Abstract

We report the first entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) experiment over a 100-km optical fiber. We used superconducting single photon detectors based on NbN nanowires that provide high-speed single photon detection for the 1.5-µm telecom band, an efficient entangled photon pair source that consists of a fiber coupled periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide and ultra low loss filters, and planar lightwave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) with ultra stable operation. These characteristics enabled us to perform an entanglement-based QKD experiment over a 100-km optical fiber. In the experiment, which lasted approximately 8 hours, we successfully generated a 16 kbit sifted key with a quantum bit error rate of 6.9 % at a rate of 0.59 bits per second, from which we were able to distill a 3.9 kbit secure key.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  6. D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  17. A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarization-entangled. photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 23, 2797, (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Brendel, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-um band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express,  15, 13957–13964 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light,” J. Mod. Optics 45, 595–604 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express,  15, 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Differential-phase quantum key distribution experiment using a series of quantum entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

2005 (4)

2004 (6)

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Gated-mode single-photon detection at 1550 nm by discharge pulse counting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Albota and F. N. C. Wong, , “Efficient single-photon counting at 1.55 µm by means of frequency upconversion,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1449–1451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Poppe, A. Fedrizzi, R. Ursin, H. Bohm, T. Lorunser, O. Maurhardt, M. Peev, M. Suda, C. Kurtsiefer, H. Weinfurter, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Practical quantum key distribution with polarization entangled photons,” Opt. Express,  12, 3865–3871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 23, 2797, (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarization-entangled. photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, Y. Zeevi, and Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

2001 (1)

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

T. Jennewein, C Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum cryptography with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729–4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Brendel, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light,” J. Mod. Optics 45, 595–604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albota, M. A.

Asobe, M.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express,  15, 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asobe, H. Miyazawa, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” The Optical Electronics and Communications Conference, Yokohama, Japan, July 8–12 2002, paper PD2–8.

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berglund, A. J.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohm, H.

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brendel, J.

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chulkova, G.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Micheli, M.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

De Riedmatten, H.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Diamanti, E.

Dzardanov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fasel, S.

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fedrizzi, A.

Fejer, M. M.

Fujiwara, M.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, S. S.

Hadfield, R. H.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. S. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13, 10846–10853 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Honjo, T.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express,  15, 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Differential-phase quantum key distribution experiment using a series of quantum entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 23, 2797, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express,  15, 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Differential-phase quantum key distribution experiment using a series of quantum entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-um band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 23, 2797, (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

Itabashi, S.

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

Kaji, R.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Gated-mode single-photon detection at 1550 nm by discharge pulse counting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarization-entangled. photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kamada, H.

Kumar, P.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtsiefer, C.

Kwiat, P. G.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langrock, C.

Li, X.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipatov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lorunser, T.

Marcikic, I.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maurhardt, O.

Mermin, N. D.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miki, S.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. J.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. S. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13, 10846–10853 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirin, R. P.

Miyazawa, H.

M. Asobe, H. Miyazawa, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” The Optical Electronics and Communications Conference, Yokohama, Japan, July 8–12 2002, paper PD2–8.

Naik, D. S.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S. W.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Hadfield, M. J. Stevens, S. S. Gruber, A. J. Miller, R. E. Schwall, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Single photon source characterization with a superconducting single photon detector,” Opt. Express 13, 10846–10853 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namekata, N.

Nishida, Y.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express,  15, 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asobe, H. Miyazawa, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” The Optical Electronics and Communications Conference, Yokohama, Japan, July 8–12 2002, paper PD2–8.

Okunev, O.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ostrowsky, D. B.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

Peev, M.

Peterson, C. G.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

Rarity, J. G.

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light,” J. Mod. Optics 45, 595–604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roussev, R. V.

Sasaki, M.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sasamori, S.

Scarani, V.

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schwall, R. E.

Semenov, A.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharping, J. E.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, C

T. Jennewein, C Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum cryptography with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729–4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnov, K.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sobolewski, R.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. J.

Suda, M.

Suzuki, H.

M. Asobe, H. Miyazawa, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” The Optical Electronics and Communications Conference, Yokohama, Japan, July 8–12 2002, paper PD2–8.

Tadanaga, O.

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express,  15, 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asobe, H. Miyazawa, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” The Optical Electronics and Communications Conference, Yokohama, Japan, July 8–12 2002, paper PD2–8.

Takahashi, H.

T. Honjo, K. Inoue, and H. Takahashi, “Differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution experiment with a planar light-wave circuit Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 29, 23, 2797, (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, and K. Inoue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entangled photon pairs over 100 km using frequency up-conversion detectors,” Opt. Express,  15, 13957–13964 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Differential-phase quantum key distribution experiment using a series of quantum entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, “Long-distance distribution of time-bin entanglement generated in a cooled fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 3453 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-um band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-protonexchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1725–1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanzilli, S.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

Tapster, P. R.

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light,” J. Mod. Optics 45, 595–604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, Y.

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Gated-mode single-photon detection at 1550 nm by discharge pulse counting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarization-entangled. photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

Voronov, B.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P. L.

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waks, E.

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, Y. Zeevi, and Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

T. Jennewein, C Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum cryptography with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729–4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

White, A. G.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C.

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wong, F. N. C.

Yamada, K.

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto,

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, Y. Zeevi, and Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Langrock, E. Diamanti, R. V. Roussev, Y. Yamamoto, M. M. Fejer, and H. Takesue, “Highly efficient single-photon detection at communication wavelengths by use of upconversion in reverse-protonexchanged periodically poled LiNbO3 waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 30, 1725–1727 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshizawa, A.

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Gated-mode single-photon detection at 1550 nm by discharge pulse counting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarization-entangled. photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zeevi, A.

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, Y. Zeevi, and Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeevi, Y.

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, Y. Zeevi, and Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

Zhang, Q.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Gated-mode single-photon detection at 1550 nm by discharge pulse counting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 3606 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. N. Gol’tsman, O. Okunev, G. Chulkova, A. Lipatov, A. Semenov, K. Smirnov, B. Voronov, A. Dzardanov, C. Williams, and R. Sobolewski, “Picosecond superconducting single-photon optical detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, A. J. Miller, R. H. Hadfield, S. W. Nam, and Z. Wang, “Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarization-entangled. photon pairs at 1550 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Euro Phys. J. (1)

S. Tanzilli, W. Tittel, H. De Riedmatten, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. B. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “PPLN waveguide for quantum communication,” Euro Phys. J. 18, 155–160 (2002).

J. Mod. Optics (1)

P. R. Tapster and J. G. Rarity, “Photon statistics of pulsed parametric light,” J. Mod. Optics 45, 595–604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of polarization entangled photon pairs and violation of Bell’s inequality using spontaneous four-wave mixing in a fiber loop,” Phys. Rev. A 70, 031802(R) (2004).
[CrossRef]

I. Marcikic, H. de Riedmatten, W. Tittel, V. Scarani, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Time-bin entangled qubits for quantum communication created by femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 062308 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-um band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804(R) (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, Y. Zeevi, and Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661–663 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jennewein, C Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum cryptography with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729–4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum Cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740, (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum Communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Li, P. L. Voss, J. E. Sharping, and P. Kumar, “Optical-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons in the 1550 nm telecom band,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 053601 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Asobe, H. Miyazawa, O. Tadanaga, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, “Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides,” The Optical Electronics and Communications Conference, Yokohama, Japan, July 8–12 2002, paper PD2–8.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic diagram of BBM92QKD with time-bin entangled photon pairs.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Two-photon interference fringe with no transmission fiber.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Two-photon interference fringe after transmission over 100-km dispersion shifted fiber.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ψ = 1 2 ( 1 s 1 i + 2 s 2 i ) ,
ψ f = 1 4 [ 2 i t 1 a t 1 b + ( e i ( θ a + θ b ) + 1 ) ( D 1 , t 2 a D 1 , t 2 b D 2 , t 2 a D 2 , t 2 b )
i ( e i ( θ a + θ b ) 1 ) ( D 2 , t 2 a D 1 , t 2 b + D 2 , t 2 a D 1 , t 2 b ) 2 e i ( θ a + θ b ) t 3 a t 3 b ] ,
ψ f energy- base = 1 2 ( D 1 a D 1 b D 2 a D 2 b )
ψ f time- base = 1 2 ( i t 1 a t 1 b t 3 a t 3 b )
c s = μ c 2 α s + d s ,
c i = μ c 2 α i + d i ,
R c c = 1 4 μ c α s α i ,
R a c c = ( μ c 2 α s + d s ) ( μ c 2 α i + d i )
V = ( R c c + R a c c ) R a c c ( R c c + R a c c ) + R a c c = R c c R c c + 2 R a c c .
R sift = f ( R c c + R a c c ) f 2 μ t α s α i
QBER = 2 R a c c R c c + 4 R a c c μ t 2 ( 1 + μ t )
R sec ure = R sift [ log 2 ( 1 2 + 2 e 2 e 2 ) + f ( e ) ( e log 2 e + ( 1 e ) log 2 ( 1 e ) ) ]

Metrics