Abstract

We report a theoretical investigation of laser-pulse-duration dependence of excited-state nonlinearities induced by two-photon absorption (2PA). We investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of the transmitted pulses caused by 2PA-induced excited-state absorption, which strongly depends on laser pulse duration. By taking into account 2PA cross-section, excited-state photophysical properties, as well as laser pulse duration, we quantitatively determine the effective fifth-order nonlinearities caused by excited-state absorption and refraction. The results are capable of predicting the magnitude of 2PA-induced excited-state nonlinearities on the time scales where laser pulse duration is less than or comparable to the lifetime of 2PA-induced excited states. We also develop Z-scan theories for quickly yet unambiguously estimation of 2PA coefficient, third-order nonlinear refraction index, and excited-state absorption and refraction cross-sections.

© 2008 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1939-1948 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-22-9-1939
  5. P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifthorder optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-19-3-369
  8. B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E.W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405- 414 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-3-405
  11. X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 351-356 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. L. Qu, W. Ji, Y. G. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, "Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photonexcited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. Sathiyamoorthy, "Two-photon-assisted excited state absorption in nanocomposite films of PbS stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix," Nanotechnology 18, 075708 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. K. S. Bindra, C. P. Singh, and S. M. Oak, "Direct measurement of free carrier nonlinearity in semiconductordoped glass with picosecond pump-probe Z-scan experiment," Opt. Commun. 271, 248-252 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Y. Hamad, J. P. Wicksted, S. Y. Wang, and G. Cantwell, "Spatial and temporal beam reshaping effects using bulk CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2932-2939 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y.W. Gao and M. J. Potasek, "Effects of excited-state absorption on two-photon absorbing materials," Appl. Opt. 45, 2521 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-11-2521
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. Z. B. Liu, Y. L. Liu, B. Zhang, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, and C. P. Zhang, "Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of carbon disulfide in a short-wavelength region," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1101-1104 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-24-5-1101
  21. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  22. H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4’-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).
  23. B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-9-1187
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-9-1187
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

Z. B. Liu, Y. L. Liu, B. Zhang, W. Y. Zhou, J. G. Tian, W. P. Zang, and C. P. Zhang, "Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting properties of carbon disulfide in a short-wavelength region," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1101-1104 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-24-5-1101

Y. L. Qu, W. Ji, Y. G. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, "Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photonexcited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. Sathiyamoorthy, "Two-photon-assisted excited state absorption in nanocomposite films of PbS stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix," Nanotechnology 18, 075708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Bindra, C. P. Singh, and S. M. Oak, "Direct measurement of free carrier nonlinearity in semiconductordoped glass with picosecond pump-probe Z-scan experiment," Opt. Commun. 271, 248-252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4’-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).

2006 (3)

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y.W. Gao and M. J. Potasek, "Effects of excited-state absorption on two-photon absorbing materials," Appl. Opt. 45, 2521 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-45-11-2521
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 351-356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Y. Hamad, J. P. Wicksted, S. Y. Wang, and G. Cantwell, "Spatial and temporal beam reshaping effects using bulk CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2932-2939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anija, M.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ariyawansa, G.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Asghar, A.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bindra, K. S.

K. S. Bindra, C. P. Singh, and S. M. Oak, "Direct measurement of free carrier nonlinearity in semiconductordoped glass with picosecond pump-probe Z-scan experiment," Opt. Commun. 271, 248-252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buryak, A. V.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantwell, G.

A. Y. Hamad, J. P. Wicksted, S. Y. Wang, and G. Cantwell, "Spatial and temporal beam reshaping effects using bulk CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2932-2939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekharan, K.

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4’-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).

Crasovan, L. C.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cyriac, J.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dharmadhikari, A. K.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dharmaprakash, S. M.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4’-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).

Dietz, N.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dillard, A. G.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fakis, M.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I. T.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.W.

Giannetas, V.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-9-1187
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hagan, D. J.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E.W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405- 414 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-3-405

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hamad, A. Y.

A. Y. Hamad, J. P. Wicksted, S. Y. Wang, and G. Cantwell, "Spatial and temporal beam reshaping effects using bulk CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2932-2939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. Q.

Ji, W.

B. Gu, W. Ji, and X. Q. Huang, "Analytical expression for femtosecond-pulsed z scans on instantaneous nonlinearity," Appl. Opt. 47, 1187-1192 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-47-9-1187
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Qu, W. Ji, Y. G. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, "Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photonexcited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 351-356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kam, C. H.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 351-356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kiran, A. J.

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4’-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).

Kiran, P. P.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, G. R.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurian, P. A.

P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. Sathiyamoorthy, "Two-photon-assisted excited state absorption in nanocomposite films of PbS stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix," Nanotechnology 18, 075708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lam, Y. L.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 351-356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, D.

C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. P.

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 351-356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. C.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. L.

Liu, Z. B.

Lu, Z.

C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maiya, B. G.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Malomed, B. A.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsik, S. G.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mazilu, D.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mihalache, D.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mikroyannidis, J.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nie, Y.

C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oak, S. M.

K. S. Bindra, C. P. Singh, and S. M. Oak, "Direct measurement of free carrier nonlinearity in semiconductordoped glass with picosecond pump-probe Z-scan experiment," Opt. Commun. 271, 248-252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Patil, P. S.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perera, A. G. U.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Persphonis, P.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Philip, R.

P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. Sathiyamoorthy, "Two-photon-assisted excited state absorption in nanocomposite films of PbS stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix," Nanotechnology 18, 075708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polyzos, I.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Potasek, M. J.

Pradeep, T.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Qu, Y. L.

Y. L. Qu, W. Ji, Y. G. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, "Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photonexcited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. N.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ravindra, H. J.

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4’-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).

Reddy, D. R.

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, B. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rinzan, M. B. M.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roderer, P.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E.W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405- 414 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-3-405

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sandeep, C. S. S.

P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. Sathiyamoorthy, "Two-photon-assisted excited state absorption in nanocomposite films of PbS stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix," Nanotechnology 18, 075708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sathiyamoorthy, K.

P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. Sathiyamoorthy, "Two-photon-assisted excited state absorption in nanocomposite films of PbS stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix," Nanotechnology 18, 075708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shashikala, H. D.

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4’-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Singh, C. P.

K. S. Bindra, C. P. Singh, and S. M. Oak, "Direct measurement of free carrier nonlinearity in semiconductordoped glass with picosecond pump-probe Z-scan experiment," Opt. Commun. 271, 248-252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spiliopoulos, I.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Strassburg, M.

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S.

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

Torner, L.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, J. P.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Towers, I.

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsigaridas, G.

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E.W.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, T. H. Wei, J. Wang, J. Young, and E.W. Van Stryland, "Determination of bound-electronic and free-carrier nonlinearities in ZnSe, GaAs, CdTe, and ZnTe," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 405- 414 (1992), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-9-3-405

Vijayan, C.

P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. Sathiyamoorthy, "Two-photon-assisted excited state absorption in nanocomposite films of PbS stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix," Nanotechnology 18, 075708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wamsley, C.

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wang, S. Y.

A. Y. Hamad, J. P. Wicksted, S. Y. Wang, and G. Cantwell, "Spatial and temporal beam reshaping effects using bulk CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2932-2939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

Wicksted, J. P.

A. Y. Hamad, J. P. Wicksted, S. Y. Wang, and G. Cantwell, "Spatial and temporal beam reshaping effects using bulk CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2932-2939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ying, J. Y.

Y. L. Qu, W. Ji, Y. G. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, "Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photonexcited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, J.

Zang, W. P.

Zhan, C.

C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, C. P.

Zhang, D.

C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y. G.

Y. L. Qu, W. Ji, Y. G. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, "Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photonexcited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W. Y.

Zhu, D.

C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

H. J. Ravindra, A. J. Kiran, K. Chandrasekharan, H. D. Shashikala, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Third order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting in donor/acceptor substituted 4’-methoxy chalcone derivatives," Appl. Phys. B 88, 105-110 (2007).

X. Zhang, H. Fang, S. Tang, and W. Ji, "Determination of two-photon-generated free-carrier lifetime in semiconductors by a single-beam Z-scan technique," Appl. Phys. B 65, 549-554 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

G. Ariyawansa, M. B. M. Rinzan, M. Strassburg, N. Dietz, A. G. U. Perera, S. G. Matsik, A. Asghar, I. T. Ferguson, H. Luo, and H. C. Liu, "GaN/AlGaN heterojunction infrared detector responding in 8-14 and 20-70 μm ranges," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 141122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Qu, W. Ji, Y. G. Zheng, and J. Y. Ying, "Auger recombination and intraband absorption of two-photonexcited carriers in colloidal CdSe quantum dots," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 133112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, S. M. Dharmaprakash, and H. T. Wang, "Two-photon-induced excited-state absorption: Theory and experiment," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (4)

P. P. Kiran, D. R. Reddy, A. K. Dharmadhikari, B. G. Maiya, G. R. Kumar, and D. N. Rao, "Contribution of twophoton and excited state absorption in ‘axial-bonding’ type hybrid porphyrin arrays under resonant electronic excitation," Chem. Phys. Lett. 418, 442-447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Said, C. Wamsley, D. J. Hagan, E.W. Van Stryland, B. A. Reinhardt, P. Roderer, and A. G. Dillard, "Thirdand fifth-order optical nonlinearities in organic materials," Chem. Phys. Lett. 228, 646-650 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Fakis, G. Tsigaridas, I. Polyzos, V. Giannetas, P. Persphonis, I. Spiliopoulos, and J. Mikroyannidis, "Intensity dependent nonlinear absorption of pyrylium chromophores," Chem. Phys. Lett. 342, 155-161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Thomas, M. Anija, J. Cyriac, T. Pradeep, and R. Philip, "Observation of a fifth order optical nonlinearity in 29kDa Au@alkanethiol clusters excited in the visible," Chem. Phys. Lett. 403, 308-313 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, "Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760-769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Gu, W. Ji, P. S. Patil, and S. M. Dharmaprakash, "Ultrafast optical nonlinearities and figures of merit in acceptor-substituted 3,4,5-trimethoxy chalcone derivatives: Structure-property relationships," J. Appl. Phys. 103, 103511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Hamad, J. P. Wicksted, S. Y. Wang, and G. Cantwell, "Spatial and temporal beam reshaping effects using bulk CdTe," J. Appl. Phys. 78, 2932-2939 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

C. Zhan, W. Xu, D. Zhang, D. Li, Z. Lu, Y. Nie, and D. Zhu, "Z-scan investigation of fifth-order optical nonlinearity induced by saturable-absorption from (TBA)2Ni(dmit)2: application for optical limiting," J. Mater. Chem. 12, 2945-2948 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nanotechnology (1)

P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, C. S. S. Sandeep, R. Philip, and K. Sathiyamoorthy, "Two-photon-assisted excited state absorption in nanocomposite films of PbS stabilized in a synthetic glue matrix," Nanotechnology 18, 075708 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (2)

K. S. Bindra, C. P. Singh, and S. M. Oak, "Direct measurement of free carrier nonlinearity in semiconductordoped glass with picosecond pump-probe Z-scan experiment," Opt. Commun. 271, 248-252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Li, C. H. Kam, Y. L. Lam, and W. Ji, "Optical nonlinearities and photo-excited carrier lifetime in CdS at 532 nm," Opt. Commun. 190, 351-356 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

D. Mihalache, D. Mazilu, L. C. Crasovan, I. Towers, A. V. Buryak, B. A. Malomed, L. Torner, J. P. Torres, and F. Lederer, "Stable spinning optical solitons in three dimensions," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 073902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. Zhan, D. Zhang, D. Zhu, D. Wang, Y. Li, D. Li, Z. Lu, L. Zhao, and Y. Nie, "Third- and fifthorder optical nonlinearities in a new stilbazolium derivative," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 369-375 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-19-3-369

R. L. Sutherland, M. C. Brant, J. Heinrichs, J. E. Slagle, D. G. McLean, and P. A. Fleitz, "Excited-state characterization and effective three-photon absorption model of two-photon-induced excited-state absorption in organic push-pull charge-transfer chromophores," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1939-1948 (2005). http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=josab-22-9-1939

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Pulse-width dependence of transmitted intensity with L=0.2 cm, α 0=0, α 2=0.1 cm/GW, σ a=6.2×10-18 cm2, τ e=500 ps, λ=532 nm, ω 0=19 µm, and I 0=20 GW/cm2. (a) Intensity as a function of time at r=0, (b) intensity as a function of radius at t=0.

Equations (24)

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I z ' = α 0 I α 2 I 2 σ a N e I ,
Δ ϕ z ' = k γ 1 I + k σ r N e ,
N e t = α 2 I 2 2 h ¯ ω N e τ e ,
N e ( t ) = α 2 2 h ¯ ω G ( t ) I 2 ( t ) ,
G ( t ) = 1 I 2 ( t ) t I 2 ( t ' ) exp [ ( t t ' ) τ e ] d t ' .
I z ' = α 0 I α 2 I 2 σ a α 2 2 h ¯ ω G ( t ) I 3 ( t ) ,
Δ ϕ z ' = k γ 1 I + k σ r α 2 2 h ¯ ω G ( t ) I 2 ( t ) .
G = + G ( t ) I 3 ( t ) d t + I 3 ( t ) d t
n 4 ( t ) = σ r α 2 2 h ¯ ω G ( t ) I 2 ( t ) .
n 4 ( t ) = + n 4 ( t ) I ( t ) d t + I ( t ) d t .
γ 2 eff = σ r α 2 2 h ¯ ω G .
I ( r , z , t ) z ' = α 0 I ( r , z , t ) α 2 I 2 ( r , z , t ) α 3 eff I 3 ( r , z , t ) ,
Δ ϕ ( r , z , t ) z ' = k γ 1 I ( r , z , t ) + k γ 2 eff I 2 ( r , z , t ) ,
α 3 eff = σ e α 2 2 h ¯ ω 3 π τ + exp ( t 2 τ 2 ) { + exp ( 2 t ' 2 τ 2 ) exp ( t t ' τ e ) d t ' } d t ,
γ 2 eff = σ r α 2 2 h ¯ ω 3 π τ + exp ( t 2 τ 2 ) { t exp ( 2 t ' 2 τ 2 ) exp ( t t ' τ e ) d t ' } d t .
α 3 eff = σ e α 2 τ e 2 h ¯ ω ,
γ 2 eff = σ r α 2 τ e 2 h ¯ ω .
α 3 eff = 3 π 8 σ a α 2 τ 2 h ¯ ω ,
γ 2 eff = 3 π 8 σ r α 2 τ 2 h ¯ ω .
α 3 eff = σ a α 2 τ e 2 h ¯ ω 0.59 ( τ τ e ) 3 1 + 0.59 ( τ τ e ) 3 ,
γ 2 eff = σ r α 2 τ e 2 h ¯ ω 0.59 ( τ τ e ) 3 1 + 0.59 ( τ τ e ) 3 .
I c = 2 h ¯ ω N e c α 2 τ e ,
( Δ α ) I 0 = α 2 + 0.544 α 3 eff I 0 .
( Δ n ) I 0 = γ 1 + 0.422 γ 2 eff I 0 .

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