Abstract

We propose a novel multiplexing system for sensing of dynamic strains excited in different multimode optical fibers. Multiplexing of the sensors is implemented by using vectorial wave mixing technique in the reflection geometry of hologram formation in a photorefractive crystal of CdTe:V. We analyzed different mechanisms of the crosstalk between measuring channels and showed that system performance is strongly affected by residual stresses of the photorefractive crystal.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. J. Hall, M. A. Fiddy, and M. S. Ner, "Detector for an optical-fiber acoustic sensor using dynamic holographic interferometry," Opt. Lett. 5, 485-487 (1980).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. I. Stepanov, "Adaptive interferometry: a new area of applications of photorefractive crystals" in International trends in optics, J. W. Goodman, ed., (Academic Press, Inc., New York, London 1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. T. W. Murray and S. Krishnaswamy, "Multiplexed interferometer for ultrasonic imaging applications," Opt. Eng. 40, 1321-1328 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. A. Fomitchov, T. W. Murray, and S. Krishnaswamy, "Intrinsic fiber-optic ultrasonic sensor array using multiplexed two-wave mixing interferometry," Appl. Opt. 41, 1262-1266 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Di Girolamo, A. A. Kamshilin, R. V. Romashko, Y. N. Kulchin, and J.-C. Launay, "Fast adaptive interferometer on dynamic reflection hologram in CdTe:V," Opt. Express 15, 545-555 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals (Wiley, New York 1984).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2002 (2)

P. A. Fomitchov, T. W. Murray, and S. Krishnaswamy, "Intrinsic fiber-optic ultrasonic sensor array using multiplexed two-wave mixing interferometry," Appl. Opt. 41, 1262-1266 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Kamshilin and A. I. Grachev, "Adaptive interferometer based on wave mixing in a photorefractive crystal under alternating electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2923-2925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

T. W. Murray and S. Krishnaswamy, "Multiplexed interferometer for ultrasonic imaging applications," Opt. Eng. 40, 1321-1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1986 (1)

1980 (1)

Cescato, L.

Di Girolamo, S.

Fiddy, M. A.

Fomitchov, P. A.

Frejlich, J.

Grachev, A. I.

A. A. Kamshilin and A. I. Grachev, "Adaptive interferometer based on wave mixing in a photorefractive crystal under alternating electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2923-2925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hall, T. J.

Kamshilin, A. A.

Krishnaswamy, S.

Kulchin, Y. N.

Launay, J.-C.

Murray, T. W.

Ner, M. S.

Romashko, R. V.

Tuovinen, H.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. A. Kamshilin and A. I. Grachev, "Adaptive interferometer based on wave mixing in a photorefractive crystal under alternating electric field," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2923-2925 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

T. W. Murray and S. Krishnaswamy, "Multiplexed interferometer for ultrasonic imaging applications," Opt. Eng. 40, 1321-1328 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

A. Yariv and P. Yeh, Optical waves in crystals (Wiley, New York 1984).

S. I. Stepanov, "Adaptive interferometry: a new area of applications of photorefractive crystals" in International trends in optics, J. W. Goodman, ed., (Academic Press, Inc., New York, London 1991).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of multiple beam interaction by using vectorial wave-coupling in the reflection geometry in a single CdTe crystal when the interfering beams propagate at small angle to the principal axis [001]. Each object beam (linearly polarized) creates a dynamic hologram of the transmission type with a common reference beam (elliptically polarized).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Layout of the experimental setup for crosstalk measurements when only two measuring channels are incorporated. Piezoelectric cylinders are used for excitation of dynamic strains in multimode fibers with the core diameter of 550 µm. Speckled beams emerged from both fibers are directed in the same volume of the crystal as the reference beam.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Oscilloscope trace of the photodiode (PD1) response when sinusoidal voltage at the frequency f=15 kHz is applied to the respective piezoelectric cylinder (piezo 1 in Fig. 2).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Dependence of the signal from PD2 on the intensity ratio of the reference beam and the object beam 1. Measurements were carried out at the crystal area with maximal stresses. Periodical strains were excited in the fiber 1 at the frequency f so that the amplitude of the phase modulation of the object beam 1 is 1.1 radians. The object beam 2 had no modulation and its intensity at the crystal input was equal to that of the object beam 1. Squares are peak-to-peak modulation of the photocurrent at the frequency f and circles are the modulation amplitude at the frequency 2f.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Amplitude of the PD2-photocurrent modulation as a function of the reference-to-object beams intensity ratio measured in the crystal area with the smallest internal stresses. Other experimental parameters are the same as for measurements shown in Fig. 3. Squares are peak-to- peak modulation of the photocurrent at the frequency f and circles are the modulation amplitude at the frequency 2f.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The crosstalk parameter α S2 as a function of the reference-to-object beams intensity ratio. Measurements were carried out in the crystal area with internal stresses (squares) and without stresses (circles).

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Amplitude of the signal detected by PD1 as a function of the intensity ratio of two object beams: IS 2/IS 1. The intensity of the reference beam (IR ) is used as a parameter. Dynamic strains were excited in the fiber 1 so that the peak-to-peak amplitude of the phase modulation of the object beam 1 is 1.1 radians. The intensity of the object beam 1 is 5 mW/mm2 everywhere.

Equations (4)

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α S 2 = S 2 ( f ) + S 2 ( 2 f ) S 1 ( f ) ,
S 1 ( f ) = 2 A 1 I R I S 1 I R + I S 1 + I S 2 ψ d .
S 2 ( f ) = A 1 2 S 1 ( f ) I R I S 2 ( I R + I S 1 + I S 2 ) 2 = 2 A 1 3 I R 2 I S 2 I S 1 ( I R + I S 1 + I S 2 ) 3 ψ d .
S 2 ( 2 f ) = 2 A 2 I S 1 I S 2 I R + I S 1 + I S 2 ψ d 2 .

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