Abstract

The use of gold nanorods for photoacoustic molecular imaging with simultaneous multiple targeting is reported. Multiple targeting is done by utilizing the tunable optical absorption property of gold nanorods. This technique allows multiple molecular signatures to be obtained by simply switching laser wavelength. HER2 and EGFR were chosen as the primary target molecules for examining two cancer cells, OECM1 and Cal27. Both in vitro and in vivo mouse model imaging experiments were performed, with contrast enhancement of up to 10dB and 3.5dB, respectively. The potential in improving cancer diagnosis is demonstrated.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  3. D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Josephson, M. F. Kircher, U. Mahmood, Y. Tang, and R. Weissleder, "Near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles as combined MR/optical imaging probes," Bioconjug. Chem. 13, 554-560 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. R. Cherry, "In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, R13-R48 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  9. R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, "Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study," Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. W. Wei, S. W. Huang, C. R. C. Wang, and P.-C. Li, "Photoacoustic flow measurements based on wash-in analysis of gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1131-1141 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. L. Chamberland, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, "Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study, " Nanotechnology 19, 095101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi M, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Bioconjugated gold NPs as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography," Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341-9 (2004).
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2008

D. L. Chamberland, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, "Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study, " Nanotechnology 19, 095101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. W. Wei, S. W. Huang, C. R. C. Wang, and P.-C. Li, "Photoacoustic flow measurements based on wash-in analysis of gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1131-1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

F. Meric-Bernstam and M. C. Hung, "Advances in Targeting Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Signaling for Cancer Therapy," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6326-6330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalyankrishna and J. R. Grandis, "Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Biology in Head and Neck Cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2666-2672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Liao, J. H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17, 4636-4641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Paciotti, L. Myer, D. G. I. Kingston, T. Ganesh, and L. Tamarkin, "Colloidal gold nanoparticles: a versatile platform for developing tumor targeted cancer therapies," NSTI-Nanotech. 1, 7-10 (2005).

2004

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi M, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Bioconjugated gold NPs as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography," Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Cherry, "In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, R13-R48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Shah, A. Jacobs, X. O. Breakefield, and R. Weissleder, "Molecular imaging of gene therapy for cancer," Gene Ther. 11, 1175-1187 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Viator, L. O., Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, "Photoacoustic measurement of epidermal melanin," Proc. SPIE 4960, 14-20 (2003).

L. R. Hirsch, J. B. Jackson, A. Lee, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "A whole blood immunoassay using gold nanoshells," Anal. Chem. 75, 2377-2381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

L. Josephson, M. F. Kircher, U. Mahmood, Y. Tang, and R. Weissleder, "Near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles as combined MR/optical imaging probes," Bioconjug. Chem. 13, 554-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, "Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study," Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, "The shape transition of gold nanorods," Langmuir 15, 701-709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics for surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981-988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Y. Yu, S. S. Chang, C. L. Lee, and C. R. C. Wang, "Gold nanorods: electrochemical synthesis and optical properties," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6661-6664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

D. L. Chamberland, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, "Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study, " Nanotechnology 19, 095101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Breakefield, X. O.

K. Shah, A. Jacobs, X. O. Breakefield, and R. Weissleder, "Molecular imaging of gene therapy for cancer," Gene Ther. 11, 1175-1187 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carpenter, J. E.

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carson, P. L.

D. L. Chamberland, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, "Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study, " Nanotechnology 19, 095101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chamberland, D. L.

D. L. Chamberland, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, "Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study, " Nanotechnology 19, 095101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. S.

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, "The shape transition of gold nanorods," Langmuir 15, 701-709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Yu, S. S. Chang, C. L. Lee, and C. R. C. Wang, "Gold nanorods: electrochemical synthesis and optical properties," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6661-6664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. D.

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, "The shape transition of gold nanorods," Langmuir 15, 701-709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-D.

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cherry, S. R.

S. R. Cherry, "In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, R13-R48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chris Wang, C.-R.

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, L. W. K.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Copland, J. A.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi M, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Bioconjugated gold NPs as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography," Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deyo, D. J.

Eghtedari, M.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi M, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Bioconjugated gold NPs as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography," Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ellegala, D. B.

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

El-Sayed, M. A.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics for surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Esenaliev, R. O.

R. O. Esenaliev, I. V. Larina, K. V. Larin, D. J. Deyo, M. Motamedi, and D. S. Prough, "Optoacoustic technique for noninvasive monitoring of blood oxygenation: a feasibility study," Appl. Opt. 41, 4722-4731 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981-988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fowlkes, J. B.

D. L. Chamberland, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, "Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study, " Nanotechnology 19, 095101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ganesh, T.

G. F. Paciotti, L. Myer, D. G. I. Kingston, T. Ganesh, and L. Tamarkin, "Colloidal gold nanoparticles: a versatile platform for developing tumor targeted cancer therapies," NSTI-Nanotech. 1, 7-10 (2005).

Gao, X.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grandis, J. R.

S. Kalyankrishna and J. R. Grandis, "Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Biology in Head and Neck Cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2666-2672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, J. H.

H. Liao, J. H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17, 4636-4641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

L. R. Hirsch, J. B. Jackson, A. Lee, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "A whole blood immunoassay using gold nanoshells," Anal. Chem. 75, 2377-2381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hirsch, L. R.

L. R. Hirsch, J. B. Jackson, A. Lee, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "A whole blood immunoassay using gold nanoshells," Anal. Chem. 75, 2377-2381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. W.

C. W. Wei, S. W. Huang, C. R. C. Wang, and P.-C. Li, "Photoacoustic flow measurements based on wash-in analysis of gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1131-1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hung, M. C.

F. Meric-Bernstam and M. C. Hung, "Advances in Targeting Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Signaling for Cancer Therapy," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6326-6330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

L. R. Hirsch, J. B. Jackson, A. Lee, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "A whole blood immunoassay using gold nanoshells," Anal. Chem. 75, 2377-2381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jacobs, A.

K. Shah, A. Jacobs, X. O. Breakefield, and R. Weissleder, "Molecular imaging of gene therapy for cancer," Gene Ther. 11, 1175-1187 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Josephson, L.

L. Josephson, M. F. Kircher, U. Mahmood, Y. Tang, and R. Weissleder, "Near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles as combined MR/optical imaging probes," Bioconjug. Chem. 13, 554-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalyankrishna, S.

S. Kalyankrishna and J. R. Grandis, "Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Biology in Head and Neck Cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2666-2672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karabutov, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981-988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kaul, S.

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kingston, D. G. I.

G. F. Paciotti, L. Myer, D. G. I. Kingston, T. Ganesh, and L. Tamarkin, "Colloidal gold nanoparticles: a versatile platform for developing tumor targeted cancer therapies," NSTI-Nanotech. 1, 7-10 (2005).

Kircher, M. F.

L. Josephson, M. F. Kircher, U. Mahmood, Y. Tang, and R. Weissleder, "Near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles as combined MR/optical imaging probes," Bioconjug. Chem. 13, 554-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klibanov, A. L.

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kotov, N.

D. L. Chamberland, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, "Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study, " Nanotechnology 19, 095101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi M, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Bioconjugated gold NPs as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography," Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, "The shape transition of gold nanorods," Langmuir 15, 701-709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Larin, K. V.

Larina, I. V.

Lee, A.

L. R. Hirsch, J. B. Jackson, A. Lee, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "A whole blood immunoassay using gold nanoshells," Anal. Chem. 75, 2377-2381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. L.

Y. Y. Yu, S. S. Chang, C. L. Lee, and C. R. C. Wang, "Gold nanorods: electrochemical synthesis and optical properties," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6661-6664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leong-Poi, H.

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, R. M.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, P.-C.

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Wei, S. W. Huang, C. R. C. Wang, and P.-C. Li, "Photoacoustic flow measurements based on wash-in analysis of gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1131-1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-K.

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H.

H. Liao, J. H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17, 4636-4641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, J. R.

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics for surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, U.

L. Josephson, M. F. Kircher, U. Mahmood, Y. Tang, and R. Weissleder, "Near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles as combined MR/optical imaging probes," Bioconjug. Chem. 13, 554-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mamedova, N.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi M, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Bioconjugated gold NPs as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography," Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meric-Bernstam, F.

F. Meric-Bernstam and M. C. Hung, "Advances in Targeting Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Signaling for Cancer Therapy," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6326-6330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motamedi, M.

Myer, L.

G. F. Paciotti, L. Myer, D. G. I. Kingston, T. Ganesh, and L. Tamarkin, "Colloidal gold nanoparticles: a versatile platform for developing tumor targeted cancer therapies," NSTI-Nanotech. 1, 7-10 (2005).

Nie, S.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oraevsky, A. A.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981-988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paciotti, G. F.

G. F. Paciotti, L. Myer, D. G. I. Kingston, T. Ganesh, and L. Tamarkin, "Colloidal gold nanoparticles: a versatile platform for developing tumor targeted cancer therapies," NSTI-Nanotech. 1, 7-10 (2005).

Pao, K.-C.

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Popov, V. L.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi M, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Bioconjugated gold NPs as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography," Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prough, D. S.

Shaffrey, M. E.

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shah, K.

K. Shah, A. Jacobs, X. O. Breakefield, and R. Weissleder, "Molecular imaging of gene therapy for cancer," Gene Ther. 11, 1175-1187 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, D.-B.

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shih, C. W.

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, "The shape transition of gold nanorods," Langmuir 15, 701-709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sklenar, J.

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tamarkin, L.

G. F. Paciotti, L. Myer, D. G. I. Kingston, T. Ganesh, and L. Tamarkin, "Colloidal gold nanoparticles: a versatile platform for developing tumor targeted cancer therapies," NSTI-Nanotech. 1, 7-10 (2005).

Tang, Y.

L. Josephson, M. F. Kircher, U. Mahmood, Y. Tang, and R. Weissleder, "Near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles as combined MR/optical imaging probes," Bioconjug. Chem. 13, 554-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Viator, J. A.

J. A. Viator, L. O., Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, "Photoacoustic measurement of epidermal melanin," Proc. SPIE 4960, 14-20 (2003).

Wang, C. R. C.

C. W. Wei, S. W. Huang, C. R. C. Wang, and P.-C. Li, "Photoacoustic flow measurements based on wash-in analysis of gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1131-1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, "The shape transition of gold nanorods," Langmuir 15, 701-709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Y. Yu, S. S. Chang, C. L. Lee, and C. R. C. Wang, "Gold nanorods: electrochemical synthesis and optical properties," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6661-6664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

D. L. Chamberland, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, "Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study, " Nanotechnology 19, 095101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C. W.

C. W. Wei, S. W. Huang, C. R. C. Wang, and P.-C. Li, "Photoacoustic flow measurements based on wash-in analysis of gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1131-1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wei, C.-W.

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weissleder, R.

K. Shah, A. Jacobs, X. O. Breakefield, and R. Weissleder, "Molecular imaging of gene therapy for cancer," Gene Ther. 11, 1175-1187 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Josephson, M. F. Kircher, U. Mahmood, Y. Tang, and R. Weissleder, "Near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles as combined MR/optical imaging probes," Bioconjug. Chem. 13, 554-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

L. R. Hirsch, J. B. Jackson, A. Lee, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "A whole blood immunoassay using gold nanoshells," Anal. Chem. 75, 2377-2381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-N.

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Yu, S. S. Chang, C. L. Lee, and C. R. C. Wang, "Gold nanorods: electrochemical synthesis and optical properties," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6661-6664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem.

L. R. Hirsch, J. B. Jackson, A. Lee, N. J. Halas, and J. L. West, "A whole blood immunoassay using gold nanoshells," Anal. Chem. 75, 2377-2381 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bioconjug. Chem.

L. Josephson, M. F. Kircher, U. Mahmood, Y. Tang, and R. Weissleder, "Near-infrared fluorescent nanoparticles as combined MR/optical imaging probes," Bioconjug. Chem. 13, 554-560 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

H. Liao, J. H. Hafner, "Gold nanorod bioconjugates," Chem. Mater. 17, 4636-4641 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Circulation

D. B. Ellegala, H. Leong-Poi, J. E. Carpenter, A. L. Klibanov, S. Kaul, M. E. Shaffrey, J. Sklenar, and J. R. Lindner, "Imaging tumor angiogenesis with contrast ultrasound and microbubbles targeted to ?v?3," Circulation 108, 336-341 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clin. Cancer Res.

F. Meric-Bernstam and M. C. Hung, "Advances in Targeting Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2 Signaling for Cancer Therapy," Clin. Cancer Res. 12, 6326-6330 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gene Ther.

K. Shah, A. Jacobs, X. O. Breakefield, and R. Weissleder, "Molecular imaging of gene therapy for cancer," Gene Ther. 11, 1175-1187 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. O. Esenaliev, A. A. Karabutov, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Sensitivity of laser opto-acoustic imaging in detection of small deeply embedded tumors," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 981-988 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control

P.-C. Li, C.-W. Wei, C.-K. Liao, C.-D. Chen, K.-C. Pao, C.-R. Chris Wang, Y.-N. Wu, and D.-B. Shieh, "Photoacoustic imaging of multiple targets using gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1642-1647 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Wei, S. W. Huang, C. R. C. Wang, and P.-C. Li, "Photoacoustic flow measurements based on wash-in analysis of gold nanorods," IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 54, 1131-1141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Clin. Oncol.

S. Kalyankrishna and J. R. Grandis, "Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Biology in Head and Neck Cancer," J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 2666-2672 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

Y. Y. Yu, S. S. Chang, C. L. Lee, and C. R. C. Wang, "Gold nanorods: electrochemical synthesis and optical properties," J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 6661-6664 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Link and M. A. El-Sayed, "Spectral properties and relaxation dynamics for surface plasmon electronic oscillations in gold and silver nanodots and nanorods," J. Phys. Chem. B 103, 8410-8426 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

S. S. Chang, C. W. Shih, C. D. Chen, W. C. Lai, and C. R. C. Wang, "The shape transition of gold nanorods," Langmuir 15, 701-709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Imaging Biol.

J. A. Copland, M. Eghtedari, V. L. Popov, N. Kotov, N. Mamedova, M. Motamedi M, and A. A. Oraevsky, "Bioconjugated gold NPs as a molecular based contrast agent: implications for imaging of deep tumors using optoacoustic tomography," Mol. Imaging Biol. 6, 341-9 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

D. L. Chamberland, A. Agarwal, N. Kotov, J. B. Fowlkes, P. L. Carson, and X. Wang, "Photoacoustic tomography of joints aided by an Etanercept-conjugated gold nanoparticle contrast agent—an ex vivo preliminary rat study, " Nanotechnology 19, 095101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Biotechnol.

X. Gao, Y. Cui, R. M. Levenson, L. W. K. Chung, and S. Nie, "In vivo cancer targeting and imaging with semiconductor quantum dots," Nat. Biotechnol. 22, 969-976 (2004).
[CrossRef]

NSTI-Nanotech.

G. F. Paciotti, L. Myer, D. G. I. Kingston, T. Ganesh, and L. Tamarkin, "Colloidal gold nanoparticles: a versatile platform for developing tumor targeted cancer therapies," NSTI-Nanotech. 1, 7-10 (2005).

Phys. Med. Biol.

S. R. Cherry, "In vivo molecular and genomic imaging: new challenges for imaging physics," Phys. Med. Biol. 49, R13-R48 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J. A. Viator, L. O., Svaasand, G. Aguilar, B. Choi, and J. S. Nelson, "Photoacoustic measurement of epidermal melanin," Proc. SPIE 4960, 14-20 (2003).

Other

C. W. Shih, W. C. Lai, C. C. Hwang, S. S. Chang, and C. R. C. Wang, Metal Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Application (Marcel Dekker, 2001), Chap. 7.

"Optical Absorption Spectra," http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/index.html.

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