Abstract

We demonstrate the ability to generate extremely large rubidium densities in uncoated hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers using light induced atomic desorption. Once the fiber is exposed to Rb vapor for 1-2 weeks, and this atomic source is removed, the fiber yields large desorbable densities for an extended period of time. We show that optical depths greater than e -1200 can be created within seconds. Our observed Rb densities are several orders of magnitude larger than any previously reported to be generated optically, and allow for the demonstration of a relatively easy-to-use fiber-based vapor cell capable of producing large optical depths without the need for thermal tuning.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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2008 (2)

2007 (2)

2006 (2)

P. St. J. Russell, "Photonic-Crystal Fibers" J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 4729-4749 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, "Colloquium: Trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Alexandrov, M. V Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. F. Kimball, C.-H. Li, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66,042903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

D.  Lukin, A.  Imamo?lu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature  413, 273-276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, "Radiation trapping in coherent media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1993 (1)

A.  Gozzini, F.  Mango, J. H.  Xu, G.  Alzetta, F.  Maccarrone, and R. A.  Bernheim, "Light-induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells," Nuovo Cimento 15 D, 709-722 (1993).

1991 (1)

G.  Rempe, R. J.  Thompson, R. J.  Brecha, W. D.  Lee, and H. J.  Kimble, "Optical bistability and photon statistics in cavity quantum electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett.  67, 1727-1730 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

Ahmad, F. R.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, E. B.

E. B. Alexandrov, M. V Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. F. Kimball, C.-H. Li, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66,042903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alzetta, G.

A.  Gozzini, F.  Mango, J. H.  Xu, G.  Alzetta, F.  Maccarrone, and R. A.  Bernheim, "Light-induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells," Nuovo Cimento 15 D, 709-722 (1993).

Arie, A.

Balabas, M. V

E. B. Alexandrov, M. V Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. F. Kimball, C.-H. Li, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66,042903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Balic, V.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Benabid, F.

Bernheim, R. A.

A.  Gozzini, F.  Mango, J. H.  Xu, G.  Alzetta, F.  Maccarrone, and R. A.  Bernheim, "Light-induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells," Nuovo Cimento 15 D, 709-722 (1993).

Bhagwat, A.

Bhagwat, A. R.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biancalana, V.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogi, A.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Braje, D. A.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brecha, R. J.

G.  Rempe, R. J.  Thompson, R. J.  Brecha, W. D.  Lee, and H. J.  Kimble, "Optical bistability and photon statistics in cavity quantum electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett.  67, 1727-1730 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, J.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Budker, D.

E. B. Alexandrov, M. V Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. F. Kimball, C.-H. Li, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66,042903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burchianti, A.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chou, M. H.

Conkey, D. B.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danielli, A.

della Valle, F.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

English, D.

E. B. Alexandrov, M. V Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. F. Kimball, C.-H. Li, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66,042903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Gaeta, A. L.

A. Bhagwat and A. L. Gaeta, "Nonlinear optics in hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers," Opt. Express 16,5035-5047 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallagher, M. T.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, S.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goh, S.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gozzini, A.

A.  Gozzini, F.  Mango, J. H.  Xu, G.  Alzetta, F.  Maccarrone, and R. A.  Bernheim, "Light-induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells," Nuovo Cimento 15 D, 709-722 (1993).

Hald, J.

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A. R.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henningsen, J.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

D.  Lukin, A.  Imamo?lu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature  413, 273-276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamo?lu, "Giant Kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically-induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 21,1936-1938 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kimball, D. F.

E. B. Alexandrov, M. V Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. F. Kimball, C.-H. Li, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66,042903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kimble, H. J.

G.  Rempe, R. J.  Thompson, R. J.  Brecha, W. D.  Lee, and H. J.  Kimble, "Optical bistability and photon statistics in cavity quantum electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett.  67, 1727-1730 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirby, B. J.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, K. W.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuramochi, N.

Lee, W. D.

G.  Rempe, R. J.  Thompson, R. J.  Brecha, W. D.  Lee, and H. J.  Kimble, "Optical bistability and photon statistics in cavity quantum electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett.  67, 1727-1730 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.-H.

E. B. Alexandrov, M. V Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. F. Kimball, C.-H. Li, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66,042903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

Lipson, M.

Luiten, A. N.

Lukin, D.

D.  Lukin, A.  Imamo?lu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature  413, 273-276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

M. D. Lukin, "Colloquium: Trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maccarrone, F.

A.  Gozzini, F.  Mango, J. H.  Xu, G.  Alzetta, F.  Maccarrone, and R. A.  Bernheim, "Light-induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells," Nuovo Cimento 15 D, 709-722 (1993).

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mango, F.

A.  Gozzini, F.  Mango, J. H.  Xu, G.  Alzetta, F.  Maccarrone, and R. A.  Bernheim, "Light-induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells," Nuovo Cimento 15 D, 709-722 (1993).

Maric, M.

Marinelli, C.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, E.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matsko, A. B.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, "Radiation trapping in coherent media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moi, L.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Müller, D.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naritsuka, S.

Novikova, I.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, "Radiation trapping in coherent media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oura, N.

Ouzounov, D. G.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, J. C.

Rempe, G.

G.  Rempe, R. J.  Thompson, R. J.  Brecha, W. D.  Lee, and H. J.  Kimble, "Optical bistability and photon statistics in cavity quantum electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett.  67, 1727-1730 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renshaw, C. K.

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roberts, P. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. T.

Rubahn, H.-G.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rubahn, K.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rusian, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

Schmidt, H.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt and A. Imamo?lu, "Giant Kerr nonlinearities obtained by electromagnetically-induced transparency," Opt. Lett. 21,1936-1938 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, "Radiation trapping in coherent media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharping, J. E.

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silcox, J.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, M. G.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thompson, R. J.

G.  Rempe, R. J.  Thompson, R. J.  Brecha, W. D.  Lee, and H. J.  Kimble, "Optical bistability and photon statistics in cavity quantum electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett.  67, 1727-1730 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkataraman, N.

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veronesi, S.

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, "Radiation trapping in coherent media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, B.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. H.

A.  Gozzini, F.  Mango, J. H.  Xu, G.  Alzetta, F.  Maccarrone, and R. A.  Bernheim, "Light-induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells," Nuovo Cimento 15 D, 709-722 (1993).

Yang, W. G.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yashchuk, V. V.

E. B. Alexandrov, M. V Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. F. Kimball, C.-H. Li, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66,042903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yin, D. L.

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yin, G. Y.

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (1)

A.  Burchianti, C.  Marinelli, A.  Bogi, J.  Brewer, K.  Rubahn, H.-G.  Rubahn, F.  della Valle, E.  Mariotti, V.  Biancalana, S.  Veronesi, and L.  Moi, "Light-induced atomic desorption from porous silica," Europhys. Lett.  67, 983-989 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nature (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, "Optical frequency metrology," Nature 416, 233-237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.  Lukin, A.  Imamo?lu, "Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency," Nature  413, 273-276 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (1)

W. G. Yang, D. B. Conkey, B. Wu, D. L. Yin, A. R. Hawkins, and H. Schmidt, "Atomic spectroscopy on a chip," Nature Photon. 1, 331-335 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nuovo Cimento (1)

A.  Gozzini, F.  Mango, J. H.  Xu, G.  Alzetta, F.  Maccarrone, and R. A.  Bernheim, "Light-induced ejection of alkali atoms in polysiloxane coated cells," Nuovo Cimento 15 D, 709-722 (1993).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

E. B. Alexandrov, M. V Balabas, D. Budker, D. English, D. F. Kimball, C.-H. Li, and V. V. Yashchuk, "Light-induced desorption of alkali-metal atoms from paraffin coating," Phys. Rev. A 66,042903 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Braje, V. Balic, G. Y. Yin, and S. E. Harris, "Low-light-level nonlinear optics with slow light," Phys. Rev. A 68, 041801 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

G.  Rempe, R. J.  Thompson, R. J.  Brecha, W. D.  Lee, and H. J.  Kimble, "Optical bistability and photon statistics in cavity quantum electrodynamics," Phys. Rev. Lett.  67, 1727-1730 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, A. R. Bhagwat, C. K. Renshaw, S. Goh, A. L. Gaeta, and B. J. Kirby, "Low-light-level optical interactions with rubidium vapor in a photonic band-gap fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 023603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ghosh, J. E. Sharping, D. G. Ouzounov, and A. L. Gaeta, "Resonant optical interactions with molecules confined in photonic band-gap fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 093902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. B. Matsko, I. Novikova, M. O. Scully, and G. R. Welch, "Radiation trapping in coherent media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 133601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. D. Lukin, "Colloquium: Trapping and manipulating photon states in atomic ensembles," Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 457-472 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts and D. C. Allan, "Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air," Science 285, 1537-1539 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Ouzounov, F. R. Ahmad, D. Müller, N. Venkataraman, M. T. Gallagher, M. G. Thomas, J. Silcox, K. W. Koch, and A. L. Gaeta, "Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers, " Science 301, 1702-1704 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

D. F. Phillips, A. Boca, and R. L. Walsworth, "Evaporative coating of Rb maser cells," http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/~dphil/work/coat.pdf (1999).

A. Hatakeyama, M. Wilde and K. Fukutani, "Classification of light-induced desorption of alkali atoms," e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotech. 4, 63-68 (2006).
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D. A. Steck, 87Rb and 85RB D1 line data, http://steck.us/alkalidata/ (2001).

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M. Faheem, R. Thapa, and K. L. Corwin, "Spectral hole burning of acetylene gas inside a photonic bandgap optical fiber," Conference of Lasers and Electro Optics CLEO 2005, Long Beach Calif., May 2005.

V. S.  Letokhov, High-Resolution Laser Spectroscopy, K. Shimoda, ed., (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1976) pp. 136-138.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic of the experimental layout: A 4.5-cm-long hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber is mounted inside a steel chamber with glass windows connected to an ultrahigh vacuum system. 795-nm probe light and 805-nm atom-desorbing light are coupled into the fiber in counter-propagating geometry with 10× microscope objectives, and the coupling is monitored using a CCD camera. The probe beam can alternately be passed through the cell and detected by a photodiode to monitor the ambient cell Rb density. The coupled probe light is detected with photomultiplier tube (PMT). L: lens; PD: photodiode.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Absorption profiles of F=2→F’=2,3 transitions in the D1 line of 85Rb. (a) The absorption profile of the ambient Rb vapor used to load the hollow-core fiber, as seen by passing light adjacent to the fiber. The position and relative oscillator strengths of the two transitions are indicated by the black arrows. The data is fit (black line) with a Voigt profile that assumes a natural linewidth of 5.75 MHz and yields a FWHM Doppler width of 575 MHz. (b) The through-fiber absorption profile in the presence of weak Rb desorption. The solid line is a fit to a Voigt profile with a Lorentzian component linewidth of 20 MHz, corresponding to transit-time broadening, and to a Doppler-broadening Gaussian component with a FWHM of 670 MHz. The key feature of note is that the through-fiber absorption profile is considerably broader than that of the ambient Rb vapor.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Absorption profiles of lines in the D1 transition of 87Rb and 85Rb, representing various densities generated by light-induced atomic desorption (LIAD) in a hollow-core optical fiber that has been previously exposed to Rb vapor. The frequency scale is zeroed on the lowest energy D1 transition (87Rb F=2→F’=2). The top panel shows a relatively low optical depth of Rb. The black line is a fit to six Voigt lines that include the effects of transit-time broadening (see text). The position and relative absorption strength (accounting for natural abundance and oscillator strength) [24] are represented by the black arrows and their lengths, respectively. The middle panel shows a moderately high optical depth generated by LIAD. The black line is a free fit to the data with the same expression as that in the top panel. The bottom panel shows the absorption profile of a large density, with a conservatively estimated optical depth of ~1200 between the F=3→F’=2,3 resonances of 85Rb (see text).

Equations (2)

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Γ tt = 0.58 π u r 1 e = 0.58 π r 1 e 2 k B T m ,
OD = ln T ( ν ) min ,

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