Abstract

Band-edge liquid crystal lasers are of interest for a number of applications including laser projection displays. Herein, we demonstrate simultaneous red-green-blue lasing from a single liquid crystal sample by creating a two-dimensional laser array fabricated from dye-doped chiral nematic liquid crystals. By forming a pitch gradient across the cell, and optically pumping the sample using a lenslet array, a polychromatic laser array can be observed consisting simultaneously of red-green-blue colors. Specifically, the two-dimensional polychromatic array could be used to produce a laser-based display, with low speckle and wide color gamut, whereby no complex fabrication procedure is required to generate the individual ‘pixels’.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. E. Takeuchi, G. Flint, R. Bergstedt, P. Solone, D. Lee, and P. Moulton, "Laser digital cinema," Proc. SPIE 4282, 28-35 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. J. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Mash, N. A. Lawrence, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Real-time binary hologram generation for high-quality video projection applications," SID Digest 53.1, 1-3 (2004).
  3. G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).
  5. P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, "Two dimensional liquid crystal laser array," Opt. Lett. 33, 515-517 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, "The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers," J. SID 14, 565-573 (2006).
  7. J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. V. I. Kopp, B. Fan, H. K. M. Vithana, and A. Z. Genzack, "Low-threshold lasing at the edge of a photonic stop band in cholesteric liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 23, 1707-1709 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Taheri, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, "Low threshold lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73-82 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-H. Liu, and P.-C. Yang, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Position-sensitive cholesteric liquid crystal dye laser covering a full visible range," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L874-L876 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Simultaneous red, green and blue lasing emissions in a single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystal laser system," Adv. Mater. 20, 2503-2507 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179-194 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Discontinuous shift of lasing wavelength with temperature in cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1523-L1525 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, B. J. Broughton, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Liquid crystal lasers: coherent and incoherent micro-sources," Proc. SPIE 5741, 118-127 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Manabe, K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Toward practical application of cholesteric liquid crystals to tunable lasers," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3040-3043 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. P. Vorflusev and S. Kumar, "Phase separated composite films for liquid crystal displays," Science 283, 1903-1905 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Simultaneous red, green and blue lasing emissions in a single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystal laser system," Adv. Mater. 20, 2503-2507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Manabe, K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Toward practical application of cholesteric liquid crystals to tunable lasers," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3040-3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, "Two dimensional liquid crystal laser array," Opt. Lett. 33, 515-517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Position-sensitive cholesteric liquid crystal dye laser covering a full visible range," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L874-L876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

2006

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, "The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers," J. SID 14, 565-573 (2006).

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-H. Liu, and P.-C. Yang, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, B. J. Broughton, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Liquid crystal lasers: coherent and incoherent micro-sources," Proc. SPIE 5741, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179-194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Discontinuous shift of lasing wavelength with temperature in cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1523-L1525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

B. Taheri, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, "Low threshold lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73-82 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Takeuchi, G. Flint, R. Bergstedt, P. Solone, D. Lee, and P. Moulton, "Laser digital cinema," Proc. SPIE 4282, 28-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

V. P. Vorflusev and S. Kumar, "Phase separated composite films for liquid crystal displays," Science 283, 1903-1905 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1994

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barberi, R.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartolino, R.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bergstedt, R.

E. Takeuchi, G. Flint, R. Bergstedt, P. Solone, D. Lee, and P. Moulton, "Laser digital cinema," Proc. SPIE 4282, 28-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bloemer, M. J.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Braun, F.

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Broughton, B. J.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, B. J. Broughton, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Liquid crystal lasers: coherent and incoherent micro-sources," Proc. SPIE 5741, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carey, G.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Carico, R.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Chanishvili, A.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-J.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-H. Liu, and P.-C. Yang, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chilaya, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, "Two dimensional liquid crystal laser array," Opt. Lett. 33, 515-517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, "The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers," J. SID 14, 565-573 (2006).

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, B. J. Broughton, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Liquid crystal lasers: coherent and incoherent micro-sources," Proc. SPIE 5741, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dato, R.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Dorsch, F.

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dudley, J.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Fan, B.

Flint, G.

E. Takeuchi, G. Flint, R. Bergstedt, P. Solone, D. Lee, and P. Moulton, "Laser digital cinema," Proc. SPIE 4282, 28-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ford, A. D.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, "The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers," J. SID 14, 565-573 (2006).

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, B. J. Broughton, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Liquid crystal lasers: coherent and incoherent micro-sources," Proc. SPIE 5741, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-H. Liu, and P.-C. Yang, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Funamoto, K.

K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Discontinuous shift of lasing wavelength with temperature in cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1523-L1525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genzack, A. Z.

Giaretta, G.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Gillespie, C.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, "The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers," J. SID 14, 565-573 (2006).

Gimenez, R.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ha, N. Y.

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Simultaneous red, green and blue lasing emissions in a single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystal laser system," Adv. Mater. 20, 2503-2507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hadeler, O.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, "The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers," J. SID 14, 565-573 (2006).

Hallstein, S.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Hands, P. J. W.

Heist, P.

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hennig, P.

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, J.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Hollemann, G.

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hu, F.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

T. Manabe, K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Toward practical application of cholesteric liquid crystals to tunable lasers," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3040-3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Simultaneous red, green and blue lasing emissions in a single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystal laser system," Adv. Mater. 20, 2503-2507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Position-sensitive cholesteric liquid crystal dye laser covering a full visible range," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L874-L876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, M.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Jeong, S. M.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Simultaneous red, green and blue lasing emissions in a single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystal laser system," Adv. Mater. 20, 2503-2507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kocort, C.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Kopp, V. I.

Krause, U.

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krueger, J.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Kumar, S.

V. P. Vorflusev and S. Kumar, "Phase separated composite films for liquid crystal displays," Science 283, 1903-1905 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kutschki, U.

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.

E. Takeuchi, G. Flint, R. Bergstedt, P. Solone, D. Lee, and P. Moulton, "Laser digital cinema," Proc. SPIE 4282, 28-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Lin, T.-H.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-H. Liu, and P.-C. Yang, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-H.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-H. Liu, and P.-C. Yang, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Manabe, T.

T. Manabe, K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Toward practical application of cholesteric liquid crystals to tunable lasers," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3040-3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazulla, A.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKinnon, N.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Mooradian, A.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Morris, S. M.

P. J. W. Hands, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, "Two dimensional liquid crystal laser array," Opt. Lett. 33, 515-517 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, "The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers," J. SID 14, 565-573 (2006).

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, B. J. Broughton, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Liquid crystal lasers: coherent and incoherent micro-sources," Proc. SPIE 5741, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P.

E. Takeuchi, G. Flint, R. Bergstedt, P. Solone, D. Lee, and P. Moulton, "Laser digital cinema," Proc. SPIE 4282, 28-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, A.

B. Taheri, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, "Low threshold lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73-82 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, S.

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Simultaneous red, green and blue lasing emissions in a single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystal laser system," Adv. Mater. 20, 2503-2507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niven, G.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Ohtsuka, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, Y.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Oriol, L.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Discontinuous shift of lasing wavelength with temperature in cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1523-L1525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

B. Taheri, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, "Low threshold lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73-82 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Petriashvili, G.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pinol, M.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pivnenko, M. N.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, "The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers," J. SID 14, 565-573 (2006).

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, B. J. Broughton, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Liquid crystal lasers: coherent and incoherent micro-sources," Proc. SPIE 5741, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schmidtke, J.

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179-194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solone, P.

E. Takeuchi, G. Flint, R. Bergstedt, P. Solone, D. Lee, and P. Moulton, "Laser digital cinema," Proc. SPIE 4282, 28-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sonoyama, K.

T. Manabe, K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Toward practical application of cholesteric liquid crystals to tunable lasers," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3040-3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Position-sensitive cholesteric liquid crystal dye laser covering a full visible range," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L874-L876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stille, W.

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179-194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzaki, G.

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Simultaneous red, green and blue lasing emissions in a single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystal laser system," Adv. Mater. 20, 2503-2507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

B. Taheri, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, "Low threshold lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73-82 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Manabe, K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Toward practical application of cholesteric liquid crystals to tunable lasers," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3040-3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Position-sensitive cholesteric liquid crystal dye laser covering a full visible range," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L874-L876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, E.

E. Takeuchi, G. Flint, R. Bergstedt, P. Solone, D. Lee, and P. Moulton, "Laser digital cinema," Proc. SPIE 4282, 28-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

T. Manabe, K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Toward practical application of cholesteric liquid crystals to tunable lasers," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3040-3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Simultaneous red, green and blue lasing emissions in a single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystal laser system," Adv. Mater. 20, 2503-2507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Position-sensitive cholesteric liquid crystal dye laser covering a full visible range," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L874-L876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, A.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Twieg, R.

B. Taheri, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, "Low threshold lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73-82 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Umbrasas, A.

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

Vithana, H. K. M.

Voelckel, H.

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vorflusev, V. P.

V. P. Vorflusev and S. Kumar, "Phase separated composite films for liquid crystal displays," Science 283, 1903-1905 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilkinson, T. D.

Wu, C.-H.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-H. Liu, and P.-C. Yang, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.-C.

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-H. Liu, and P.-C. Yang, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Discontinuous shift of lasing wavelength with temperature in cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1523-L1525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

N. Y. Ha, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Simultaneous red, green and blue lasing emissions in a single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystal laser system," Adv. Mater. 20, 2503-2507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazulla, R. Gimenez, L. Oriol, and M. Pinol, "Widely tunable ultraviolet-visible liquid crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, Y.-J. Chen, C.-H. Wu, A. Y.-G. Fuh, J.-H. Liu, and P.-C. Yang, "Cholesteric liquid crystal laser with wide tuning capability," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 161120 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, and S.-T. Wu, "Spatially tunable laser emission in dye-doped photonic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 011107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. B

J. Schmidtke and W. Stille, "Fluorescence of a dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal film in the region of the stop band: theory and experiment," Eur. Phys. J. B 31, 179-194 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

J. P. Dowling, M. Scalora, M. J. Bloemer, and C. M. Bowden, "The photonic band edge laser: A new approach to gain enhancement," J. Appl. Phys. 75, 1896-1899 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

T. Manabe, K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Toward practical application of cholesteric liquid crystals to tunable lasers," J. Mater. Chem. 18, 3040-3043 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. SID

A. Mooradian, G. Carey, R. Carico, R. Dato, J. Dudley, G. Giaretta, S. Hallstein, J. Hofler, F. Hu, M. Jansen, C. Kocort, J. Krueger, S. Lim, N. McKinnon, G. Niven, Y. Okuno, A. Tandon, and A. Umbrasas, "Surface-emitting-diode lasers and laser arrays for displays," J. SID 15, 805-809 (2007).

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, C. Gillespie, M. N. Pivnenko, O. Hadeler, and H. J. Coles, "The emission characteristics of liquid-crystal lasers," J. SID 14, 565-573 (2006).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Funamoto, M. Ozaki, and K. Yoshino, "Discontinuous shift of lasing wavelength with temperature in cholesteric liquid crystal," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 42, L1523-L1525 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Sonoyama, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Position-sensitive cholesteric liquid crystal dye laser covering a full visible range," Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L874-L876 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

B. Taheri, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, and R. Twieg, "Low threshold lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 358, 73-82 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

N. Y. Ha, Y. Ohtsuka, S. M. Jeong, S. Nishimura, G. Suzaki, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, and H. Takezoe, "Fabrication of a simultaneous red-green-blue reflector using single-pitched cholesteric liquid crystals," Nat. Mater. 7, 43-47 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, B. J. Broughton, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Liquid crystal lasers: coherent and incoherent micro-sources," Proc. SPIE 5741, 118-127 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Hollemann, F. Braun, F. Dorsch, P. Hennig, P. Heist, U. Krause, U. Kutschki, and H. Voelckel, "RGB lasers for projection displays," Proc. SPIE 3954, 140-151 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Takeuchi, G. Flint, R. Bergstedt, P. Solone, D. Lee, and P. Moulton, "Laser digital cinema," Proc. SPIE 4282, 28-35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science

V. P. Vorflusev and S. Kumar, "Phase separated composite films for liquid crystal displays," Science 283, 1903-1905 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

A. J. Cable, E. Buckley, P. Mash, N. A. Lawrence, T. D. Wilkinson, and W. A. Crossland, "Real-time binary hologram generation for high-quality video projection applications," SID Digest 53.1, 1-3 (2004).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Absorbance and fluorescence spectra (left) of three different dyes; (a) DCM, (c) C540A and (e) C504, mixed in a nematic liquid crystal (BL093) host, showing fluorescence emission peaks in the red, green and blue regions of the spectrum respectively, whilst sharing a common absorbance at around 430 nm (inset images illustrate the cells’ appearances due to absorbance of the dyes). The graphs on the right, (b), (d) and (f) show the corresponding transmission spectra of the same three dyes in their chiral hosts (BL093 with BDH1305), illustrating the resulting photonic band gaps (and inset, selective reflection from the cell). The corresponding long band-edge positions are highlighted, showing where lasing can occur in the red, green and blue regions of the spectrum.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a), (b) and (c) Monochromatic LC laser array emissions in the blue (470 nm, C504), green (534 nm, C540A) and red (617 nm, DCM) respectively, and (d) the corresponding emission spectra (taken by recombining the array in the far field).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

A CIE1931 chromaticity space diagram. The inner triangle represents the color gamut from a typical CRT display, whilst the outer triangle represents the far greater potential performance from a liquid crystal laser display using three laser sources operating at 470 nm, 534 nm and 617 nm respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Diagrammatic representation of a polychromatic liquid crystal laser array. Pump light is focussed, using an array of lenslets, onto a gradient pitch chiral nematic liquid crystal cell (doped with appropriate laser dyes). Multiple wavelength laser emissions are emitted simultaneously from different regions from within the same cell.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Images of the gradient pitch liquid crystal laser cell, made by filling the cell with two different liquid crystal and dye mixtures from opposite sides, immediately after filling, where diffusion in the cell has yet to occur. Photographs of the cell’s characteristic (a) absorbance in ambient light conditions, and (b) selective reflection. When pumped at 430 nm using a lenslet array, lasing occurs in the cell: (c) is an image of liquid crystal laser emission from the cell, and (d) the corresponding emission spectrum, illustrating two distinct simultaneously occurring single-mode laser wavelengths.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Images of the gradient pitch liquid crystal laser cell, made by filling the cell with two different liquid crystal and dye mixtures from opposite sides, five days after filling, where diffusion in the cell has begun to occur. Photographs of the cell’s characteristic (a) absorbance in ambient light conditions, and (b) selective reflection. When pumped at 430 nm using a lenslet array, lasing occurs in the cell: (c) is an image of liquid crystal laser emission from the cell, and (d) the corresponding emission spectrum, illustrating simultaneously occurring polychromatic laser emission.

Fig.7
Fig.7

Transmission spectra of different spatially positioned sections within the gradient pitch cell, showing changes in the position of the photonic band edge from (a) blue, to (b) green, to (c) red. A polarized microscopy image of the gradient pitch cell (d) shows characteristic banding of colors, where discrete jumps in the chiral pitch occur to preserve an integer number of molecular rotations between cell walls.

Metrics