Abstract

Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) using quantum dot (QD) absorbers exhibit a larger design freedom than standard quantum well absorbers. The additional parameter of the dot density in combination with the field enhancement allows for an independent control of saturation fluence and modulation depth. We present the first detailed study of the effect of QD growth parameters and post growth annealing on the macroscopic optical SESAM parameters, measuring both nonlinear reflectivity and recombination dynamics. We studied a set of self-assembled InAs QD-SESAMs optimized for an operation wavelength around 960 nm with varying dot density and growth temperature. We confirm that the modulation depth is controlled by the dot density. We present design guidelines for QD-SESAMs with low saturation fluence and fast recovery, which are for example important for modelocking of vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs).

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435-453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Keller, "Ultrafast solid-state lasers," in Landolt-Börnstein. Laser Physics and Applications. Subvolume B: Laser Systems. Part I., G. Herziger, H. Weber, and R. Proprawe, eds., (Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, 2007), pp. 33-167.
  5. O. Qasaimeh, W. D. Zhou, J. Phillips, S. Krishna, P. Bhattacharya, and M. Dutta, "Bistability and self-pulsation in quantum-dot lasers with intracavity quantum-dot saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1654-1656 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, A. C. Tropper, J. M. Gerard, V. Thierry-Mieg, and J. S. Roberts, "Pico-second passively mode locked surface-emitting laser with self-assembled semiconductor quantum dot absorber," CLEO/Europe-EQEC, postdeadline paper (2001).
  7. E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 272-274 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Keller, and A. C. Tropper, "Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rep. 429, 67-120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Opt. Express 16, 7571-7579 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. S. Solomon, J. A. Trezza, and J. J. S. Harris, "Effects of monolayer coverage, flux ratio, and growth rate on the island density of InAs islands on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3161-3163 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Masumoto and T. Takagahara, eds., Semiconductor Quantum Dots: Physics, Spectroscopy and Applications (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2002).
  21. M. A. Cusack, P. R. Briddon, and M. Jaros, "Absorption spectra and optical transitions in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 56, 4047 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, "Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. U. Siegner, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, "Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2566-2568 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. C. Sercel, "Multiphonon-assisted tunneling through deep levels: A rapid energy-relaxation mechanism in nonideal quantum-dot heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 51, 14532 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  28. H. Benisty, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, and C. Weisbuch, "Intrinsic mechanism for the poor luminescence properties of quantum box systems," Phys. Rev. B 44, 10945-10948 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  30. F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly excited 1.3-?m InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Physica B 314, 263-267 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  32. E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, "Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987-1989 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  34. R. Grange, A. Rutz, V. Liverini, M. Haiml, S. Schön, and U. Keller, "Nonlinear absorption edge properties of 1.3 µm GaInNAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 132103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, and A. C. Tropper, "Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rep. 429, 67-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 272-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, A. Rutz, V. Liverini, M. Haiml, S. Schön, and U. Keller, "Nonlinear absorption edge properties of 1.3 µm GaInNAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 132103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly excited 1.3-?m InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Physica B 314, 263-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, "Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Qasaimeh, W. D. Zhou, J. Phillips, S. Krishna, P. Bhattacharya, and M. Dutta, "Bistability and self-pulsation in quantum-dot lasers with intracavity quantum-dot saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1654-1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, "Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987-1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Cusack, P. R. Briddon, and M. Jaros, "Absorption spectra and optical transitions in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 56, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

U. Siegner, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, "Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2566-2568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

P. C. Sercel, "Multiphonon-assisted tunneling through deep levels: A rapid energy-relaxation mechanism in nonideal quantum-dot heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 51, 14532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Solomon, J. A. Trezza, and J. J. S. Harris, "Effects of monolayer coverage, flux ratio, and growth rate on the island density of InAs islands on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3161-3163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Benisty, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, and C. Weisbuch, "Intrinsic mechanism for the poor luminescence properties of quantum box systems," Phys. Rev. B 44, 10945-10948 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, M.

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Amand, T.

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Aschwanden, A.

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 272-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bain, F. M.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bellancourt, A.-R.

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Opt. Express 16, 7571-7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

H. Benisty, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, and C. Weisbuch, "Intrinsic mechanism for the poor luminescence properties of quantum box systems," Phys. Rev. B 44, 10945-10948 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Berg, T. W.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

O. Qasaimeh, W. D. Zhou, J. Phillips, S. Krishna, P. Bhattacharya, and M. Dutta, "Bistability and self-pulsation in quantum-dot lasers with intracavity quantum-dot saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1654-1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, S.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bonadeo, N. H.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly excited 1.3-?m InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Physica B 314, 263-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Briddon, P. R.

M. A. Cusack, P. R. Briddon, and M. Jaros, "Absorption spectra and optical transitions in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 56, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cusack, M. A.

M. A. Cusack, P. R. Briddon, and M. Jaros, "Absorption spectra and optical transitions in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 56, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, M.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly excited 1.3-?m InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Physica B 314, 263-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, M.

O. Qasaimeh, W. D. Zhou, J. Phillips, S. Krishna, P. Bhattacharya, and M. Dutta, "Bistability and self-pulsation in quantum-dot lasers with intracavity quantum-dot saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1654-1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ebling, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

U. Siegner, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, "Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2566-2568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garnache, A.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, "Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gini, E.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 272-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Golling, M.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grange, R.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, A. Rutz, V. Liverini, M. Haiml, S. Schön, and U. Keller, "Nonlinear absorption edge properties of 1.3 µm GaInNAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 132103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haiml, M.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, A. Rutz, V. Liverini, M. Haiml, S. Schön, and U. Keller, "Nonlinear absorption edge properties of 1.3 µm GaInNAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 132103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Häring, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, "Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. J. S.

G. S. Solomon, J. A. Trezza, and J. J. S. Harris, "Effects of monolayer coverage, flux ratio, and growth rate on the island density of InAs islands on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3161-3163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hönninger, C.

Hoogland, S.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, "Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iwaniuk, D.

Jaros, M.

M. A. Cusack, P. R. Briddon, and M. Jaros, "Absorption spectra and optical transitions in InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 56, 4047 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joschko, M.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalevich, V. K.

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Opt. Express 16, 7571-7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, and A. C. Tropper, "Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rep. 429, 67-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 272-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, A. Rutz, V. Liverini, M. Haiml, S. Schön, and U. Keller, "Nonlinear absorption edge properties of 1.3 µm GaInNAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 132103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, "Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers," Nature 424, 831-838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, "Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Siegner, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, "Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2566-2568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kissel, H.

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koontz, E. M.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krainer, L.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

O. Qasaimeh, W. D. Zhou, J. Phillips, S. Krishna, P. Bhattacharya, and M. Dutta, "Bistability and self-pulsation in quantum-dot lasers with intracavity quantum-dot saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1654-1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagatsky, A. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Langlois, P.

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liverini, V.

R. Grange, A. Rutz, V. Liverini, M. Haiml, S. Schön, and U. Keller, "Nonlinear absorption edge properties of 1.3 µm GaInNAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 132103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lorenser, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 272-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, R. C.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luysberg, M.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Opt. Express 16, 7571-7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Magnusdottir, I.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Malik, S.

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, "Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987-1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marchese, S. V.

Marie, X.

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, Y. I.

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mork, J.

T. W. Berg, S. Bischoff, I. Magnusdottir, and J. Mork, "Ultrafast gain recovery and modulation limitations in self-assembled quantum-dot devices," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 541-543 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

Murray, R.

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, "Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987-1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohnesorge, B.

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Oshinowo, J.

B. Ohnesorge, M. Albrecht, J. Oshinowo, A. Forchel, and Y. Arakawa, "Rapid carrier relaxation in self-assembled InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots," Phys. Rev. B 54, 11532 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ostinelli, O.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Paillard, M.

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 272-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, "Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, "Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46-56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pate, M.

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, "Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987-1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly excited 1.3-?m InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Physica B 314, 263-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J.

O. Qasaimeh, W. D. Zhou, J. Phillips, S. Krishna, P. Bhattacharya, and M. Dutta, "Bistability and self-pulsation in quantum-dot lasers with intracavity quantum-dot saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1654-1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Platzman, P. M.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly excited 1.3-?m InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Physica B 314, 263-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Qasaimeh, O.

O. Qasaimeh, W. D. Zhou, J. Phillips, S. Krishna, P. Bhattacharya, and M. Dutta, "Bistability and self-pulsation in quantum-dot lasers with intracavity quantum-dot saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1654-1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Quochi, F.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly excited 1.3-?m InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Physica B 314, 263-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E. U.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, C.

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, "Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987-1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, B.

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Opt. Express 16, 7571-7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rutz, A.

R. Grange, A. Rutz, V. Liverini, M. Haiml, S. Schön, and U. Keller, "Nonlinear absorption edge properties of 1.3 µm GaInNAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 132103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schon, S.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schön, S.

R. Grange, A. Rutz, V. Liverini, M. Haiml, S. Schön, and U. Keller, "Nonlinear absorption edge properties of 1.3 µm GaInNAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 132103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sercel, P. C.

P. C. Sercel, "Multiphonon-assisted tunneling through deep levels: A rapid energy-relaxation mechanism in nonideal quantum-dot heterostructures," Phys. Rev. B 51, 14532 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly excited 1.3-?m InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Physica B 314, 263-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Siegner, U.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Siegner, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, "Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2566-2568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, G. S.

G. S. Solomon, J. A. Trezza, and J. J. S. Harris, "Effects of monolayer coverage, flux ratio, and growth rate on the island density of InAs islands on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3161-3163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sotomayor-Torres, C. M.

H. Benisty, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, and C. Weisbuch, "Intrinsic mechanism for the poor luminescence properties of quantum box systems," Phys. Rev. B 44, 10945-10948 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Specht, P.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, "High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 1063-1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spuhler, G. J.

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spühler, G. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Opt. Express 16, 7571-7579 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Talalaev, V.

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tarasov, G. G.

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thoen, E. R.

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tomm, J. W.

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trezza, J. A.

G. S. Solomon, J. A. Trezza, and J. J. S. Harris, "Effects of monolayer coverage, flux ratio, and growth rate on the island density of InAs islands on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3161-3163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

U. Keller, and A. C. Tropper, "Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Phys. Rep. 429, 67-120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, "Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Unold, H. J.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser," Opt. Lett. 30, 272-274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, V. M.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanelle, E.

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. M.

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weber, E. R.

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

H. Benisty, C. M. Sotomayor-Torres, and C. Weisbuch, "Intrinsic mechanism for the poor luminescence properties of quantum box systems," Phys. Rev. B 44, 10945-10948 (1991).
[CrossRef]

West, K. W.

F. Quochi, M. Dinu, N. H. Bonadeo, J. Shah, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and P. M. Platzman, "Ultrafast carrier dynamics of resonantly excited 1.3-?m InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots," Physica B 314, 263-267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

White, S. J.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, M.

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

U. Siegner, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, "Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2566-2568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. D.

O. Qasaimeh, W. D. Zhou, J. Phillips, S. Krishna, P. Bhattacharya, and M. Dutta, "Bistability and self-pulsation in quantum-dot lasers with intracavity quantum-dot saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1654-1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, A. E.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 2439-2441 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (6)

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, "Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers," Appl. Phys. B 79, 927-932 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, "Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence," Appl. Phys. B 81, 27-32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, "Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 88, 493-497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, "Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption," Appl. Phys. B 70, S41-S49 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, "New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers," Appl. Phys. B 80, 151-158 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, "Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers," Appl. Phys. B 75, 445-451 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

R. Grange, A. Rutz, V. Liverini, M. Haiml, S. Schön, and U. Keller, "Nonlinear absorption edge properties of 1.3 µm GaInNAs saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett 87, 132103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

M. Haiml, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, U. Keller, M. Luysberg, R. C. Lutz, P. Specht, and E. R. Weber, "Optical nonlinearity in low-temperature-grown GaAs: Microscopic limitations and optimization strategies," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3134-3136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Siegner, R. Fluck, G. Zhang, and U. Keller, "Ultrafast high-intensity nonlinear absorption dynamics in low-temperature grown gallium arsenide," Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2566-2568 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Paillard, X. Marie, E. Vanelle, T. Amand, V. K. Kalevich, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, "Time-resolved photoluminescence in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dots under strictly resonant excitation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 76-78 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Solomon, J. A. Trezza, and J. J. S. Harris, "Effects of monolayer coverage, flux ratio, and growth rate on the island density of InAs islands on GaAs," Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3161-3163 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Mazur, Z. M. Wang, G. G. Tarasov, M. Xiao, G. J. Salamo, J. W. Tomm, V. Talalaev, and H. Kissel, "Interdot carrier transfer in asymmetric bilayer InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063102-063103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Thoen, E. M. Koontz, M. Joschko, P. Langlois, T. R. Schibli, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and L. A. Kolodziejski, "Two-photon absorption in semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 3927-3929 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Malik, C. Roberts, R. Murray, and M. Pate, "Tuning self-assembled InAs quantum dots by rapid thermal annealing," Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1987-1989 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Qasaimeh, W. D. Zhou, J. Phillips, S. Krishna, P. Bhattacharya, and M. Dutta, "Bistability and self-pulsation in quantum-dot lasers with intracavity quantum-dot saturable absorbers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1654-1656 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Lagatsky, F. M. Bain, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, G. Erbert, and E. U. Rafailov, "Low-loss quantum-dot-based saturable absorber for efficient femtosecond pulse generation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 231111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, "50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42, 838-847 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The design of the QD-SESAM. The structure contains a 25-pair distributed Bragg reflector with a saturable absorber section grown on top. The antiresonant structure can be changed to a resonant structure by removal of the two top layers (with λ/4 optical thickness). (b) Reflectivity of a SESAM as function of the incident pulse fluence. Initially, the reflectivity increases with the pulse fluence. Induced absorption, described by the F 2 parameter [16, 17], can lead to a roll-over and decreases the reflectivity for high fluences. The blue curve has a small induced absorption parameter F 2 (fs-pulses), the green curve has a large F 2 (ps-pulses) and for the red curve F 2=∞. Please note that if the recovery time is smaller than the pulse duration, the saturation fluence increases slightly for longer pulses, which is not illustrated in this graph.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Nonlinear reflectivity measurements of QD-SESAMs done at 960 nm with 140 fs pulses, the upper curve has the smallest ML coverage (dot density) and therefore the smallest modulation depth. By increasing the dot density the modulation depth also increases while the saturation fluence maintains constant. The table shows the obtained fit values, for a discussion on the relative errors please refer to [18].

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Fit parameters as function of monolayer coverage and wavelength. (a) the modulation depth and (b) the saturation fluence. The error bars in the graph indicate the 95% confidence levels.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) The pump probe setup used for the measurements, by modulating the pump we directly measure the reflectivity change of the SESAM. The probe beams is also modulated to suppress stray light from the pump beam. Lock-in detection at the difference frequency (70 kHz) makes the setup very sensitive. (b) Pump probe measurements of the five samples with different ML coverage measured at 960 nm. The measurements are normalized such that the amplitude of the slow exponential decay is 1.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Pump probe measurements of the 1.6 ML sample for different pump fluences, measured at 960 nm. For better visibility, the measurements are shown with an offset of 10 ps. (b) The amplitude of the slow component (A) as function of ML coverage measured at three different wavelengths. The measurements are done at 50 µJ/cm2.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

(a) Photoluminescence spectra of the 1.6 ML QD sample before and after annealing, the two peaks are ground state (GS) and wetting layer (WL). (b) Blueshift of the PL peak as function of annealing time for a QD sample grown at 400°C. The samples are grown without a DBR.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) The saturation fluence (F sat, left axis) and modulation depth (ΔR, right axis) before and after annealing as function of monolayer coverage. (b) The amplitude of the slow component (A, left) and recovery time on a logarithmic scale (τ slow, right) before and after annealing. (c) The nonlinear reflectivity measurement of the 1.9 ML sample and (d) the pump probe measurement. All measurements in this graph are performed at 960 nm. The as-grown data is shown in black, the annealed data in red.

Equations (2)

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R ( F p ) = R ns ln [ 1 + R lin R ns ( e F p F sat 1 ) ] F p F sat e F p F 2 ,
Δ R pp ( τ ) = A e τ τ slow + ( 1 A ) e τ τ fast ,

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