Abstract

We demonstrate that nonlinear frequency upconversion of few-cycle near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses, by means of harmonic generation in noble gases, is a promising approach for extending cutting-edge, few-cycle ultrafast technology into the deep ultraviolet and beyond, without the need for UV dispersion control. In our experiment, we generate 3.7-fs pulses in the deep UV (~4.6 eV) with adjustable polarization and gigawatt-scale peak power. We demonstrate that the implementation of this concept with a quasi-monocycle driver offers the potential for advancing UV pulse generation towards the 1-fs frontier.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Zewail, "Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5660-5694 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. F. Remacle, and R. D. Levine, "An electronic timescale in chemistry," PNAS 103,6793-6798 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. I. Kuleff, J. Breidbach, and L. S. Cederbaum, "Multielectron wave-packet propagation: General theory and application," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 044111 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Remacle, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and R. D. Levine, "On the feasibility of an ultrashort purely electronic reorganization in lithium hydride," Chem. Phys. 338, 342-347 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Remacle, M. Nest, and R. D. Levine, "Laser steered ultrafast quantum dynamics of electrons in LiH," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183902 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, "Generation of 1182-Å radiation in phase-matched mixtures of inert gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 6 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, "Optical third-harmonic generation in alcali metal vapors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 470-484 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "16-fs, 1-?J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self action of 80 fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C.G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, "Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2481-2483 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. A. Trushin, K. Kosma, W. Fuß, and W. E. Schmid, "Sub-10-fs supercontinuum radiation generated by filamentation of few-cycle 800 nm pulses in argon," Opt. Lett. 32, 2432-2434 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöks, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743-1746 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. A. Lompré, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, P. Monot, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, "High-order harmonic generation in xenon: intensity and propagation effects," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 754-761 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  27. E. J. Takahashi, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "High-throughput, high-damage-threshold broadband beam splitter for high-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet region," Opt. Lett. 29, 507-509 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Li, J. P. Nibarger, C. Guo, and G. N. Gibson, "Dispersion-free transient-grating frequency-resolved optical gating," Appl. Opt. 38, 5250-5253 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. J. McIlrath, "Circular polarizer for Lyman-alpha flux," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 58, 506-510 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  31. W. B. Westerveld, K. Becker, P. W. Zetner, J. J. Corr, and J. W. McConkey, "Production and measurement of circular polarization in the VUV," Appl. Opt. 24, 2256-2262 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. T. Döhring, G. Schönhense, and U. Heinzmann, "A circular polarizer for the region of windowless VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 91-97 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  33. I. Barth and J. Manz, "Periodic electron circulation induced by circularly polarized laser pulses: quantum model simulations for Mg Porphyrin," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 2962-2965 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  34. M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  36. Z. Chang, "Carrier-envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors," Appl. Opt. 45, 8350-8353 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

F. Remacle, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and R. D. Levine, "On the feasibility of an ultrashort purely electronic reorganization in lithium hydride," Chem. Phys. 338, 342-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Remacle, M. Nest, and R. D. Levine, "Laser steered ultrafast quantum dynamics of electrons in LiH," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Trushin, K. Kosma, W. Fuß, and W. E. Schmid, "Sub-10-fs supercontinuum radiation generated by filamentation of few-cycle 800 nm pulses in argon," Opt. Lett. 32, 2432-2434 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, T. Horio, and T. Suzuki, "Generation of 12 fs deep-ultraviolet pulses by four-wave mixing through filamentation in neon gas," Opt. Lett. 32, 2481-2483 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

I. Barth and J. Manz, "Periodic electron circulation induced by circularly polarized laser pulses: quantum model simulations for Mg Porphyrin," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 2962-2965 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Chang, "Carrier-envelope phase shift caused by grating-based stretchers and compressors," Appl. Opt. 45, 8350-8353 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

F. Remacle, and R. D. Levine, "An electronic timescale in chemistry," PNAS 103,6793-6798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kuleff, J. Breidbach, and L. S. Cederbaum, "Multielectron wave-packet propagation: General theory and application," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 044111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Takahashi, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, and K. Midorikawa, "High-throughput, high-damage-threshold broadband beam splitter for high-order harmonics in the extreme-ultraviolet region," Opt. Lett. 29, 507-509 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Baum, S. Lochbrunner, and E. Riedle, "Tunable sub-10-fs ultraviolet pulses generated by achromatic frequency doubling," Opt. Lett. 29, 1686-1688 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A. Zewail, "Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5660-5694 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self action of 80 fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöks, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996

S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "16-fs, 1-?J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743-1746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

T. Döhring, G. Schönhense, and U. Heinzmann, "A circular polarizer for the region of windowless VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 91-97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990

1985

1973

A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, "Generation of 1182-Å radiation in phase-matched mixtures of inert gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 6 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, "Optical third-harmonic generation in alcali metal vapors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 470-484 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1968

Aközbek, N.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assion, A.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backus, S.

Baltuska, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bammer, F.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barth, I.

I. Barth and J. Manz, "Periodic electron circulation induced by circularly polarized laser pulses: quantum model simulations for Mg Porphyrin," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 2962-2965 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baum, P.

Baumert, T.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, K.

Bergt, M.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brabec, T.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Breidbach, J.

A. I. Kuleff, J. Breidbach, and L. S. Cederbaum, "Multielectron wave-packet propagation: General theory and application," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 044111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brixner, T.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cederbaum, L. S.

A. I. Kuleff, J. Breidbach, and L. S. Cederbaum, "Multielectron wave-packet propagation: General theory and application," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 044111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, Z.

Chin, S. L.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christov, I. P.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743-1746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corr, J. J.

De Silvestri, S.

Döhring, T.

T. Döhring, G. Schönhense, and U. Heinzmann, "A circular polarizer for the region of windowless VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 91-97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Drescher, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durfee, C.G.

Echenique, P. M.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikema, K. S. E.

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedotov, A. B.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self action of 80 fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferencz, K.

Ferray, M.

Fieß, M.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

Fuß, W.

Gagnon, J.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, G.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G. N.

Goulielmakis, E.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, C.

Harris, S. E.

A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, "Generation of 1182-Å radiation in phase-matched mixtures of inert gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 6 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, "Optical third-harmonic generation in alcali metal vapors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 470-484 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, H.

Heinzmann, U.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Döhring, G. Schönhense, and U. Heinzmann, "A circular polarizer for the region of windowless VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 91-97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Helml, W.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hendel, S.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofstetter, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogervorst, W.

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horio, T.

Horvath, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, A.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kabachnik, N. M.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

C.G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "16-fs, 1-?J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743-1746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khan, J. I.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiefer, B.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kienberger, R.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Remacle, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and R. D. Levine, "On the feasibility of an ultrashort purely electronic reorganization in lithium hydride," Chem. Phys. 338, 342-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kling, M. F.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kompa, K. L.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koroteev, N. I.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self action of 80 fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kosma, K.

Krausz, F.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Remacle, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and R. D. Levine, "On the feasibility of an ultrashort purely electronic reorganization in lithium hydride," Chem. Phys. 338, 342-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, R. Szipöks, K. Ferencz, Ch. Spielmann, S. Sartania, and F. Krausz, "Compression of high-energy laser pulses below 5 fs," Opt. Lett. 22, 522-524 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuleff, A. I.

A. I. Kuleff, J. Breidbach, and L. S. Cederbaum, "Multielectron wave-packet propagation: General theory and application," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 044111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kung, A. H.

A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, "Generation of 1182-Å radiation in phase-matched mixtures of inert gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 6 (1973).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

Levine, R. D.

F. Remacle, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and R. D. Levine, "On the feasibility of an ultrashort purely electronic reorganization in lithium hydride," Chem. Phys. 338, 342-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Remacle, M. Nest, and R. D. Levine, "Laser steered ultrafast quantum dynamics of electrons in LiH," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Remacle, and R. D. Levine, "An electronic timescale in chemistry," PNAS 103,6793-6798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lezius, M.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

Lochbrunner, S.

Lompré, L. A.

Loy, M. M. T.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self action of 80 fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

Manus, C.

Manz, J.

I. Barth and J. Manz, "Periodic electron circulation induced by circularly polarized laser pulses: quantum model simulations for Mg Porphyrin," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 2962-2965 (2006).
[CrossRef]

McConkey, J. W.

McIlrath, T. J.

Midorikawa, K.

Miles, R. B.

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, "Optical third-harmonic generation in alcali metal vapors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 470-484 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Monot, P.

Muller, H.-G.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Müller, N.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

C.G. DurfeeIII, S. Backus, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "Intense 8-fs pulse generation in the deep ultraviolet," Opt. Lett. 24, 697-699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "16-fs, 1-?J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743-1746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nabekawa, Y.

Nest, M.

F. Remacle, M. Nest, and R. D. Levine, "Laser steered ultrafast quantum dynamics of electrons in LiH," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ni, Y.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nibarger, J. P.

Nisoli, M.

Peatross, J.

S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "16-fs, 1-?J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743-1746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pervak, V.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rauschenberger, J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remacle, F.

F. Remacle, M. Nest, and R. D. Levine, "Laser steered ultrafast quantum dynamics of electrons in LiH," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Remacle, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and R. D. Levine, "On the feasibility of an ultrashort purely electronic reorganization in lithium hydride," Chem. Phys. 338, 342-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Remacle, and R. D. Levine, "An electronic timescale in chemistry," PNAS 103,6793-6798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riedle, E.

Rundquist, A.

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743-1746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, "16-fs, 1-?J ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air," Opt. Lett. 21, 665-667 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartania, S.

Scalora, M.

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, W. E.

Schmidt, B.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schönhense, G.

T. Döhring, G. Schönhense, and U. Heinzmann, "A circular polarizer for the region of windowless VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 91-97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schröder, H.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultze, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seyfried, V.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siedschlag, Ch.

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielmann, Ch.

Strehle, M.

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, T.

Svelto, O.

Szipöks, R.

Taft, G.

Takahashi, E. J.

Trebino, R.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trushin, S. A.

Ubachs, W.

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uphues, Th.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veisz, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verhoef, A. J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westerveld, W. B.

Westerwalbesloh, Th.

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Witte, S.

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self action of 80 fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yakovlev, V.

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, J. F.

A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, "Generation of 1182-Å radiation in phase-matched mixtures of inert gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 6 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Zeek, Z.

Zetner, P. W.

Zewail, A.

A. Zewail, "Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5660-5694 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zheltikov, A. M.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self action of 80 fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743-1746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zinkstok, R. Th.

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.

I. Barth and J. Manz, "Periodic electron circulation induced by circularly polarized laser pulses: quantum model simulations for Mg Porphyrin," Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 45, 2962-2965 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. H. Kung, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, "Generation of 1182-Å radiation in phase-matched mixtures of inert gases," Appl. Phys. Lett. 22, 6 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

F. Remacle, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and R. D. Levine, "On the feasibility of an ultrashort purely electronic reorganization in lithium hydride," Chem. Phys. 338, 342-347 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. B. Miles and S. E. Harris, "Optical third-harmonic generation in alcali metal vapors," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9, 470-484 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, "Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency-resolved optical gating," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571-579 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

A. I. Kuleff, J. Breidbach, and L. S. Cederbaum, "Multielectron wave-packet propagation: General theory and application," J. Chem. Phys. 123, 044111 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. A

A. Zewail, "Femtochemistry: Atomic-scale dynamics of the chemical bond," J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 5660-5694 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

T. Döhring, G. Schönhense, and U. Heinzmann, "A circular polarizer for the region of windowless VUV radiation," Meas. Sci. Technol. 3, 91-97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Uiberacker, Th. Uphues, M. Schultze, A. J. Verhoef, V. Yakovlev, M. F. Kling, J. Rauschenberger, N. M. Kabachnik, H. Schröder, M. Lezius, K. L. Kompa, H.-G. Muller, M. J. J. Vrakking, S. Hendel, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond real-time observation of electron tunneling in atoms," Nature 446, 627-632 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuska, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, "Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter," Nature 449,1029-1032 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kienberger, E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, F. Bammer, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Atomic transient recorder," Nature 427, 817-821 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

A. L. Cavalieri, E. Goulielmakis, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. Schultze, M. Fieß, V. Pervak, L. Veisz, V. S. Yakovlev, M. Uiberacker, A. Apolonski, F. Krausz, and R. Kienberger, "Intense 1.5-cycle near infrared laser waveforms and their use for the generation of ultra-broadband soft-x-ray harmonic continua," New J. Phys. 9, 242 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. B. Fedotov, N. I. Koroteev, M. M. T. Loy, X. Xiao, and A. M. Zheltikov, "Saturation of third-harmonic generation in a plasma of self-induced optical breakdown due to the self action of 80 fs light pulses," Opt. Commun. 133, 587-595 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

R. Th. Zinkstok, S. Witte, W. Ubachs, W. Hogervorst, and K. S. E. Eikema, "Frequency comb laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-ultraviolet region," Phys. Rev. A 73, 061801 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, "Enhanced High-Harmonic Generation Using 25 Femtosecond Laser Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752-755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, J. Zhou, J. Peatross, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn "Nonadiabatic Effects in High-Harmonic Generation with Ultrashort Pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1743-1746 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Aközbek, A. Iwasaki, A. Becker, M. Scalora, S. L. Chin, and C. M. Bowden, "Third-harmonic generation and self-channeling in air using high-power femtosecond laser pulses," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 143901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Remacle, M. Nest, and R. D. Levine, "Laser steered ultrafast quantum dynamics of electrons in LiH," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PNAS

F. Remacle, and R. D. Levine, "An electronic timescale in chemistry," PNAS 103,6793-6798 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys.

T. Brabec and F. Krausz, "Intense few-cycle laser fields: frontiers of nonlinear optics," Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 545-591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, "Single-cycle nonlinear optics," Science 320, 1614-1617 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Assion, T. Baumert, M. Bergt, T. Brixner, B. Kiefer, V. Seyfried, M. Strehle, and G. Gerber, "Control of chemical reactions by feedback-optimized phase-shaped femtosecond laser pulses," Science 282, 919-922 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Uiberacker, R. Kienberger, A. Baltuska, V. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, Th. Westerwalbesloh, U. Kleineberg, U. Heinzmann, M. Drescher, and F. Krausz, "Direct measurement of light waves," Science 305, 1267-1269 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, V. S. Yakovlev, A. L. Cavalieri, M. Uiberacker, V. Pervak, A. Apolonski, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, "Attosecond control and measurement: lightwave electronics," Science 317, 769-775 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. Kling, Ch. Siedschlag, A. J. Verhoef, J. I. Khan, M. Schultze, Th. Uphues, Y. Ni, M. Uiberacker, M. Drescher, F. Krausz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, "Control of electron localization in molecular dissociation," Science 312, 246-248 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Generation and measurement of sub-4-fs pulses in the deep ultraviolet. Few-cycle pulses of visible and near-infrared light with durations of 3.5 to 6 fs are focused into a quasi-static gas cell formed by a tube with an inner diameter of 2.5 mm, with two holes in its 0.3-mm-thick wall to generate harmonic pulses in the deep ultraviolet. The intensity of the fundamental field is suppressed by more than two orders of magnitude upon a Brewster reflection from a silicon wafer, reflecting >42% of the generated ultraviolet radiation. The resulting pulses are temporally characterized with a dispersion-minimized SD-FROG apparatus (dashed frame) [29], employing exclusively reflective optics and an ultrathin (<15 µm) UV-grade fused silica plate as a nonlinear medium (see: Measurement accuracy and resolution) The entire apparatus shown is incorporated in a vacuum chamber.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

UV pulse characteristics. (a) Energy of UV pulses generated by gently focusing (f=50 cm, 1/e beam diameter at beam waist ~100 µm, intensity profile) 6-fs, 780-nm pulses with an energy of 0.25 mJ into a neon target (effective thickness ~2.5 mm) versus target gas pressure for xenon, argon, neon and helium. The maximum energy is obtained with neon and its value is in good agreement with simple quasi-phase matching calculations. The optimal pressure range for helium could not be reached because of insufficient vacuum pumping power for this type of gas. (b) Deep ultraviolet spectra emerging directly from the neon source at a pressure of 5 bar (black curve) and arriving at the nonlinear medium of the SD-FROG apparatus (blue curve) following a reflection off a Si-wafer at Brewster’s angle, and two reflections from UV-enhanced Al-mirrors (see Fig. 1).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses in the deep ultraviolet. (a) Measured SDFROG trace over a delay range of 20 fs in steps of 0.2 fs. (b) Spectrogram reconstructed with commercial software (Femtosoft FROG 3.2.2). The retrieval error in our analysis was 0.010 using a grid size of 256x256. (c) Retrieved temporal intensity profile and phase of the ultraviolet pulses yielding a FWHM duration of τp =3.7fs. (d) Retrieved spectral intensity and phase of the deep ultraviolet emission.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Broadband dispersionless ellipticity control of ultrashort ultraviolet pulses. Calculated phase shift Δ (blue line) between parallel and perpendicular polarization components, introduced by a reflection from an aluminum surface at different angles of incidence. Measured data are shown as red dots. The corresponding polarization state is indicated by the Lissajous figures linked to each point. Circular polarization is achieved for an incidence angle of 72.5°.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Ultrawide-band deep-UV emission driven by quasi-monocycle laser pulses. (a) Spectra corresponding to driving pulses of τ 0=4.1 fs (red), and τ 0=3.5 fs (blue) generated in a hollow-fiber/chirped-mirror compressor. (b) Emitted spectra of ultraviolet pulses generated by focusing these driving pulses into the neon target. The experimental conditions are the same as described in Fig. 2. Same color coding as in (a) is applied.

Metrics