Abstract

The transient thermal lensing in a liquid-nitrogren cooled kilohertz multipass amplifier is quantitatively measured with spatially-resolved Fourier transform spectral interferometry. A pump-probe arrangement allows the observation of a polarization-dependent non-thermal component following the fluorescence timescale: additional cooling would not suppress this residual lensing. We also observe a time-dependent thermal component that has a timescale sufficiently fast to indicate that there is cooling between shots even at a repetition rate of 1 kHz. The value of pump-induced lensing would be underestimated when performing time-averaged measurements of pump-induced phase shifts.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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  5. M. Zavelani-Rossi, F. Lindner, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Control of thermal effects for high-intensity Ti:Sapphire laser chains," Appl. Phys. B 70, S193-S196 (2000).
  6. S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, "Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 343-347 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Salin, C. Le Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, "Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 718-720 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. A. Schulz, "Liquid-Nitrogen-cooled Ti:Al2O3 Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039-1047 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, G. Mourou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "0.2-TW laser system at 1 kHz," Opt. Lett. 22, 1256-1258 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J.-P. Chambaret, and G. Cheriaux, "Design and characterization of a near-diffraction-limited femtosecond 100-TW 10-Hz high-intensity laser system," Appl. Phys. B 74, 529-535 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. Lausten and P. Balling, "Thermal lensing in pulsed laser amplifiers: an analytical model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20, 1479-1485 (2003).
  12. J. M. Eichenholz and M. Richardson, "Measurement of Thermal Lensing in Cr3+ -Doped Colquiriites," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 910-919 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, "Thermal effects in optically pumped laser rods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 94-96 (1965).
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  22. W. Amir, T. A. Planchon, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, "Complete characterization of a spatiotemporal pulse shaper with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectral interferometry," Opt. Lett. 32, 939-941 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Amir, C. G. Durfee, D. N. Schafer, E. A. Gibson, L. Kost, E. Przekwas, R. Jimenez, and J. A. Squier, "Linear spatio-temporal characterization of a UV microscope objective for nonlinear imaging and spectroscopy by using two-dimensional spectral interferometry," J. Microsc. 230, 4-8 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2008 (1)

W. Amir, C. G. Durfee, D. N. Schafer, E. A. Gibson, L. Kost, E. Przekwas, R. Jimenez, and J. A. Squier, "Linear spatio-temporal characterization of a UV microscope objective for nonlinear imaging and spectroscopy by using two-dimensional spectral interferometry," J. Microsc. 230, 4-8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, "Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 343-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J.-P. Chambaret, and G. Cheriaux, "Design and characterization of a near-diffraction-limited femtosecond 100-TW 10-Hz high-intensity laser system," Appl. Phys. B 74, 529-535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. Ranc, G. Cheriaux, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Importance of spatial quality of intense femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B 70, S181-S187 (2000).

M. Zavelani-Rossi, F. Lindner, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Control of thermal effects for high-intensity Ti:Sapphire laser chains," Appl. Phys. B 70, S193-S196 (2000).

1998 (2)

F. Salin, C. Le Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, "Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 718-720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Eichenholz and M. Richardson, "Measurement of Thermal Lensing in Cr3+ -Doped Colquiriites," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 910-919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Backus, C. G. Durfee, G. Mourou, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, "0.2-TW laser system at 1 kHz," Opt. Lett. 22, 1256-1258 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

H. Eilers, E. Strauss, and W. M. Yen, "Photoelastic effect in Ti3+-doped sapphire," Phys. Rev. B 45, 9604-9610 (1992).

1991 (1)

P. A. Schulz, "Liquid-Nitrogen-cooled Ti:Al2O3 Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039-1047 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1986 (1)

1982 (1)

1970 (2)

J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, "Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656-3663 (1970)
[CrossRef]

D. C. Burnham, "Simple measurement of thermal lensing effects in laser rods," Appl. Opt. 9, 1727-1728 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1967 (1)

G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, "Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped Glass laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2726-2738 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, "Thermal effects in optically pumped laser rods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 94-96 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, R. L.

Albers, P.

Amir, W.

Antonetti, A.

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Backus, S.

Baldwin, G. D.

G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, "Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped Glass laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2726-2738 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

Barty, C.

Benedetti-Michelangeli, G.

Blasco, F.

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, D. C.

Chambaret, J.-P.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J.-P. Chambaret, and G. Cheriaux, "Design and characterization of a near-diffraction-limited femtosecond 100-TW 10-Hz high-intensity laser system," Appl. Phys. B 74, 529-535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ranc, G. Cheriaux, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Importance of spatial quality of intense femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B 70, S181-S187 (2000).

M. Zavelani-Rossi, F. Lindner, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Control of thermal effects for high-intensity Ti:Sapphire laser chains," Appl. Phys. B 70, S193-S196 (2000).

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheriaux, G.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J.-P. Chambaret, and G. Cheriaux, "Design and characterization of a near-diffraction-limited femtosecond 100-TW 10-Hz high-intensity laser system," Appl. Phys. B 74, 529-535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ranc, G. Cheriaux, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Importance of spatial quality of intense femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B 70, S181-S187 (2000).

M. Zavelani-Rossi, F. Lindner, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Control of thermal effects for high-intensity Ti:Sapphire laser chains," Appl. Phys. B 70, S193-S196 (2000).

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Darpentigny, G.

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Eichenholz, J. M.

J. M. Eichenholz and M. Richardson, "Measurement of Thermal Lensing in Cr3+ -Doped Colquiriites," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 910-919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eilers, H.

H. Eilers, U. Hömmerich, and Y. M. Yen, "Temperature-dependant beam-deflection spectroscopy of Ti3+ - doped sapphire," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 584-586 (1993).

H. Eilers, E. Strauss, and W. M. Yen, "Photoelastic effect in Ti3+-doped sapphire," Phys. Rev. B 45, 9604-9610 (1992).

Endo, A.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, "Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 343-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fahey, R. E.

Ferré, S.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J.-P. Chambaret, and G. Cheriaux, "Design and characterization of a near-diffraction-limited femtosecond 100-TW 10-Hz high-intensity laser system," Appl. Phys. B 74, 529-535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ranc, G. Cheriaux, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Importance of spatial quality of intense femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B 70, S181-S187 (2000).

Foster, J. D.

J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, "Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656-3663 (1970)
[CrossRef]

Gabolde, P.

Gibson, E. A.

W. Amir, C. G. Durfee, D. N. Schafer, E. A. Gibson, L. Kost, E. Przekwas, R. Jimenez, and J. A. Squier, "Linear spatio-temporal characterization of a UV microscope objective for nonlinear imaging and spectroscopy by using two-dimensional spectral interferometry," J. Microsc. 230, 4-8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hina, H.

Hömmerich, U.

Huber, G.

Ito, S.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, "Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 343-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, R.

W. Amir, C. G. Durfee, D. N. Schafer, E. A. Gibson, L. Kost, E. Przekwas, R. Jimenez, and J. A. Squier, "Linear spatio-temporal characterization of a UV microscope objective for nonlinear imaging and spectroscopy by using two-dimensional spectral interferometry," J. Microsc. 230, 4-8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kobayashi, K.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, "Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 343-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

Kost, L.

W. Amir, C. G. Durfee, D. N. Schafer, E. A. Gibson, L. Kost, E. Przekwas, R. Jimenez, and J. A. Squier, "Linear spatio-temporal characterization of a UV microscope objective for nonlinear imaging and spectroscopy by using two-dimensional spectral interferometry," J. Microsc. 230, 4-8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lausten, R.

Le Blanc, C.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, F. Lindner, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Control of thermal effects for high-intensity Ti:Sapphire laser chains," Appl. Phys. B 70, S193-S196 (2000).

F. Salin, C. Le Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, "Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 718-720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lindner, F.

M. Zavelani-Rossi, F. Lindner, C. Le Blanc, G. Cheriaux, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Control of thermal effects for high-intensity Ti:Sapphire laser chains," Appl. Phys. B 70, S193-S196 (2000).

Maio, A. D.

R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, "Thermal effects in optically pumped laser rods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 94-96 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Martellucci, S.

Miura, T.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, "Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 343-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Muller, A.

Murnane, M. M.

Nagaoka, H.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, "Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 343-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Notebaert, L.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J.-P. Chambaret, and G. Cheriaux, "Design and characterization of a near-diffraction-limited femtosecond 100-TW 10-Hz high-intensity laser system," Appl. Phys. B 74, 529-535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Osterink, L. M.

J. D. Foster and L. M. Osterink, "Thermal effects in a Nd:YAG laser," J. Appl. Phys. 41, 3656-3663 (1970)
[CrossRef]

Pittman, M.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J.-P. Chambaret, and G. Cheriaux, "Design and characterization of a near-diffraction-limited femtosecond 100-TW 10-Hz high-intensity laser system," Appl. Phys. B 74, 529-535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Planchon, T. A.

Przekwas, E.

W. Amir, C. G. Durfee, D. N. Schafer, E. A. Gibson, L. Kost, E. Przekwas, R. Jimenez, and J. A. Squier, "Linear spatio-temporal characterization of a UV microscope objective for nonlinear imaging and spectroscopy by using two-dimensional spectral interferometry," J. Microsc. 230, 4-8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranc, S.

S. Ranc, G. Cheriaux, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Importance of spatial quality of intense femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B 70, S181-S187 (2000).

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rey, G.

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

J. M. Eichenholz and M. Richardson, "Measurement of Thermal Lensing in Cr3+ -Doped Colquiriites," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 910-919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, E. P.

G. D. Baldwin and E. P. Riedel, "Measurements of dynamic optical distortion in Nd-doped Glass laser rods," J. Appl. Phys. 38, 2726-2738 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Roth, C.

Rousseau, J.-P.

M. Pittman, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, J.-P. Chambaret, and G. Cheriaux, "Design and characterization of a near-diffraction-limited femtosecond 100-TW 10-Hz high-intensity laser system," Appl. Phys. B 74, 529-535 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Ranc, G. Cheriaux, S. Ferré, J.-P. Rousseau, and J.-P. Chambaret, "Importance of spatial quality of intense femtosecond pulses," Appl. Phys. B 70, S181-S187 (2000).

Rousseau, P.

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salin, F.

F. Salin, C. Le Blanc, J. Squier, and C. Barty, "Thermal eigenmode amplifiers for diffraction-limited amplification of ultrashort pulses," Opt. Lett. 23, 718-720 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Antonetti, F. Blasco, J.-P. Chambaret, G. Cheriaux, G. Darpentigny, C. Le Blanc, P. Rousseau, S. Ranc, G. Rey, and F. Salin, "A laser system producing 5.10^19 W/cm2 at 10 Hz," Appl. Phys. B 65, 197-204 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, D. N.

W. Amir, C. G. Durfee, D. N. Schafer, E. A. Gibson, L. Kost, E. Przekwas, R. Jimenez, and J. A. Squier, "Linear spatio-temporal characterization of a UV microscope objective for nonlinear imaging and spectroscopy by using two-dimensional spectral interferometry," J. Microsc. 230, 4-8 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, P. A.

P. A. Schulz, "Liquid-Nitrogen-cooled Ti:Al2O3 Laser," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039-1047 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sciacca, M. D.

Sims, S. D.

Squier, J.

Squier, J. A.

Stark, E.

Stein, A.

Stickley, C. M.

R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, "Thermal effects in optically pumped laser rods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 94-96 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Strauss, A. J.

Strauss, E.

H. Eilers, E. Strauss, and W. M. Yen, "Photoelastic effect in Ti3+-doped sapphire," Phys. Rev. B 45, 9604-9610 (1992).

Takeda, M.

Torizuka, K.

S. Ito, H. Nagaoka, T. Miura, K. Kobayashi, A. Endo, and K. Torizuka, "Measurement of thermal lensing in a power amplifier of a terawatt Ti:Sapphire laser," Appl. Phys. B 74, 343-347 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, R. L.

R. L. Townsend, C. M. Stickley, and A. D. Maio, "Thermal effects in optically pumped laser rods," Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 94-96 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Wall, K. F.

Yen, W. M.

H. Eilers, E. Strauss, and W. M. Yen, "Photoelastic effect in Ti3+-doped sapphire," Phys. Rev. B 45, 9604-9610 (1992).

Yen, Y. M.

Zavelani-Rossi, M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental 2D spectral interferometry setup for measuring the thermal effect in the cryogenically-cooled kHz multipass amplifier. BS: 50 % beamsplitter. M: Flat mirror. DM: 45° dichroic mirror HR 532 nm HT 800nm. BW: Brewster windows.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Spectral interferogram for a 10 m singlet lens in place of crystal. (b) Corresponding spatiospectral phase. (c) Lineouts of spatiospectral phase showing the spatial phase at different wavelengths. (d) Average of all spatial phase lineouts (solid line) and quadratic fit (dashed line).

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Time evolution of the pump-induced spatial phase shift for σ-polarization

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Pump-induced spatial phase. (Blue crosses) Measurement. (Red solid line) Fourth-order polynomial fit: φ(ρ)=φ2 ρ2 + φ3 ρ3 + φ4 ρ4 with ρ=r/rmax (rmax=2mm). (a) σ-polarization at τ=-2 µs. φ2=0.62 φ3=0.03 φ4=-0.19 (b) π-polarization at τ=0.5 µs φ2=0.4 φ3=0.11 φ4=0.5

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Phase difference as a function of pump-probe delay. Dashed line : π-polarization. Solid line : σ-polarization. Dotted line : Exponential fit for σ-polarization.

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