Abstract

Novel engineered step-chirped gratings (SCG) for broadband frequency converters based on quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation in MgO-doped lithium niobate waveguides have been theoretically modeled and simulated. It is shown mathematically that engineered apodized gratings can flatten the efficiency response. Also, it is verified that the bandwidth and flatness of an apodized SCG can be improved extensively with decreasing the number of segments and increasing the apodization ratio, respectively. Further, we show enhancing the minimum width of the line of the gratings to 1 micron for easing fabrication, almost all the beneficial effect on the efficiency response of an apodized SCG are maintained. The possibility of increasing the width of the poled lines and the increase in the chirp step due to use of the SCG structure, may provide more convenient route for fabrication and poling.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. on Electron.E 88-C, 335-41 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. L. Lee, Y. Noh, C. Jung, T. Yu, D. Ko, and J. Lee, "Broadening of the second-harmonic phase-matching bandwidth in a temperature-gradient-controlled periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguide," Opt. Express 11, 2813-2819 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-11-22-2813.
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Z. Zheng, A. M. Weiner, K. R. Parameswaran, M. Chou, and M. M. Fejer, "Femtosecond second-harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides with simultaneous strong pump depletion and group-velocity walk-off," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 839-48 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Mizuuchi, H. Ohta, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, "Second-harmonic generation with a high-index-clad waveguide," Opt. Lett. 22, 1217-1219 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, and G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, "Widely tunable 3.4 µm band difference frequency generation using apodized ?(2) grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 1129-31 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, "Design of novel unapodized and apodized step-chirped quasi-phase matched gratings for broadband frequency converters based on second harmonic generation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 343-49 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Huang, X. P. Xie, C. Langrock, R. V. Roussev, D. S. Hum, and M. M. Fejer, "Amplitude modulation and apodization of quasiphase-matched interactions," Opt. Lett. 31, 604-6 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics, (Academics Press, 2003).
  11. H. Y. Shen, H. Xu, Z. D. Zeng, W. X. Lin, R. F. Wu, and G. F. Xu, "Measurement of refractive indices and thermal refractive-index coefficients of LiNbO3 crystal doped with 5 mol. % MgO," Appl. Opt. 31, 6695-6697 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. K. Mizuuchi, A. Morikawa, T. Sugita, and K. Yamamoto, "Efficient Second-Harmonic Generation of 340-nm Light in a 1.4-µm Periodically Poled Bulk MgO:LiNbO3," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L 90- L 91 (2003).
  13. M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of ?(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Kashyap, "Design of step-chirped fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 136, 461-9 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, "Design of novel unapodized and apodized step-chirped quasi-phase matched gratings for broadband frequency converters based on second harmonic generation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 343-49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. on Electron.E 88-C, 335-41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of ?(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, and G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

Asobe, M.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, "Widely tunable 3.4 µm band difference frequency generation using apodized ?(2) grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 1129-31 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. on Electron.E 88-C, 335-41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of ?(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M.

Dong, B.

B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, and G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

Gu, B.

B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, and G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Hum, D. S.

Jung, C.

Kashyap, R.

A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, "Design of novel unapodized and apodized step-chirped quasi-phase matched gratings for broadband frequency converters based on second harmonic generation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 343-49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kashyap, "Design of step-chirped fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 136, 461-9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

Ko, D.

Langrock, C.

Lee, J.

Lee, Y. L.

Lin, W. X.

Magari, K.

Miyazawa, H.

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of ?(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. on Electron.E 88-C, 335-41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizuuchi, K.

K. Mizuuchi, A. Morikawa, T. Sugita, and K. Yamamoto, "Efficient Second-Harmonic Generation of 340-nm Light in a 1.4-µm Periodically Poled Bulk MgO:LiNbO3," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L 90- L 91 (2003).

K. Mizuuchi, H. Ohta, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, "Second-harmonic generation with a high-index-clad waveguide," Opt. Lett. 22, 1217-1219 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morikawa, A.

K. Mizuuchi, A. Morikawa, T. Sugita, and K. Yamamoto, "Efficient Second-Harmonic Generation of 340-nm Light in a 1.4-µm Periodically Poled Bulk MgO:LiNbO3," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L 90- L 91 (2003).

Nishida, Y.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, "Widely tunable 3.4 µm band difference frequency generation using apodized ?(2) grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 1129-31 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of ?(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. on Electron.E 88-C, 335-41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noh, Y.

Ohta, H.

Parameswaran, K. R.

Roussev, R. V.

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H. Y.

Sugita, T.

K. Mizuuchi, A. Morikawa, T. Sugita, and K. Yamamoto, "Efficient Second-Harmonic Generation of 340-nm Light in a 1.4-µm Periodically Poled Bulk MgO:LiNbO3," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L 90- L 91 (2003).

Suzuki, H.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, "Widely tunable 3.4 µm band difference frequency generation using apodized ?(2) grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 1129-31 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of ?(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. on Electron.E 88-C, 335-41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tadanaga, O.

T. Umeki, M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, K. Magari, T. Yanagawa, and H. Suzuki, "Widely tunable 3.4 µm band difference frequency generation using apodized ?(2) grating," Opt. Lett. 32, 1129-31 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. on Electron.E 88-C, 335-41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of ?(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tehranchi, A.

A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, "Design of novel unapodized and apodized step-chirped quasi-phase matched gratings for broadband frequency converters based on second harmonic generation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 343-49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Umeki, T.

Weiner, A. M.

Wu, R. F.

Xie, X. P.

Xu, G. F.

Xu, H.

Yamamoto, K.

K. Mizuuchi, A. Morikawa, T. Sugita, and K. Yamamoto, "Efficient Second-Harmonic Generation of 340-nm Light in a 1.4-µm Periodically Poled Bulk MgO:LiNbO3," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L 90- L 91 (2003).

K. Mizuuchi, H. Ohta, K. Yamamoto, and M. Kato, "Second-harmonic generation with a high-index-clad waveguide," Opt. Lett. 22, 1217-1219 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanagawa, T.

Yang, G.

B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, and G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Zeng, Z. D.

Zhang, Y.

B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, and G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Gu, B. Dong, Y. Zhang, and G. Yang, "Enhanced harmonic generation in aperiodic optical superlattices," Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 2175-2177 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E (1)

M. Asobe, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, and H. Suzuki, "Wavelength conversion using quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguides," IEICE Trans. on Electron.E 88-C, 335-41 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Tehranchi and R. Kashyap, "Design of novel unapodized and apodized step-chirped quasi-phase matched gratings for broadband frequency converters based on second harmonic generation," IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26, 343-49 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Asobe, O. Tadanaga, H. Miyazawa, Y. Nishida, and H. Suzuki, "Multiple quasi-phase-matched device using continuous phase modulation of ?(2) grating and its application to variable wavelength conversion," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 41, 1540-1547 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, "Optical coherence tomography (OCT): a review," IEEE J. Select. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1205-15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Mizuuchi, A. Morikawa, T. Sugita, and K. Yamamoto, "Efficient Second-Harmonic Generation of 340-nm Light in a 1.4-µm Periodically Poled Bulk MgO:LiNbO3," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L 90- L 91 (2003).

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Kashyap, "Design of step-chirped fibre Bragg gratings," Opt. Commun. 136, 461-9 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Other (1)

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear optics, (Academics Press, 2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) Scheme of engineered ASCG structure. (b) Efficiency of 6-segment SCG (r=0), and ASCGs for different apodization ratios.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Efficiency with r=0.40 for (a) 6-segment ASCGs and for different parameters, (b) 5-, 6- and 7-segment ASCGs when Lt ≈ 50mm.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

2 z 2 E ˜ ( z , ω ) + μ 0 ε ω 2 E ˜ ( z , ω ) = μ 0 ω 2 P ˜ NL ( z , ω ) .
z ε ( z , ω ) j μ 0 ω c 2 n ( ω ) P NL ( z , ω ) e j k ( ω ) z ,
P NL , 2 ω ( z , Ω ) = ε 0 d eff { ( ε ω e j k z ) ( ε ω e j k z ) } ,
z ε 2 ω ( z , Ω ) j κ d eff { 0 ε ω ( ω ) ε ω ( Ω ω ) e j Δ k ( Ω , ω ) z d ω } ,
ε 2 ω ( L t , Ω ) = j κ { ε ω ε ω ( Ω ) } over L t d eff ( z ) e j Δ k ( Ω ) z dz .

Metrics