Abstract

The relative intensity of photonic modes in microcavity pillars with embedded self-assembled quantum dots is shown to be a sensitive function of quantum dot dipole orientation and position. This is deduced from a comparison of experiment and calculated intensities of light emission for many nominally identical pillars. We are able to obtain the overall degree of in-plane polarization of the quantum dot ensemble and also to obtain information on the degree of polarization along the growth axis.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Daraei, D. Sanvitto, J. A. Timpson, A. M. Fox, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, H. Vinck, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, S. L. Liew, and M. Hopkinson, "Control of polarization and mode mapping of small volume high Q micropillars," 102, 043105 (2007).

2008

2007

D. M. Whittaker, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, D. Sanvitto, H. Vinck, S. Lam, A. Daraei, J. A. Timpson, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, Y-L. D. Ho, J. G. Rarity, M. Hopkinson, and A. Tahraoui, "High Q modes in elliptical microcavity pillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,161105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Daraei, A. Tahraoui, D. Sanvitto, J. A. Timpson, P.W. Fry,M. Hopkinson, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, H. Vinck, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, "Control of polarized single quantum dot emission in high-qualityfactor microcavity pillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,051113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. Ebbens, A. I. Tartakovskii, F. Pulizzi, T. Wright, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Hopkinson, "Individual neutral and charged InxGa1-xAs-GaAs quantum dots with strong in-plane optical anisotropy," Phys. Rev. B 72,161312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. F. G. Gallagher and T. P. Felici, "Eigenmode expansion methods for simulation of optical propagation in photonics - pros and cons," Proc. SPIE 4987,69-84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature (London) 424,839-846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Pelton, J. Vu¡ckovi’c, G. S. Solomon, A. Scherer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Three-Dimensionally Confined Modes in Micropost Microcavities: Quality Factors and Purcell Factors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38,170-177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33,327-341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Gayral, "Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor microcavities: an experimental approach," Ann. Phys. Fr. 26,1-135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. M. G’erard, B. Sermage, B. Gayral, B. Legrand, E. Costard, and V. Thierry-Mieg, "Enhanced Spontaneous Emission by Quantum Boxes in a Monolithic Optical Microcavity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 81,1110-1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. M. G’erard, D. Barrier, J. Y. Marzin, R. Kuszelewicz, L. Manin, E. Costard, V. Thierry- Mieg, and T. Rivera, "Quantum boxes as active probes for photonic microstructures: The pillar microcavity case," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69,449-451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. -Y. Marzin, J. -M. G’erard, A. Izra¨el, D. Barrier, and G. Bastard, "Photoluminescence of Single InAs Quantum Dots Obtained by Self-Organized Growth on GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73,716-719 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1946

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69,681 (1946).

Akiyama, T.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Badolato, A.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33,327-341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Bienstman and R. Baets, "Optical modelling of photonic crystals and VCSELs using eigenmode expansion and perfectly matched layers," Opt. Quantum Electron. 33,327-341 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cassabois, G.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Daraei, A.

A. Daraei, A. Tahraoui, D. Sanvitto, J. A. Timpson, P.W. Fry,M. Hopkinson, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, H. Vinck, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, "Control of polarized single quantum dot emission in high-qualityfactor microcavity pillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,051113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Darson, D.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delalande, C.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebbens, A.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. Ebbens, A. I. Tartakovskii, F. Pulizzi, T. Wright, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Hopkinson, "Individual neutral and charged InxGa1-xAs-GaAs quantum dots with strong in-plane optical anisotropy," Phys. Rev. B 72,161312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ebe, H.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Favero, I.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Felici, T. P.

D. F. G. Gallagher and T. P. Felici, "Eigenmode expansion methods for simulation of optical propagation in photonics - pros and cons," Proc. SPIE 4987,69-84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferreira, R.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

Fry, P.W.

A. Daraei, A. Tahraoui, D. Sanvitto, J. A. Timpson, P.W. Fry,M. Hopkinson, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, H. Vinck, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, "Control of polarized single quantum dot emission in high-qualityfactor microcavity pillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,051113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G’erard, J. M

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, D. F. G.

D. F. G. Gallagher and T. P. Felici, "Eigenmode expansion methods for simulation of optical propagation in photonics - pros and cons," Proc. SPIE 4987,69-84 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gayral, B.

B. Gayral, "Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor microcavities: an experimental approach," Ann. Phys. Fr. 26,1-135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H¨ofling, S.

Heindel, T.

Hopkinson, M.

A. Daraei, A. Tahraoui, D. Sanvitto, J. A. Timpson, P.W. Fry,M. Hopkinson, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, H. Vinck, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, "Control of polarized single quantum dot emission in high-qualityfactor microcavity pillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,051113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. Ebbens, A. I. Tartakovskii, F. Pulizzi, T. Wright, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Hopkinson, "Individual neutral and charged InxGa1-xAs-GaAs quantum dots with strong in-plane optical anisotropy," Phys. Rev. B 72,161312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jankovic, A.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jayavel, P.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kistner, C.

Kita, T.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krizhanovskii, D. N.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. Ebbens, A. I. Tartakovskii, F. Pulizzi, T. Wright, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Hopkinson, "Individual neutral and charged InxGa1-xAs-GaAs quantum dots with strong in-plane optical anisotropy," Phys. Rev. B 72,161312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marzin, J. -Y.

J. -Y. Marzin, J. -M. G’erard, A. Izra¨el, D. Barrier, and G. Bastard, "Photoluminescence of Single InAs Quantum Dots Obtained by Self-Organized Growth on GaAs," Phys. Rev. Lett. 73,716-719 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakata, Y.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pelton, M.

M. Pelton, J. Vu¡ckovi’c, G. S. Solomon, A. Scherer, and Y. Yamamoto, "Three-Dimensionally Confined Modes in Micropost Microcavities: Quality Factors and Purcell Factors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38,170-177 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pulizzi, F.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. Ebbens, A. I. Tartakovskii, F. Pulizzi, T. Wright, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Hopkinson, "Individual neutral and charged InxGa1-xAs-GaAs quantum dots with strong in-plane optical anisotropy," Phys. Rev. B 72,161312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, "Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies," Phys. Rev. 69,681 (1946).

Rahimi-Iman, A.

Reitzenstein, S.

Roussignol, Ph.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanvitto, D.

A. Daraei, A. Tahraoui, D. Sanvitto, J. A. Timpson, P.W. Fry,M. Hopkinson, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, H. Vinck, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, "Control of polarized single quantum dot emission in high-qualityfactor microcavity pillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,051113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, C.

Skolnick, M. S.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. Ebbens, A. I. Tartakovskii, F. Pulizzi, T. Wright, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Hopkinson, "Individual neutral and charged InxGa1-xAs-GaAs quantum dots with strong in-plane optical anisotropy," Phys. Rev. B 72,161312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, M.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tahraoui, A.

A. Daraei, A. Tahraoui, D. Sanvitto, J. A. Timpson, P.W. Fry,M. Hopkinson, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, H. Vinck, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, "Control of polarized single quantum dot emission in high-qualityfactor microcavity pillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,051113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tartakovskii, A. I.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. Ebbens, A. I. Tartakovskii, F. Pulizzi, T. Wright, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Hopkinson, "Individual neutral and charged InxGa1-xAs-GaAs quantum dots with strong in-plane optical anisotropy," Phys. Rev. B 72,161312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tatebayashi, J.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Timpson, J. A.

A. Daraei, A. Tahraoui, D. Sanvitto, J. A. Timpson, P.W. Fry,M. Hopkinson, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, H. Vinck, D. M. Whittaker, M. S. Skolnick, and A. M. Fox, "Control of polarized single quantum dot emission in high-qualityfactor microcavity pillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88,051113 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

K. J. Vahala, "Optical microcavities," Nature (London) 424,839-846 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Voisin, C.

I. Favero, G. Cassabois, A. Jankovic, R. Ferreira, D. Darson, C. Voisin, C. Delalande, Ph. Roussignol, A. Badolato, P. M. Petroff, and J. M . G’erard, "Giant optical anisotropy in a single InAs quantum dot in a very dilute quantum-dot ensemble," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86,041904 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wada, O.

P. Jayavel, H. Tanaka, T. Kita, O. Wada, H. Ebe, M. Sugawara, J. Tatebayashi, Y. Arakawa, Y. Nakata, and T. Akiyama, "Control of optical polarization anisotropy in edge emitting luminescence of InAs/GaAs selfassembled quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 84,1820-1822 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

D. M. Whittaker, P. S. S. Guimar˜aes, D. Sanvitto, H. Vinck, S. Lam, A. Daraei, J. A. Timpson, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, Y-L. D. Ho, J. G. Rarity, M. Hopkinson, and A. Tahraoui, "High Q modes in elliptical microcavity pillars," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90,161105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wright, T.

D. N. Krizhanovskii, A. Ebbens, A. I. Tartakovskii, F. Pulizzi, T. Wright, M. S. Skolnick, and M. Hopkinson, "Individual neutral and charged InxGa1-xAs-GaAs quantum dots with strong in-plane optical anisotropy," Phys. Rev. B 72,161312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. Fr.

B. Gayral, "Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor microcavities: an experimental approach," Ann. Phys. Fr. 26,1-135 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(Color online) Representative experimental spectra for the set of 1.5 µm diameter micropillars studied. The spectra are normalized at the fundamental mode. The spectrum shown in (a) is characteristic of the major (70%) part of the samples, with the TE01 mode as the most intense of the group of the three first higher energy modes. For the sample shown in (b), although the TE01 mode is still of higher intensity, the TM01 mode is significantly excited, being more intense than the HE21 mode. Only one pillar (3%) is in this category. The type of spectrum illustrated in (c), with the HE21 mode as the most intense of the high energy group, is displayed by the remaining 27% of the samples.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(Color online) Calculated photoluminescence spectra for the 1.5 µm diameter micropillars. The top shows cross-sections of the electric field profiles for the lowest energy photonic modes. The double arrows labeled 1 and 2 represent X-polarized quantum dot dipoles at two different positions in the cavity. The PL spectrum in (a) is obtained with a dipole located in the horizontal axis, displaced 0.225 µm (0.3 times the pillar radius) from the center, with polarization in the plane with components X and Y of equal intensities. To obtain spectrum (b), the dipole is located 20° from the horizontal axis, 0.225 µm from the center. Its polarization has Y and Z components of equal magnitude and a X component which is 60% of the other two. For spectrum (c), the dipole is located in the horizontal axis, displaced 0.225 µm from the center, with polarization in the plane with components X and Y, with the Y component half the magnitude of the X component. The insets in (b) show the calculated electric field intensity for each mode.

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