Abstract

In this study we simulate the illuminance and efficiency of four different types of reflector LED and fluorescent light sources for interior illumination. According to our calculation results of the examination of simulations and real situations, we find that the LEDs do perform better than fluorescent lights. We also consider the problems of glare with LED lights by utilizing a diffuser to protect the eyes. We are assured of the potential advantages of LED lighting in the future.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W.W. Jr. Tunnessen, K. J. McMahon, and M. Baser, "Acrodynia: exposure to mercury from fluorescent light bulbs," Pediatrics 79, 786-9 (1987).
    [PubMed]
  2. S. Liu, A. Minato, S. Ozawa, and M. Nakagawa, "A New Lighting Communication System for Audio Signal with White LED," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.65-69 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Zheludev, "The life and times of the LED- a 100-year history," Nature Photon. 1, 189-192 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Allan, "LEDs Lighten The Energy Load," Electron. Design 55, 55-58 (2007).
  6. D. X. Wang, I. T. Ferguson, and J. A. Buck, "GaN-based distributed Bragg reflector for high-brightness LED and solid-state lighting," Appl. Opt. 46, 4763-4767 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. T. Taguchi, "Developing White LED Lighting Systems and its Technological Roadmap in Japan," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, pp. 177-182 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, "Discomfort Glare Caused by White LED Light Sources," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, 95-103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Lumileds, "LXHL-PW09 Datasheet," http://www.lumileds.com/pdft/DS45.pdf.
  10. P. Lumileds, "LXML-PWC1-0100 Datasheet," http://www.lumileds.com/pdft/DS56.pdf.
  11. D. Malacara, Optical Shop testing 2ndEdition (Wiley, 1992).
  12. Illumination Engineering Society of North America, "Glare," in IESNA Lighting Handbook 9thEdition, (IESNA, 2000), pp. 128-131.
  13. C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, "Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region," Opt. Lett. 312193-2195 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Optical Research Associates, "Receivers," in Illumination Module User’s Guide, (O.R.A., 2007), pp. 59-102.
  15. S. Fujita, Y. Yasuoka, T. Mizuno, S. Hamazaki, M. Nikaido, and K. Ikeda, "Indirect Lighting system with Luminaire Installed on Uppermost Part Of the Wall to Achieve both Visibility and Energy Saving Performance," J. Light Vis. Env. 30,137-147 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, and T. Irikura, "Position Index for the Matrix Light Source," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, 128-133 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Miller, "Glare is in the eye of the beholder," Lighting Design Appl. 31, 36-41 (2001).
  18. P. Ngai, "The effect of overhead glare on visual discomfort [with discussion]," J. Illuminating Engin. Soc. 29, 29-38 (2000).

2007 (6)

S. Liu, A. Minato, S. Ozawa, and M. Nakagawa, "A New Lighting Communication System for Audio Signal with White LED," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.65-69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Zheludev, "The life and times of the LED- a 100-year history," Nature Photon. 1, 189-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Allan, "LEDs Lighten The Energy Load," Electron. Design 55, 55-58 (2007).

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, and T. Irikura, "Position Index for the Matrix Light Source," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, 128-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. X. Wang, I. T. Ferguson, and J. A. Buck, "GaN-based distributed Bragg reflector for high-brightness LED and solid-state lighting," Appl. Opt. 46, 4763-4767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

T. Taguchi, "Developing White LED Lighting Systems and its Technological Roadmap in Japan," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, pp. 177-182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, "Discomfort Glare Caused by White LED Light Sources," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, 95-103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, "Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region," Opt. Lett. 312193-2195 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Fujita, Y. Yasuoka, T. Mizuno, S. Hamazaki, M. Nikaido, and K. Ikeda, "Indirect Lighting system with Luminaire Installed on Uppermost Part Of the Wall to Achieve both Visibility and Energy Saving Performance," J. Light Vis. Env. 30,137-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

N. Miller, "Glare is in the eye of the beholder," Lighting Design Appl. 31, 36-41 (2001).

2000 (1)

P. Ngai, "The effect of overhead glare on visual discomfort [with discussion]," J. Illuminating Engin. Soc. 29, 29-38 (2000).

1987 (1)

W.W. Jr. Tunnessen, K. J. McMahon, and M. Baser, "Acrodynia: exposure to mercury from fluorescent light bulbs," Pediatrics 79, 786-9 (1987).
[PubMed]

Aizawa, D.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, "Discomfort Glare Caused by White LED Light Sources," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, 95-103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Allan, R.

R. Allan, "LEDs Lighten The Energy Load," Electron. Design 55, 55-58 (2007).

Buck, J. A.

Ferguson, I. T.

Fujita, S.

S. Fujita, Y. Yasuoka, T. Mizuno, S. Hamazaki, M. Nikaido, and K. Ikeda, "Indirect Lighting system with Luminaire Installed on Uppermost Part Of the Wall to Achieve both Visibility and Energy Saving Performance," J. Light Vis. Env. 30,137-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gouriki, T.

T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hamazaki, S.

S. Fujita, Y. Yasuoka, T. Mizuno, S. Hamazaki, M. Nikaido, and K. Ikeda, "Indirect Lighting system with Luminaire Installed on Uppermost Part Of the Wall to Achieve both Visibility and Energy Saving Performance," J. Light Vis. Env. 30,137-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. M.

Ikeda, K.

S. Fujita, Y. Yasuoka, T. Mizuno, S. Hamazaki, M. Nikaido, and K. Ikeda, "Indirect Lighting system with Luminaire Installed on Uppermost Part Of the Wall to Achieve both Visibility and Energy Saving Performance," J. Light Vis. Env. 30,137-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Irikura, T.

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, and T. Irikura, "Position Index for the Matrix Light Source," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, 128-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, "Discomfort Glare Caused by White LED Light Sources," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, 95-103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwamoto, M.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, "Discomfort Glare Caused by White LED Light Sources," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, 95-103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jr, W.W.

W.W. Jr. Tunnessen, K. J. McMahon, and M. Baser, "Acrodynia: exposure to mercury from fluorescent light bulbs," Pediatrics 79, 786-9 (1987).
[PubMed]

Kasahara, T.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, "Discomfort Glare Caused by White LED Light Sources," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, 95-103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, Y.

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, and T. Irikura, "Position Index for the Matrix Light Source," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, 128-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. L.

Liu, S.

S. Liu, A. Minato, S. Ozawa, and M. Nakagawa, "A New Lighting Communication System for Audio Signal with White LED," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.65-69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. H.

Maehara, A.

T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mannami, T.

T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, N.

N. Miller, "Glare is in the eye of the beholder," Lighting Design Appl. 31, 36-41 (2001).

Minato, A.

S. Liu, A. Minato, S. Ozawa, and M. Nakagawa, "A New Lighting Communication System for Audio Signal with White LED," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.65-69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, T.

S. Fujita, Y. Yasuoka, T. Mizuno, S. Hamazaki, M. Nikaido, and K. Ikeda, "Indirect Lighting system with Luminaire Installed on Uppermost Part Of the Wall to Achieve both Visibility and Energy Saving Performance," J. Light Vis. Env. 30,137-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, T.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, "Discomfort Glare Caused by White LED Light Sources," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, 95-103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakagawa, M.

S. Liu, A. Minato, S. Ozawa, and M. Nakagawa, "A New Lighting Communication System for Audio Signal with White LED," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.65-69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ngai, P.

P. Ngai, "The effect of overhead glare on visual discomfort [with discussion]," J. Illuminating Engin. Soc. 29, 29-38 (2000).

Nikaido, M.

S. Fujita, Y. Yasuoka, T. Mizuno, S. Hamazaki, M. Nikaido, and K. Ikeda, "Indirect Lighting system with Luminaire Installed on Uppermost Part Of the Wall to Achieve both Visibility and Energy Saving Performance," J. Light Vis. Env. 30,137-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Okada, A.

T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Onda, S.

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, and T. Irikura, "Position Index for the Matrix Light Source," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, 128-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, S.

S. Liu, A. Minato, S. Ozawa, and M. Nakagawa, "A New Lighting Communication System for Audio Signal with White LED," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.65-69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, M.

T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Taguchi, T.

T. Taguchi, "Developing White LED Lighting Systems and its Technological Roadmap in Japan," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, pp. 177-182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, and T. Irikura, "Position Index for the Matrix Light Source," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, 128-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Toda, M.

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, "Discomfort Glare Caused by White LED Light Sources," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, 95-103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. X.

Yasuda, T.

T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yasuoka, Y.

S. Fujita, Y. Yasuoka, T. Mizuno, S. Hamazaki, M. Nikaido, and K. Ikeda, "Indirect Lighting system with Luminaire Installed on Uppermost Part Of the Wall to Achieve both Visibility and Energy Saving Performance," J. Light Vis. Env. 30,137-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yorifuji, T.

T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N.

N. Zheludev, "The life and times of the LED- a 100-year history," Nature Photon. 1, 189-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Design (1)

R. Allan, "LEDs Lighten The Energy Load," Electron. Design 55, 55-58 (2007).

J. Illuminating Engin. Soc. (1)

P. Ngai, "The effect of overhead glare on visual discomfort [with discussion]," J. Illuminating Engin. Soc. 29, 29-38 (2000).

J. Light Vis. Env. (6)

S. Fujita, Y. Yasuoka, T. Mizuno, S. Hamazaki, M. Nikaido, and K. Ikeda, "Indirect Lighting system with Luminaire Installed on Uppermost Part Of the Wall to Achieve both Visibility and Energy Saving Performance," J. Light Vis. Env. 30,137-147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, Y. Kobayashi, S. Onda, and T. Irikura, "Position Index for the Matrix Light Source," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, 128-133 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Taguchi, "Developing White LED Lighting Systems and its Technological Roadmap in Japan," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, pp. 177-182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Kasahara, D. Aizawa, T. Irikura, T. Moriyama, M. Toda, and M. Iwamoto, "Discomfort Glare Caused by White LED Light Sources," J. Light Vis. Env. 30, 95-103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, A. Minato, S. Ozawa, and M. Nakagawa, "A New Lighting Communication System for Audio Signal with White LED," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.65-69 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yorifuji, M. Sakai, T. Yasuda, A. Maehara, A. Okada, T. Gouriki, and T. Mannami, "Light Source and Ballast Circuits," J. Light Vis. Env. 31, pp.157-172 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lighting Design Appl. (1)

N. Miller, "Glare is in the eye of the beholder," Lighting Design Appl. 31, 36-41 (2001).

Nature Photon. (1)

N. Zheludev, "The life and times of the LED- a 100-year history," Nature Photon. 1, 189-192 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Pediatrics (1)

W.W. Jr. Tunnessen, K. J. McMahon, and M. Baser, "Acrodynia: exposure to mercury from fluorescent light bulbs," Pediatrics 79, 786-9 (1987).
[PubMed]

Other (5)

P. Lumileds, "LXHL-PW09 Datasheet," http://www.lumileds.com/pdft/DS45.pdf.

P. Lumileds, "LXML-PWC1-0100 Datasheet," http://www.lumileds.com/pdft/DS56.pdf.

D. Malacara, Optical Shop testing 2ndEdition (Wiley, 1992).

Illumination Engineering Society of North America, "Glare," in IESNA Lighting Handbook 9thEdition, (IESNA, 2000), pp. 128-131.

Optical Research Associates, "Receivers," in Illumination Module User’s Guide, (O.R.A., 2007), pp. 59-102.

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Philips TL38W/D fluorescent light tube.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Compact fluorescent lamp with steel plate material and V-type reflectors.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Candle power distribution curve of the compact fluorescent lamp with steel plate material and V-type reflectors.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Philips Lumileds: (a) LXHL-PW09; and (b) LXML-PWC1-0100.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Candle power distribution curve of LXHL-PW09 and LXML-PWC1-0100.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Distance between the light source point (focal point) and the reflective surface for: (a) is parabolic surface; and (b) an ellipsoidal surface.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Experimental flow-chart

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

The fluorescent light source model built with LightTools.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Single LED matrix: (a) design without reflectors; (b) 45° bevel reflectors; (c) parabolic reflectors; and (d) ellipsoid reflector design.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Our laboratory; and the (b) scale model. There are seven light sources located on the top of our laboratory. The white line indicates the table plane. The two gray cubes are cabinets.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Illuminance distribution on the table plane illuminated by fluorescent light sources. The average on the table plane is 1052 lux and the average difference is 41%.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

Illuminance distribution on the table plane illuminated by the LED matrix design with no reflectors. We obtained an average of 1018 lux on the table plane with an average difference of 29.9%.

Fig. 13.
Fig. 13.

Illuminance distribution on the table plane illuminated by the LED matrix bevel reflector design. We obtained an average of 1025 lux on the table plane with an average difference of 30%.

Fig. 14.
Fig. 14.

Illuminance distribution on the table plane illuminated by the LED matrix parabolic reflector design. We obtained an average of 1655 lux on the table plane with an average difference of 63%.

Fig. 15.
Fig. 15.

Illuminance distribution on the table plane illuminated by the LED matrix ellipsoidal reflector design. We obtained an average of 1740 lux on the table plane and an average difference of 136%.

Fig. 16.
Fig. 16.

Illuminance distribution on the table plane illuminated by 340 LEDs spread over the whole ceiling with an ellipsoidal reflector design. We obtained an average of 987 lux on the table plane and an average difference of 26%.

Fig. 17.
Fig. 17.

Light diffusion on the table plane with the same LED interval distance design. We obtained an average of 538 lux on the table plane with an average difference of 13%.

Fig. 18.
Fig. 18.

LED arrangement on the top of our laboratory after adjusting the interval distance.

Fig. 19.
Fig. 19.

Light diffusion and illumination on the table plane after adjusting the interval between each LED. We obtained an average of 511 lux on the table plane with an average difference of 10%.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Parameters of LXHL-PW09 and LXML-PWC1-0100

Tables Icon

Table 2. Specification of LG VEGACHEM Gr1(2t) diffuser

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

d 1 = R 2
d 2 = R K + 1 ( 1 + K )
d 3 = R K + 1 ( 1 K )
Ave . difference = n = 1 N ( Illuminance ) n Ave . illuminance Ave . illuminance × 100 %
N = the amount of receiver mesh [ 14 ] ,

Metrics