Abstract

In this paper it is presented the fabrication of low loss millimeter wave metamaterials based on patterning on polypropylene substrates by conventional contact photolitography. We study numerically and experimentally the transmission and reflection properties of two dimensional arrays of split ring resonators (SRRs), or metasurfaces, and their complementary structure (CSRRs) for co- and cross-polarization excitations up to submillimeter frequencies under normal incidence conditions. The obtained results suggest the possibility of scaling them at terahertz frequencies based on this substrate where other lossy substrates degrade the resonators quality. Left-handed metamaterials derived from these SRRs and CSRRs metasurfaces could be feasible.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Marqués, F. Martin, and M. Sorolla, Metamaterials with Negative Parameter: Theory, Design, and Microwave Applications (New York: Wiley, 2008).
  3. D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, " Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostrucutres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, "Babinet principle applied to metasurface and metamaterial design," Phys. Rev. Lett.  93, 197401-1-4 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. R. El-Idrissi, "Role of Bianisotropy in Negative Permeability and Left-Handed Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 1-6 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, R. Marqués, J. D. Baena, and M. J. Freire, "Resonance and Cross-Polarization Effects in Conventional and Complementary Split Ring Resonator Periodic Screens," Electromagnetics 26, 247-260 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, Mark Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102-1-4 (2007)
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Yuan, C. Bingham, T. Tyler, S. Palit, T. H. Hand, W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, N. M. Jokerst, and S. A. Cummer, "Dual-band planar electric metamaterial in the terahertz regime," Opt. Express 16, 9746-9752 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Beruete, M. J. Freire, R. Marqués, F. Falcone, and J. D. Baena, "Electroinductive waves in chains of complementary metamaterial elements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083503-1-3 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, "Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 14, 5445-5455 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. García-García, F. Martín, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelinek, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys.  98, 033103-1-9 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Dahl, P. Goy, and J. P. Kotthaus, "Magneto-optical Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy" and G. V. Kozlov and V. V. Volkov. "Coherent Source Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids (Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 74), (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Ed.: G. Gruener, 1998) pp. 51-109.

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, "Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 14, 5445-5455 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, R. Marqués, J. D. Baena, and M. J. Freire, "Resonance and Cross-Polarization Effects in Conventional and Complementary Split Ring Resonator Periodic Screens," Electromagnetics 26, 247-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, " Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostrucutres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Averitt, R. D.

Baena, J. D.

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, R. Marqués, J. D. Baena, and M. J. Freire, "Resonance and Cross-Polarization Effects in Conventional and Complementary Split Ring Resonator Periodic Screens," Electromagnetics 26, 247-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Basov, D. N.

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beruete, M.

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, R. Marqués, J. D. Baena, and M. J. Freire, "Resonance and Cross-Polarization Effects in Conventional and Complementary Split Ring Resonator Periodic Screens," Electromagnetics 26, 247-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, "Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 14, 5445-5455 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingham, C.

Campillo, I.

Chen, H. T.

Cummer, S. A.

Fang, N.

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freire, M. J.

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, R. Marqués, J. D. Baena, and M. J. Freire, "Resonance and Cross-Polarization Effects in Conventional and Complementary Split Ring Resonator Periodic Screens," Electromagnetics 26, 247-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hand, T. H.

Highstrete, C.

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, " Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostrucutres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jokerst, N. M.

Kaiser, S.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

Liu, N.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marqués, R.

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, R. Marqués, J. D. Baena, and M. J. Freire, "Resonance and Cross-Polarization Effects in Conventional and Complementary Split Ring Resonator Periodic Screens," Electromagnetics 26, 247-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nemat-Nasser, S. C.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Hara, J. F.

Padilla, W. J.

Y. Yuan, C. Bingham, T. Tyler, S. Palit, T. H. Hand, W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, N. M. Jokerst, and S. A. Cummer, "Dual-band planar electric metamaterial in the terahertz regime," Opt. Express 16, 9746-9752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Chen, J. F. O’Hara, A. J. Taylor, R. D. Averitt, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and W. J. Padilla, "Complementary planar terahertz metamaterials," Opt. Express 15, 1084-1095 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palit, S.

Pendry, J. B.

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, " Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostrucutres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweizer, H.

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

Y. Yuan, C. Bingham, T. Tyler, S. Palit, T. H. Hand, W. J. Padilla, D. R. Smith, N. M. Jokerst, and S. A. Cummer, "Dual-band planar electric metamaterial in the terahertz regime," Opt. Express 16, 9746-9752 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorolla, M.

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, R. Marqués, J. D. Baena, and M. J. Freire, "Resonance and Cross-Polarization Effects in Conventional and Complementary Split Ring Resonator Periodic Screens," Electromagnetics 26, 247-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, and I. Campillo, "Left-handed extraordinary optical transmission through a photonic crystal of subwavelength hole arrays," Opt. Express 14, 5445-5455 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, " Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostrucutres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, A. J.

Tyler, T.

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yen, T. J.

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, " Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostrucutres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

Zhang, X.

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electromagnetics (1)

M. Beruete, M. Sorolla, R. Marqués, J. D. Baena, and M. J. Freire, "Resonance and Cross-Polarization Effects in Conventional and Complementary Split Ring Resonator Periodic Screens," Electromagnetics 26, 247-260 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, "Magnetism from conductors and enhanced nonlinear phenomena," IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 47, 2075-2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

N. Liu, H. Guo, L. Fu, S. Kaiser, H. Schweizer, and H. Giessen, "Three-dimensional photonic metamaterials at optical frequencies," Nature Mater. 7, 31-37 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. R. Smith, W. J. Padilla, D. C. Vier, S. C. Nemat-Nasser, and S. Schultz, "Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4184-4187 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Young, " Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostrucutres," Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 4773-4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

T. J. Yen,W. J. Padilla, N. Fang, D. C. Vier, D. R. Smith, J. B. Pendry, D. N. Basov, and X. Zhang, "Terahertz Magnetic Response from Artificial Materials," Science 303, 1494-1496 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The Electrodynamics of Substances with Simultaneously Negative Values of ε and μ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. Marqués, F. Martin, and M. Sorolla, Metamaterials with Negative Parameter: Theory, Design, and Microwave Applications (New York: Wiley, 2008).

W. J. Padilla, M. T. Aronsson, C. Highstrete, Mark Lee, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, "Electrically resonant terahertz metamaterials: Theoretical and experimental investigations," Phys. Rev. B 75, 041102-1-4 (2007)
[CrossRef]

F. Falcone, T. Lopetegi, M. A. G. Laso, J. D. Baena, J. Bonache, M. Beruete, R. Marqués, F. Martín, and M. Sorolla, "Babinet principle applied to metasurface and metamaterial design," Phys. Rev. Lett.  93, 197401-1-4 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Marqués, F. Medina, and R. R. El-Idrissi, "Role of Bianisotropy in Negative Permeability and Left-Handed Metamaterials," Phys. Rev. B 65, 144440 1-6 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. García-García, F. Martín, J. D. Baena, R. Marques, and L. Jelinek, "On the resonances and polarizabilities of split ring resonators," J. Appl. Phys.  98, 033103-1-9 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Dahl, P. Goy, and J. P. Kotthaus, "Magneto-optical Millimeter-Wave Spectroscopy" and G. V. Kozlov and V. V. Volkov. "Coherent Source Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy," in Millimeter and Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of Solids (Topics in Applied Physics, Vol. 74), (Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, Ed.: G. Gruener, 1998) pp. 51-109.

M. Beruete, M. J. Freire, R. Marqués, F. Falcone, and J. D. Baena, "Electroinductive waves in chains of complementary metamaterial elements," Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 083503-1-3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Geometry of (a) a square CSRR and (b) a square SRR. (c) Microscopic image of a square CSRR array with the following dimension: e=30 µm, g=30 µm, k=80 µm, f=0.56 mm, and lattice constant is 0.7 mm. (d) Microscopic image of a square SRR array.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Simulated (blue) and measured (red) results of fabricated SRRs array. Co-polar transmission (a) and reflection (b) coefficients. Cross-polar transmission (c) and reflection (d) coefficients.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Simulated (blue) and measured (red) results of fabricated CSRRs array. Co-polar transmission (a) and reflection (b) coefficients. Cross-polar transmission (c) and reflection (d) coefficients.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Simulated surface currents at SRR resonances for co-polar and cross-polar excitations.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Simulated surface currents at CSRR resonances for co- and cross-polar excitations.

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