Abstract

Compact, low capacitance optical modulators are vital for efficient, high-speed chip to chip optical interconnects. Electro-optic (EO) polymer cladding micro-ring resonator modulators have been fabricated and their performance is characterized. Optical modulators with ring diameters smaller than 50 µm have been demonstrated in a silicon nitride based waveguide system on silicon oxide with a top cladding of an electro-optic polymer. Optical modulation has been observed with clock signals up to 10 GHz.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
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  4. D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2008

B. -J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, D, and R. Dinu, "Design of Ring Resonators using Electro-Optic Polymer Waveguides," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 7953-7958 (2008)
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

2004

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

2003

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, "Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1990

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, "Simple reflection technique for mearsuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734-1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, D.

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, "Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, B. C.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Block, B. A.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Cadien, K.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Chang, D.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Dalton, L. R.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erlig, H.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H.

B. -J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, D, and R. Dinu, "Design of Ring Resonators using Electro-Optic Polymer Waveguides," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 7953-7958 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

Haller, M.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Hau, S.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Haxha, S.

Haxha, V.

Helman, N. C.

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, "Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herman, W.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Herman, W. N.

Jang, S. -H.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Jen, K. Y.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Jin, D.

B. -J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, D, and R. Dinu, "Design of Ring Resonators using Electro-Optic Polymer Waveguides," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 7953-7958 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Ka, J. -W.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Kalluri, S.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. -W.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Keeler, G. A.

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, "Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

B. -J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, D, and R. Dinu, "Design of Ring Resonators using Electro-Optic Polymer Waveguides," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 7953-7958 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. D.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Kobrinsky, M. J.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Lee, C. H.

Liao, Y.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

List, S.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Luo, J.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Man, H. T.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, "Simple reflection technique for mearsuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734-1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, "Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, E.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Nelson, B. E.

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, "Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M. -C.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. H.

Rahman, B. M. A.

Reshotko, M.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Roberston, F.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Robinson, B.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Seo, B. -J.

B. -J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, D, and R. Dinu, "Design of Ring Resonators using Electro-Optic Polymer Waveguides," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 7953-7958 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W.

B. -J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, D, and R. Dinu, "Design of Ring Resonators using Electro-Optic Polymer Waveguides," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 7953-7958 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Szep, A.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, "Simple reflection technique for mearsuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734-1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tsap, B.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, N. M.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Wang, W.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yanqing, T.

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Young, I.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Yu, L.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. F.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, "Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulation," Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3335-3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, "Simple reflection technique for mearsuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers," Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734-1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

Y. Shi, W. Wang, J. H. Bechtel, A. Chen, S. Garner, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, L. R. Dalton, and L. Yu, "Fabrication and characterization of high-speed polyurethane-disperse red 19 integrated electrooptic modulators for analog system applications," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 289-299 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Nelson, G. A. Keeler, D. Agarwal, N. C. Helman, and D. A. B. Miller, "Wavelength division multiplexed optical interconnect using short pulses," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9, 486-491 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. -C. Oh, H. Zhang, C. Zhang, H. Erlig, Y. Chang, B. Tsap, D. Chang, A. Szep, W. H. Steier, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, "Recent advances in electrooptic polymer modulators incorporating highly nonlinear chromophore," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 7, 826-835 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Intel Technol. J.

M. J. Kobrinsky, B. A. Block, J. F. Zheng, B. C. Barnett, E. Mohammed, M. Reshotko, F. Roberston, S. List, I. Young, and K. Cadien, "On-Chip Optical Interconnects," Intel Technol. J. 8, 129-141 (2004).

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Phys. Chem. C

B. -J. Seo, S. Kim, H. Fetterman, W. Steier, D. Jin, D, and R. Dinu, "Design of Ring Resonators using Electro-Optic Polymer Waveguides," J. Phys. Chem. C 112, 7953-7958 (2008)
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc SPIE

K. Y. Jen, J. Luo, T. D. Kim, B. Chen, S. -H. Jang, J. -W. Kang, N. M. Tucker, S. Hau, T. Yanqing, J. -W. Ka, M. Haller, Y. Liao, B. Robinson, L. Dalton, and W. Herman, "Exceptional electro-optic properties through molecular design and controlled self-assembly," Proc SPIE 5935, 49-61 (2005).

Other

M. R. Reshotko, B. A. Block, B. Jin, and P. Chang, " Waveguide Coupled Ge-on-Oxide Photodetectors for Integrated Optical Links," Proceedings of IEEE/LEOS 5th International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE, 2008) pp. 182-184.

P. Rabiei, W. H. Steier, C. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, "Integrated WDM polymer modulator" Optical Fiber Communications Conference. (OFC). Postconference Technical Digest, (IEEE, 2002) pp. 17-22.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic overview of possible integration scheme using an optical layer on top of a chip to provide optical IO.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Structure of AJTB141 chromophore and the host polymer amorphous polycarbonate (APC)

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Operation of the ring resonator modulator is shown. A change in the optical transmission at the laser wavelength is observed with an applied voltage on the ring resonator modulator.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a). SEM image of a silicon nitride ring resonator after patterning. (b). SEM cross section of part of the EOP cladding modulator prior to EOP film deposition.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a). Simulation results for various waveguide dimensions showing the universal relationship between Γ̣ and 90 % optical mode areas (90% of the optical mode lies within this area) (b). Simulation results for various waveguide dimensions showing a universal relationship between Γ and Waveguide cross sectional area. Dimensions of the waveguide were 0.2–1 µm in width and 0.2–0.5 µm in height.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transmission spectrum.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Shift in resonance with applied voltage.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Oscilloscope trace of 10 GHz clock signal output from the modulator detected with an external photodetector.

Equations (2)

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Δ n polymer ~ 1 2 n 3 r eff E
Δ n eff = Γ Δ n polymer ,

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