measurement using simple arc-shaped FBG sensor module, " Electron Lett. 42, 1446 -1447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, L. V.

Rashleigh, S. C.

S. C. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 312-331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, S.

S. Takahashi, J. Z. Hao, Y. W. A. Lee, Z. Cai, T. T. Do and B. Y. R. Ng, "Effect of bending methods on FBG lateral force sensor," Electron Lett. 41, 1270-1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, P.

J. Hao, Z. Cai, J. H. Ng, Y. Gong, and P. Varghese, "Simultaneous temperature and lateral force measurement using simple arc-shaped FBG sensor module, " Electron Lett. 42, 1446 -1447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, "Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, L.

Wong, K. H.

Xue, L.

L. Xue, Q. Hao, J. Liu, G. Huang, T. Guo, and X. Dong, "Force sensing with temperature self-compensated based on a loop thin-wall section beam," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 271-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

W. Zhang, X. Dong, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, and S. Yuan, "FBG-type sensor for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1340 -1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, "Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, X. Dong, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, and S. Yuan, "FBG-type sensor for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1340 -1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

W. Zhang, X. Dong, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, and S. Yuan, "FBG-type sensor for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1340 -1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, D.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Li, X. Wang, and C. Zhang, "Fiber-optic temperature sensor based on interference of selective higher-order modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 091119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron Lett.

J. Hao, Z. Cai, J. H. Ng, Y. Gong, and P. Varghese, "Simultaneous temperature and lateral force measurement using simple arc-shaped FBG sensor module, " Electron Lett. 42, 1446 -1447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Takahashi, J. Z. Hao, Y. W. A. Lee, Z. Cai, T. T. Do and B. Y. R. Ng, "Effect of bending methods on FBG lateral force sensor," Electron Lett. 41, 1270-1271 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett.

E. Li, "Sensitivity-Enhanced Fiber-Optic Strain Sensor Based on Interference of Higher Order Modes in Circular Fibers," IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 19, 1266-1268 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett.

W. Zhang, X. Dong, Q. Zhao, G. Kai, and S. Yuan, "FBG-type sensor for simultaneous measurement of force and temperature," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 1340 -1342 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Xue, Q. Hao, J. Liu, G. Huang, T. Guo, and X. Dong, "Force sensing with temperature self-compensated based on a loop thin-wall section beam," IEEE. Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 271-273 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. C. Rashleigh, "Origins and control of polarization effects in single-mode fibers," J. Lightwave Technol. LT-1, 312-331 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

B. Dong, Q. Zhao, L. Zhao, L. Jin, Y. Miao, T. Liao, and X. Zeng, "Simultaneous measurement of temperature and force based on a special-strain-function-chirped FBG, " Sens. Actuators, A. 147, 169-172 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Huang, F. Luo and Y. Pan, "Fiber Optic Sensor for Measuring Distributed Forces," J. Intel. Mater. Syst. Struct. 5, 427 (1994.)
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup (Insets show the interferometer structure and the sensing structure, respectively).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Extinction ratio as a function of the power ratio I 2/I 1 of the two interference modes

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission power spectra of the BBS and the MMF interferometer with core-offset d about 0, 4µm, 4.2µm and 5µm, respectively

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Transmission spectrum of the core-offset MMF interferometer sensor

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Measured transmission power spectra under different lateral forces

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Extinction ratio responses to different lateral forces

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Measured transmission power spectra under different temperatures at a fixed force of 2.94 N

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = I 1 + I 2 + 2 I 1 I 2 cos [ 2 π ( n 2 n 1 ) L λ ] ,
Δ n = 4 k F π r l E

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