Abstract

Phase modulation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is studied as a function of geometric length and thickness of surface relief dielectric structures on a metal film. The results indicate that the SPPs are analogous to conventional free-space light waves in terms of phase modulation by geometric sizes and refractive indices. An SPP Fresnel zoneplate is considered as an example to employ the phase modulation method for focusing enhancement at the focal point. It is found that the phase modulation optimized zoneplate has obtained 130% higher electric field intensity at the focal point than that of an amplitude-modulated zoneplate.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008

2007

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin and A. Boltasseva, "Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains," Opt. Express 15, 6576-6582 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: Diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, "Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, E. T. Arakawa, A. Wig, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, "Modulation of multiple photon energies by use of surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 41-43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, "Surface plasmon interference nanolithography," Nano Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401(2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

Z. P. Liao, H. L. Wong, G. P. Yang, and Y. F. Yuan, "A transmitting boundary for transient wave analysis," Sci. Sin. 28, 1063-1076 (1984).

Arakawa, E. T.

Atwater, H. A.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

I. P. Radko, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, A. B. Evlyukhin and A. Boltasseva, "Surface plasmon polariton beam focusing with parabolic nanoparticle chains," Opt. Express 15, 6576-6582 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. E.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byoungho, L.

Dereux, A.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401(2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Englisch, A.

Erland, J.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evlyukhin, A. B.

Fainman, Y.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: Diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: Diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ferrell, T. L.

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, E. T. Arakawa, A. Wig, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, "Modulation of multiple photon energies by use of surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 41-43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, "Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Goudonnet, J. P.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, "Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griesing, S.

Hahn, J.

Hiller, J. M.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenau, A.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, "Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides," Phys. Rev. B 75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hua, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hvam, J. M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishihara, T.

X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lacroute, Y.

J. C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, "Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes," Phys. Rev. B 68, 115401(2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lereu, A. L.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, "Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, E. T. Arakawa, A. Wig, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, "Modulation of multiple photon energies by use of surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 41-43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Z. P.

Z. P. Liao, H. L. Wong, G. P. Yang, and Y. F. Yuan, "A transmitting boundary for transient wave analysis," Sci. Sin. 28, 1063-1076 (1984).

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, "Surface plasmon interference nanolithography," Nano Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, V.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: Diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X. G.

X. G. Luo and T. Ishihara, "Surface plasmon resonant interference nanolithography technique," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 4780-4782 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, "Plasmonics: Merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions," Science 311, 189-193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Passian, A.

A. L. Lereu, A. Passian, J. P. Goudonnet, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, "Optical modulation processes in thin films based on thermal effects of surface plasmons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 154101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Passian, A. L. Lereu, E. T. Arakawa, A. Wig, T. Thundat, and T. L. Ferrell, "Modulation of multiple photon energies by use of surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 41-43 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radko, I. P.

Schider, G.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Two-dimensional optics with surface plasmon polaritons," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1762-1764 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, "Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures," Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3008-3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slutsky, B.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: Diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, B.

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepanov, A. L.

A. Hohenau, J. R. Krenn, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, "Dielectric optical elements for surface plasmons," Opt. Lett. 30, 893-895 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Drezet, A. L. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, B. Steinberger, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, "Surface plasmon propagation in an elliptical corral," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 074104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tetz, K. A.

L. Feng, K. A. Tetz, B. Slutsky, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, "Fourier plasmonics: Diffractive focusing of in-plane surface plasmon polariton waves," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 081101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thundat, T.

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Nano Lett.

Z. W. Liu, Q. H. Wei, and X. Zhang, "Surface plasmon interference nanolithography," Nano Lett. 5, 957-961 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, J. Pearson, J. M. Hiller, J. Hua, U. Welp, D. E. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, "Subwavelength focusing and guiding of surface plasmons," Nano Lett. 5, 1399-1402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, "All-optical modulation by plasmonic excitation of CdSe quantum dots," Nat. Photonics 1, 402-406 (2007).
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Nature

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Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Sketch of the structure and parameters of in-plane PMFZP. (a) Five gratings with 600nm periodicity are embedded in the silver film as an SPP launcher. Linearly polarized light normally incident into gratings. (b) PMMA structure is symmetrically deposited on the metal film to form even Fresnel zones of in-plane PMFZP.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a). The FDTD simulation result for the electric field intensity |E|2 distribution on a plane located 40nm above metal film of in-plane PMFZP for l=480nm, t=100nm. (b). DOF and FWHM of the focus point of in-plane PMFZP. (c) Plots of electric field intensity |E|2 at the focal point of the in-plane PMFZP and AMFZP vs. l for t=100nm.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). Plot of electric field intensity |E|2 at the focal point of the in-plane PMFZP vs. l for t=200nm (solid line), t=400nm (dashed line) and t=500nm (dotted line), respectively. (b) Plot of l vs. t for π phase shift (solid line), 2π phase shift (dashed line).

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k SPP = k 0 ε 1 ε 2 ε 1 + ε 2
E SPP = E SPP 0 ± exp ( k SPP " x ± k z z ω " t ) exp ( + i ( k SPP x ω t ) )
r m = m λ SPP f + m 2 λ SPP 2 4

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